Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the Fire lands, comprising Huron and Erie Counties, Ohio, with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of the prominent men and pioneers"

See other formats




M. L. 




3 1833 02410 7382 







Huron and Erie Counties, 


Illustrations and Biographical Sketches 


q 71 JO I 






Prefatory Note, 

PEIvIIAPS tlicre is no other district, in Ohio, of ei|iial extent, that has given so much attention to pioneer 
iiistory as that which embraces the Fire-lan(]s. An liistorieal society has been in active being since 
18r)7, assembling, for the most part, four or five times each year; and thus tlie interest in local history 
has not been permitted to grow dormant. This society has issued thirteen volumes, containing for the most 
part matter pertinent to pioneer histnry. This matter is set forth in print in the form in uliieh it was first 
|irepai-ed — some of it in townshi|i liistories — mneli of the highly valuable in published addresses. Had the 
publications reteri-ed to contained full and accii rale histories of all the townships on the Fire-lands there would 
still have existed one defect whicha volume such as the autlior now places in the liands of its readers is in- 
tended to supply, viz: a lack of careful revision and editing. However, tlie township liistories, as published 
in The Pioneer, though excellent in some respects, are greatly lacking in otiier essentials. Many of them fail 
to treat of subjects that are entitled to weighty consideration; many of them contain irrelevant matter; some 
of them were prepared by writers who are nnaccustomed to work of this nature — additional points that show 
the desirableness of a carefully compiled history. However, the author of this volume has not relied upon 
Tlie I'inneer as his chief source of information. The facts have been gathered anew. Original documents 
and records have been consulted; old settlers and their descendants personally interviewed and the history of 
the various townships made as complete as practicable. Tlie first one hundred pages or more, are devoted 
to tojiies of a general interest in connection with the history of the Fire-lands, while the remainder of the 
book treats of matter pertaining to the history of the various townships included in the I*'ire-lands' district; 
while at the close of the volume is appended a brief account of the islands of Sandusky j'.ay. The book 
embraces at least one hundred pages more of reading matter tha'i any ])re\ ions similar ]inl)lieation with 
which the publisher has been identified. His hope is that the book, which he is eonseious is not wIkpHv free 
from faults, may nevertheless meet reasonable expectation. 

His thanks are in a special manner due to Mr. P. N. Schuyler, President of the Fire-lands Historical So- 
ciety for valued suggestions, and for valuable information npon various topics. That gentleman's C'entennial 
Address jjulilishcd in Volume XIII of the Pifniccr, the publisher found of great value and made lilieral use 
of facts therein set forth. 

The chapter on the Pre-historic Fire-lands is from the able pen of S. A. Wildmax. Esip. of Ni.rwalk. who 
has made this subject a special study. Through some inadvertence the jiroper credit in the jiroper |)laee was 
not given. 

In tiie prej.aration of the history of Lyme, the author had access to the valuable manuscript of Mr. John 
Sey.moik, which treats quite fully of the early settlement of the township; to him the publisher is therefore 
indebted, as also to Mr. George W. Siikfi'iuli), and Mrs. IiIchaud L. McCUrdy, whom he found it neces- 
sary frequently to consult. 

Bellevue, Ohio, June 20, 187!l. 











I.— The Connecticut Western Reserve .... 
rr.— The Suffering Towns of Connecticut 

Ridgefield . 

. 242 
. 253 

III.— The Fire-Lands— A- List of the Sufferers and their 




IV.— Indian Title— Copy of the Original Treaty . 

Richmond . 

. 290 

v.— The Survey and Partition 

VI.— Physical Features of Huron County— Geography and 


. 319 


VII.— Geology of Erie County— Surface, Features, and De- 


. 351 


VIII.— The Pre-historic Fire-Lands 

IX.— The Moravian Missions 

Lyme . . . 


. 377 
. 417 

X. — Early Settlement 




XII.— Civil History 

XHL— Erie County— Its Erection and Organization . 


XV. Political History 



. 445 

XVIII.— The Fire-Lands Historical Society .... 
XIX.— Military History of the Fire-Lands .... 
XX.— Roster of Soldiers 



Milan . . . 




. 458 
. 466 
. 470 
. 475 


Margaretta . 

. 490 
. 510 


Ruggles, Ashland County 

Danbury, Ottawa '• 

Put-in-Bay, " - 





. 501 
. 506 
. 519 






Outline Maps of Huron and Erie Counties 

. between 

8, 9 

Portrait of Benjamin F. McCormick . 

. facing 




Residence of Richardson Eaton 

. facing 


Residence of John Gardiner 

. facing 


Portraits of Richardson Eaton and Wife . 


Portrait of Ashbel G. Post .... 

between 122 


Portrait of Richard Hindley . 

Residence '■ " ... 

" 122 


William N. Mitchell 


Portrait of Judge Chas. B. Stickney . 



Portraits of Ransom B. Ellsworth and Wife 


" Col. Franklin Sawyer 


Hon. John A. Williamson 



Dr. John Tifft .... 


Portrait of Samuel McCammon, M.D. 

. facing 

Ansel Baker .... 



Residence of Hiram Smith (double page) . 

between 224 


Eri Mesnard .... 


George Butt .... 



John Gardiner (steel) 


Portraits of A. J. Thomas and Wife 

between 228 

Piatt Benedict .... 


Residence of A. J. Thomas 

Hon. Timothy Baker (steel) . 
Residence and Factory of B. Cortrite 


Portrait of Thomas Lawrence . 

. facing 


Portrait of David Harlow Pease 


Residence of Leister Smith (with portraits) 


" John Laylin 


" Caleb H. Gallup 


Portraits of N. S. Hakes and Wife . 




Portraits of Samuel S. Nowcuinb and Wife 
ResideDCc of Edward Conger (witli portraits) 
Portraits of Timothy Lawrence and Wife . 
Residence of W. G. Mead 
Portrait of W. G. Mead .... 
*' George Lawrence 


Portraits of JIartin Denman and Wife 
Portrait of Dudley S. Humphrey 

William Humphrey . 

Dr. Edgar Martin . 


Portrait of Isaac L'nderhill 
Orrin W. Head 

" John S. Davis (steel) 

Portraits of William A. Bishop and Wife . 
Portrait of Henry P. Steniz (steel) . 

" Robert G. Martin '• 

" Thomas Dickey 

Portraits of Salmon Drake and Wife . 


Portraits of Sherman Smith and Wife 
Residence of Andrew J. Blackman . 
Portraits of " " 

Portrait of Edwin W. Cunninghan 

and Wife 


Portrait of Lucien Joues . 

Residence of William S. Purdy . 

PortraiU of William S. Purdy and Wife 
" Ransom Purdy and Wife 

" Major Purdy and \V\(e . 

Residence of Major Purdy 


. 238 
facing 238 

facing 244 

reen 240, 247 

240, 247 

270, 271 

facing 272 


facing 280 

• 2S8, 289 
facing 2Sa 

Portrait of Dr. William Robinson 
Portraits of Uuriah Robinson and Wife . 
Residence of Huriah Robinson . 
Residence of Daniel Sweetland . 


Residence of William Motson . 

Portraits of Thomxs T. Mulford and Wife 

Residence of Thomas T. Mulford 

Portraits of R. G. Richards and Wife 

Residence of R. G. Richards . 

" John Lovelaud (with portraits) 

" John Skinner " " 


Residence of A. D. Stotts (with portraits), double 


F.C. Paine (with portraits). 


Portraits of Philip Uawxhurst and Wife . 
Residence of Philip Hawxhurst 


Residence of Henry G. Washburn (double page), w 
portraits .... 
" Chas. A. Sutton (with portraits) 

William Sutton . 
Portraits of John M. Carl and Wife . 
Rosidcnco of John M. CnrI 
Portraits of David Sutliff and Wife . 

between 322, 323 

facing 335 

between 338, 339 

facing 342 


between 346, 347 

" 34B, 347 

" 346, 347 

Residence of David Sutliff .... 
" John Ellis (with portraits) . 

William B. Ellis (with portraits) 
Portraits of Joseph .Sutton and Wife 


Residence of Clinton McKellogg 

" Isaac DeWitt (with portraits) 

Portraits of William Baker and Wife 


Portrait of Holsy Hubbard 
Portraits of Zelotus Barrett and Wife 
Residence of the late Zelotus Barrett 

" Jesse Perkins (with portraits) 

Portrait of Dr. A. D. Skellenger 

Lyman Dunks ... 
" Tracy Case . . 

E. H. Curtiss .... 

Residence of E. L. Dole (with portraits) . 

Portrait of David Williams 

Thomas G. Amsden 
Frederick A. Chapman (steel) 
Gurdou Woodward 
Mary S. Woodward 
Bourdett Wood 
Mrs. Bourdett Wood 
Dr. L. G. Harkncss 
Mrs. L. G. Harkness 
D. M. Harkness 



between 346, 347 

" 348, 349 

348, 349 

facing 350 

between 366, 36" 

366, 367 

facing 368 

" 390 

406, 407 
406, 407 
412, 413 
412, 413 
414, 415 

■ing 416 

Residence of W. Robinson (with portraits) . facing 

Portraits of John U. Xiles and Wife . .... 

Residence of Harvey J. Doolittle .... facing 
Portraits of Harvey J. Doolittlc and Wile. 

John S. Hester and Wife ... 

Residence of John S. Hester . . . 

Portrait of Charles T. Hester 

Residence of Ebenezer Lawrence (with portraits) . facing 
Portraits of James H. Dailcy and Wife . between 428, 

Residence of James H. Dailey .... " 428, 

Portraits of John Bowcn and Wife ... " 428, 

Residence of John Bowen " 42S, 

Residence of A. B. Gilson (with portraits) . . facing 


Portrait of F. D. Parish 


Portraits of Benjamin Summers and Wife . 

Milton McLaughlin and Wife . 

Hudson Tuttle and Wife. 
Portrait of Hon. Almon Ruggles 
Portraits of P. B. Barber and Wife . 


Portrait of Philetus Ferris .... 


Portraits of Datus Kelley and Wife . 

" Charles Carpenter and Wife . 

Portrait of George W. Wires .... 


Portrait of Lorcnz Miiller 

" Simon Fo.\ 

Portraits of Charles DeKay Townsend and Wife 


Ashbel G. Post . 
Juilgu Chiis. 15. Stickuey 
Col. Franklin Sawyer 
Hon. John A. Williamson 
Doctor John Tiflt 
Ansel Baker 

E.i Me 

George Butt 
John Gartliner . 
I'latt Benedict . 
Hon. Timothy Baker 
Gideon T. Stewart 
Barnard Cortritc 
David Harlow Pease 
John Laylin 
Caleb H. Gallup 
Benjamin F. McCorm 
Richard Hindley 
William N. Mitchell 
Dean Clapp 
Ransom B. Ellsworth 
Samuel MoCammon, M.D 
Erastus Smith . 
Hiram Smith 
A. J. Thomas . 
Thomas Lawrenc 
Alviu Brightman 
The Newcombs of Bronson 
David Conger . 
Leister Smith 
Norinan S. Hakes 
Timothy Lawrence 

John Buffington . 
W. G. Mead 
Martin Denman . 
Duilley S. Humphrey 
William Humphrey 
Dr. Edgar Martin 
Isaac Underbill . 
Orrin W. Head . 
John S. Davis . 
William A. Bishop 
Henry P. Stentz 
Robert G. Martin 
Thomas Dickey . 
Salmon Drake . 
Reuben Parker . 
Sherman Smith and Wife 
Andrew J. Blaekraan 
Edwin W. Cunningham 
Lucicn Jones 
The Purdy Family 
Major Purdy 
Huriah Robinson 

between 122, 123 
facing 126 

between 228, 229 
facing 230 

. 240 

. 241 

. 241 

. 241 

facing 244 

between 246, 247 

246, 247 

. 251 

facing 255 


Thomas T. Mulford sir 

John Skinner 317 

Richard G. Richards 317 

John Lovoland .......... 31s 

William Motson 313 

F. C. Paine 325 

A. D. Stotts :i2u 

Samson and Philip Haw,\hurst 336 

Henry G. Washburn 34s 

William Benson Ellis 349 

John Ellis 340 

Joseph Sutton 350 

William Baker 360 

Isaac De Witt 300 

Clinlon M. Kellogg 361 

Zelotus Barrett between 366, 367 

Dr. A. D. Skellenger facing 372 

Isaac P. and Tracy Case 374 

Jesse Perkins 375 

E. H. Curtiss 375 

David Williams facing 385 

Thomas G. Amsden ■' 390 

Frederick A. Chapman 405 

Gurdon Woodward 407 

The Rev. Moses Hamilton 409 

Amos Woodward 409 

Richard Lord MoCurdy 440 

Bourdett Wood .......... 442 

Dr. L. G. Harkness 414 

Orrin Dole 445 

D. M. Harkness 416 

John H. Niles 421 

Charles T. Hester 425 

John S. Hester 426 

Ebcnezer Lawrence 427 

James H. Dailey ......... 428 

A. B. Gilson 428 

John Bowen 429 

Harvey J. Doolittlc 430 

AFesley Robinson 430 

F. D. Parish 439 

Percival B. Salisbury 469 

Benjamin Summers ....... facing 479 

Milton McLaughlin ....... '• 482 

Hudson Tuttle "486 

Hon. Ahuon Ruggles 487 

Rev. Phineas B. Barber 488 

Roxana S. Barber 489 

Datus Kelley facing 513 

Charles Carpenter . . . . . . . '* 515 

George W. Wires 517 

Roswell Nichols .518 

Lorenz MUller between 520, 521 

Simon Fox " 520, 521 

Chas. DeKay Townsend 524 

A 1 N n 3 

N I V U ^ 

^ 1 

03 -^^ 

^ r zj \X,__^x.^ 

1 f 



fc:5 i-\'~ 











The Western Reserve of Connecticut lies between 
tlie parallels of 41° and 4-2° i' of north latitiTcle, com- 
mencing with the western boundary of Pennsylvania 
and extending thence westward one hundred and 
twenty miles. The entire tract embraces an area of 
seven thousand four hundred and forty square miles, 
nearly one-third of which is covered by the waters of 
Lake Erie. Within its limits are contained, in whole 
or in part, thirteen counties, us follows: Ten counties, 
Ashtabula, Trumbull, Lake, Geauga, Portage, Cuya- 
hoga, Lorain, Medina, Huron and Erie lie wholly in 
the Reserve; two others, Summit and Mahoning, are 
mostly within its limits, the former containing six- 
teen original townships, only two of which, Franklin 
and Green, are south of the line, the latter having 
ten townships north of the Reserve line and five 
south of it. Ashland county is represented on the 
Reserve by Sullivan, Troy and Ruggles townships, 
and Ottawa county by the township of Daubury. 

There have been numerous claimants'to the soil of 
the Reserve. In addition to the red man's title. 
Prance, England, the United States, Virginia, Massa- 
chusetts, New York and Connecticut have,, at one 
time or another, asserted ownership. 

The claim of France arose by reason of its being a 
portion of the territory which she possessed by right 
of discovery. 

England laid claim to all territory adjoining those 
districts lying along the Atlantic seaboard, whose soil 
she possessed by right of occupancy, asserting owner- 
ship from sea to sea. The greatest ignorance, how- 
ever, prevailed in early times as to the inland extent 
of the American continent. During the reign of 
James I., Sir Francis Drake reported that from the 
top of the mountains on the Isthmus of Panama, he 
had seen both oceans. This led to the belief that the 
contment from &ast to west was of no considerable ex- 
tent, and that the South Sea, by which appellation 
the Pacific then was known, did not lie very far 

removed from the Atlantic. As late as 1740, the 
Duke of Newcastle addressed his letters to the "Island 
of New England." This ignorance of the inland ex- 
tent of America gave rise, as we shall see, to con- 
flicting claims of western territory. England's valid 
title to the great west was obtained through conquest, 
compelling France, in 1713 and 1763, to surrender 
nearly the whole of her American possessions. 

The United States succeeded Great Britain in her 
right of ownership in American soil, and thus came 
to have a claim on the lands of the Reserve. The 
claims of Virginia, Massachusetts, New York and 
Connecticut were .obtained by virtue of charters 
granted to English subjects by English sovereigns. 
The tract of country embraced in the Loudon Com- 
pany's charter, granted by James I. in 1609, whence 
arose Virginia's claim, commenced its boundaries at 
old Point Comfort, on the Atlantic, and extended 
two hundred miles south and two hundred north 
from this point. From the southernmost point, a 
line drawn due west to the Pacific formed the south- 
ern boundary; from the northernmost i>oiut, a line 
running diagonally northwesterly through Pennsyl- 
vania and western New York, aci'oss the eastern 
portion of Lake Erie, and terminating finally in the 
Arctic Ocean, formed the northwestern boundary; 
and the Pacific Ocean, or what was then called the 
South Sea. the western boundary. The vast empire 
lying within these four lines included over one half of 
the North American continent, and embraced all of 
what was afterwards known as the Northwestern Ter- 
ritory, including, of course, the lands of the Reserve. 

The claim of Massachusetts rested for its validity 
upon the charter of ICyH), granted by James I. to the 
council of Plymouth, and embraced all the territory 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific lying between the 
fortieth and forty-eighth parallels of latitude. This 
grant comprised an area of more than a million of 
square miles, and included all of the present inhabited 
British possessions to the north of the United States, 
all of what is now New England, New York, one half 
of New Jersey, very nearly all of Pennsylvania, more 



than the northern half of Ohio, and all the country 
to the « of those States. 

In 1630, the Earl of Warwick olHained a grant to 
a part of the same territory, and. in the following 
year, assigned a portion of his grant to Lord Brooke, 
and Viscounts Say and Seal. 

In 1664. Charles II. ceded to his brother, tlie Duke 
of York, and afterwards King James II. of England, 
the country from Delaware bay to the river St. Croix, 
and afterwards it was insisted that the granted terri- 
tory extended westward to the Pacific. This consti- 
tuted New York's claim to western territory, of which 
the lands of the Reserve were a portion. 

lu 1662, the same monarch granted to nineteen 
patentees an ample charter, from which Connecticut 
derived her claim to a territory bounded by Massa- 
chusetts on tlie north, the sea on the south, Narra- 
gansett bay on the east, but extc-udiug to the Pacific 
on the west. This grant embraced a strip sixty-two 
miles wide, extending from Karragausett bay on the 
east to the Pacific Ocean on the west, and the north- 
ern and southern boundaries of this tract were the 
same as those, in part, which now form the boundaries 
at the north and south of the Reserve. 

Thus arose conflicting claims. The extent of terri- 
tory to which V^irginia insisted she was the rightful 
owner, was the largest, and included all the other 
claims. That of Massachusetts was next in size, and 
included the whole region claimed for Connecticut, as 
did the territory embraced in New York's claim. 

The United States did not appear as a contestant 
until the time of the revolutionary war, when she, 
with good reason, insisted that these disputed lauds 
belonged of right to Great Britain's couquerer; that 
a vacant territory, wrested from a common enemy by 
the united arms and at the joint expense and sacrifice 
of all the States, should be considered as the property 
of the conquering nation, to be held in trust for the 
common benefit of all the people of all the States. 
To show how groundless were the claims of these 
contesting States, it was pointed out that the charters 
upon which they were founded had in some instances 
been abrogated by judicial decisions, and the com- 
panies to which they had been given dissolved; that 
the charters were given at a time when much of the 
territory to which ownership was claimed under them 
was in the actual occupancy of another power; that 
all the various grants were made in the grossest igno- 
rance of the inland extent of the American continent: 
and that George III. had either repudiated the charters 
of his royal predecessors or denied to them the right 
of sovereignty over territory of so vast extent by 
issuing a proclamation forbidding all persons from 
intruding upon lands in the valley of the Ohio. 

Popular feeling ran high. Contentions between 
conflicting claimants frequently resulted in bloodshed. 
The prospects of the American Union were darkened; 
the difficulties and embarrassments in prosecuting the I 
war for independence were greatly augmented. Mary- 
laud would not become a member of the Union unless | 

the States claiming western territory would relin- 
quish their title. In the midst of these gloomy and 
foreboding events, in which disaster to the common 
cause was more to be feared at the hands of its 
friends than its enemies, congress made a strong 
appeal to the claiming States to avert the approaching 
danger by a cessation of contentious discord among 
themselves, and by making li))eral cessions of western 
ten-itory for the common benefit. 

New York was the first to respond, and, in 1780, 
ceded to the United States the lands she claimed 
lying west of a line running south from the western 
bend of Lake Ontario, reserving an area of nineteen 
j thousand square miles. Virginia, in 1784, relin- 
quished to congress her title to lands lying northwest 
of the Ohio, reserving a district of land in Ohio lying 
between the Scioto and Little Miami rivers, which 
came to be known as the Virginia Military District, 
which reservation was made in order to enable Vir- 
ginia to fulfill pledges to her soldiers in the revolu- 
tionary war of bounties ]iayable in western lands. In 

1785, Massachusetts ceded the western territory to 
which slie had been a claimant, reserving the same 
nineteen thousand square miles reserved by New 
York, which disputed territory was afterwards divided 
equally between those two States. Connecticut was 
the most reluctant and tardy of all the contesting 
States in sacrificing State pretensions for the common 
benefit. However, on the 14th day of Septembei'. 

1786, her authorized delegates in congress relin- 
quished all the right, title, interest, jurisdiction and 
claim that she possessed to land within her chartered 
limits lying west of a line one hundred and twenty 
miles west of and parallel to the western boundary of 
Pennsylvania. This one hundred and twenty mile 
tract was not conveyed, but reserved, by Connecticut, 
and hence the name of Connecticut Western Reserve. 

As Connecticut's claim included nearly the whole 
of the northern half of the present State of Pennsyl- 
vania, it infringed upon the rights of the people of 
that State, ^lo alleged ownership by virtue of a 
charter to William Penn granted by James II. of 
England, in 1G81. Both States strove for the occu- 
pancy of the disputed soil, and Connecticut sold to 
certain individuals seventeen townships, situated on 
or near the Susquehanna river, organized the tract 
into a civil township, and attached it to the probate 
district and county of Litchfield, in Connecticut. 
Westmoreland representatives occupied seats in the 
Connecticut legislature. [Pennslyvania protested and, 
when the revolutionary contest closed, sent an armed 
force to drive the intruders from the lands. The 
shedding of blood resulted. The controversy was 
finally submitted to a court of commissioners ap- 
pointed by congress, on the petition of Pennsylvania, 
as i)rovided in the ninth article of the Confederation, 
which gave to congress the power to establish a court 
for the settlement of disputed boundaries. This 
court sat at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1787, when the 
case was tried and decided against Connecticut. The 



title to lands lying west of Pennsylvania was not in- 
volved in this adjudication, and Connecticut still 
insisted upon the validity of her claim to lands not 
ceded by her to the United States. 

At a session of the Connecticut legislature held at 
New Haven, in 1786 and 1787, it was resolved to offer 
for sale that part of the Reserve lying east of the 
Cuyahoga, the Portage path and the Tuscarawas, and 
a committee of three persons was appointed to cause 
a survey to be made and to negotiate a sale. Nothing, 
however, was immediately done. On the 10th of 
February, 1788, however, certain lands lying within 
the limits of the Reserve were sold to General Samuel 
H. Parsons, then of Middletown, Connecticut. This 
was afterwards known as the salt spring tract, General 
Parsons having explored the country and had found 
the location of a salt spring near the Mahoning. He 
selected a tract including the spring and containing 
about twenty-five thousand acres. 

In May, 1795, the legislature, in session at Hart- 
ford, appointed a committee of eight persons to 
negotiate the sale of the Reserve excepting the "suf- 
ferer's lands" and the salt spring tract. They effected 
a sale in separate contracts with forty-eight different 
individuals, realizing for the State the sum of one 
million two hundred thousand dollars. The money 
thus realized was set apart as a common school fund. 
The following were the original purchasers of the 
Reserve, not including the Fire-lands: 

Joseph Honiand.. 

Daniel L. Coit 

Elias Morgan 

Daniel L. Coit 

Caleb Atwater 

Daniel Holbrook . . 
Joseph Williams . . 

William Law 

William Judd 


Uriah Tracey 

James Johnson... 
Samuel Mather, Jr 
Ephraim Kirby . . . . 
Elijah Boardman. . , 
Uriel Holmes, Jr.., 

Luther Loomis 

Ebenezer King, Jr., 

William Lyman 

John Stoddard 

Davis King 

Moses C'leaveland. . 
Samuel P. Lord. . . . 
Roger Newbury.... 

Enoch Perkins 

•Jonathan Bruce 

8 30,401 




Oliver Phelps ( 

Gideon Granger f 

Solomon Griswold 

William Hart 

Henry Champion, 8d. . . 

Ashur Miller 

Robert C. Johnson. . 

Ephraim Post 

Xehemiah Hubbard, Jr. 

Solomon Cowles 

Oliver Phelps 

Asahel Hathaway 

John Caldwell I 

PelegSantord f 

Timothy Burr 

Ephraim Starr 

Sylvanus Griswold 

Jabez Stocking ) 

Joshua Stow [■ 

Titus Street 

James Bull i 

Aaron Olmstead l 

John Wyles ) 

Pierpont Edwards 

8 80,000 

Grand total $1,200,000 

These gentlemen formed themselves into a body 
corporate, under the name of '-The Connecticut Land 
Company," and proceeded to survey and divide their 
lands. The survey of the lands east of the Cuyahoga 
was made in 1796, and partition effected, by draft, 
January 39, 1798. The lands of the Reserve west of 
the Cuyahoga were divided in 1807. 



Though her sons were not wanting in patriotism, 
and freely offered up their lives in the cause of inde- 
pendence, the soil of Connecticut was not the theater 
of any of the great battles or campaigns of the revo- 
lutionary period, and was, for the most part, remote 

from the scene of hostilities. None of the historic 
battles — Lexington, Bunker Hill, Monmouth, Tren- 
ton, Yorktown — were fought within her borders. Yet 
the war did not terminate without leaving here, as 
elsewhere, the evidence that it is its mission to cause 
suffering and death. On many different occasions the 
British troops, who occupied New York City for the 
greater part of the war, sent out expeditions to de- 
stroy stores and shipping in the towns of Connecticut. 
The object of these expeditions, or forays, was best 
attained by landing in the niglit, destroying and burn- 
ing what they could, and then retiring and putting to 
sea before any considerable force could be gathered to 
prevent them from carrying out their plans, but in 
nearly every instance there was skirmishing, resulting 
in loss of life, the most notable being the massacre at 
Groton. Nine towns were thus visited, burned, jilnu- 
dered, laid waste, or despoiled. The account of the 
misfortunes that befell these towns and their citizens 
furnishes some of the most deeply interesting chap- 
ters of the history of the Revolution; doubly interest- 
ing to the people of the Fire-lands, as it is from these 
occurrences that the laud of their occupancy derives 
its name and being, and it is therefore appropriate 
that siiace be given to their recital in the present 


The following account of the burning of New Lon- 
don is mainly, and often literally, taken from Caulkin's 
history of that town and county. More space is given 
to the incidents attending the destruction of New 
London, and the massacre at Groton, not only on 
account of their greater relative importance, but be- 
cause many scenes related as transpiring here were 
common at other places, and are therefore mentioned 
but once. 

The writer referred to says: "It may be obsei-ved in 
general terms, that during the whole war New London 
was a den of serpents to the British — constantly send- 
ing out its sloops and schooners, well manned by skill- 
ful and daring seamen, to harass the boats and ten- 
ders along the shore, or to cutoff merchant vessels on 
the high seas. Rich prizes, in spite of their vigilance, 
would run into this open port, and if pursuit was ap- 
prehended, they might be hurried up to Norwich, 
entirely out of reach. The year 1777 forms, indeed, 
an exception to the universality of this assertion; so 
great was the vigilance of the British squadron on 
this coast, that between the summer of 1776 and that 
of 1778, not a single prize was brought into the harbor 
of New London. 

"Althrough New London had been repeatedly 
threatened, no direct attack was made upon the town 
till near the close of the war in 1781. Gen. Arnold, 
on his return from a predatory descent upon the coast 
of Virginia, was ordered to conduct a similar expedi. 
tion against his native State. A large quantity of 
West India goods and European merchandise, brought 
in by various privateers, was at this time collected in 


New Loiuloii; the iiuantity of shipping in port was 
very considerable, and among the prizes recently taken 
was the Hannah, Capt. Watson, a rich merchant ship 
from Loudon, bound to New York, which had been 
captured a little south of Long Island, by Caj)t I)nd- 
ley Saltonstall, of the Minerva privateer. The loss 
of this shij), whose cargo was said to be the most val- 
uable brought into America during the war, had exas- 
perated the British, and more than any other single 
circumstance, istliought to have led to the expedition. 
At no other period of the war could they have done 
so much mischief; at no other had tlie inliabitants so 
much to lose. 

"The expedition was fitted out at New- York, and 
consisted of thirty-two sail, including twenty-four 
transports, and the troops numbered eighteen hundred. 
Late in the evening of the 5th of September, 1781, 
information was received in New London, of the pres- 
ence of a Britisli fleet on the shore of Long Island. 
So many false demonstrations of attack had been 
made during the war that this intelligence caused but 
little alarm. No public notice was given of it, and 
no unusual precaution taken against surprise. At 
nightfall the fleet began to move, aud arriving on the 
coast at one o'clock would undoubtedly have accom- 
plished its design, which was to descend suddenly 
upon the town, under cover of darkness, with such 
expedition as to destroy the fortifications, shipping, 
stores, etc., and depart before any considerable force 
could be collected to oppose them. As they were 
about making preparations to land the wind shifted, 
the fleet was obliged to stand off until morning, aud 
it was ten o'clock before the troops debarked. They 
were in two divisions, about eight hundred landing on 
the Groton side, and nine hundred or a thousand on 
tlie New London side. A considerable jwrtiou of the 
troops were loyalists. 

"In the meantime confused and hasty prejiarations 
had been made to receive them. At early dawn the 
fleet had been discovered lying off, becalmed, but the 
transports were making preparations to beat in to the 
mouth of the river. Signal guns were fired to call 
assistance from the neighboring country. * * 
* , * * In the town consternation and fright 
were suddenly let loose. No sooner were the terrible 
guns heard, than the startled citizens made haste to 
.send away their families, and their portable and most 
valuable goods. Throngs of women and children 
were dismissed into the fields and woods, some without 
food, and others with a piece of bread or a biscuit in 
their hands. Such was the confusion of the scene, 
that families, in many cases, were scattered upon dif- 
ferent roads: children eight or ten years of age were 
•sent off into the country, their parents lingering to 
bury or conceal some of their effects. Groups of 
fugitives gathered on the high hills afar off, watching 
with intense interest the movements of the enemy, 
who,se course might be traced by their gleaming arms 
and scarlet coats, until the sun hid them from their 
view. Colonel William Lodvard was the militarv com- 

mandant. The garrisons were small, l)arely sufficient 
to keep the posts in order, and in cases of emergency 
they depended on volunteers from the neighborhood 
or details of militia. These were coming in now and 
the commander confidently anticipated the arrival of 
sufficient aid to warrant a defense. 

" In the meantime great efforts were made to secure 
the shipping in the harbor by getting it up the river, 
but at first neither wind nor tide favored the attempt. 

"Toward noon, however, before the enemy had got 
possession of the town, a favorable breeze came in 
from the water, and a considerable number of vessels 
escaped up the river. ***** guch con- 
fusion reigned in the town, every householder being 
engaged in the care of his family and effects, that it 
was difficult to form any concerted plan of action. 
But when the women and children had departed, the 
men began to gather in groups, and consult respecting 
the course to be pursued. They could muster but few 
effective men; flight and concealment seemed the only 
prudent course for them to adopt." 

But about one hundred, hastily armed, and indig- 
nant at the thought of abandoning their homesteads 
without a blow, collected on Tower Hill, with a view 
of obstructing the course of the enemy. They were 
without a commander, and as the advancing files of 
regular soldiers, in firm array, with glistening steel, 
appeared in sight, they saw the rashness of their de- 
sign, and scattering into the fields, concealed them- 
selves behind rocks and fences, and annoyed the troops 
whenever they could. 

No serious resistance was, however, made to the 
entrance of the troops, aud once in the town the de- 
struction of ])roperty was begun. "Vengeance and 
destruction had no check; shops, stores, dwellings, 
piles of lumber, wharves, boats, rigging and vessels 
were soon enveloped in smoke and flame. Hogsheads 
were knocked in, sugar and coffee lay in heaps, and 
rum and Irish butter, melt in the fire, trickled along 
streets and filled the gutters. * * * Ou the pa- 
rade all was destroj-ed. The market, wharf, the old 
magazine and battery, the court house, jail and jail 
house, the Episcopal church, and several contiguous 
shops aud dwelling houses, were soon a iieap of 
ashes. The western part of this street was left 
unhurt. The ancient, dilapidated old building, still 
extant near the corner of Green street, was then, 
as it since has been, a well known tavern stand. 
The landlady, like many other American women in 
those disastrous times, had lier nearest friends ar- 
rayed ou opposite sides. Her husband, as sergeant 
iu the militia, was at his post iu the field annoying 
the invaders, and her brother was one of those in- 
vaders, an officer under Arnold's command. Before 
mounting her horse to escape, she had her tal)le spread 
and furnished bountifully with provisions. Though 
fleeing with her patriot husband, she could not refrain 
from leaving a dinner for her tory brother. That 
oHicer eagerly sought the threshold of his relative, 
and thouiih he found her iiot, refreshed himself and 



his brother officers with the collation." The enemy, 
however, did not, in general, spare the dwellings 
of their reunited friends. This, instead of being 
a favor, would have marked them out for patriot 
vengeance. Arnold himself took some refreshment 
that day at the house of an old acquaintance in Bank 
street, but even before they rose from the table, the 
building v/as in flames over them. It has been often 
stated that some whose property was destroyed, re- 
ceived in the end double compensation; that is, from 
the British, on account of their loyalty, and from 
Congress, in the grant of Fire-lands, by which repar- 
ation was made to the sufferers. Arnold was born 
within fourteen miles of New London, and had lived 
so long in the vicinity that he had many acquaint- 
ances in town; some of these, it was well known, had 
held secret intercourse with him, and officiated as 
counsellors and guides in this expedition. 

It is doubtless a fact that the wanton burning of 
dwellings had not l^eeu at first intended. Arnold 
says in his report: " The explosion of the powder and 
the change of wind soon after the stores were fired, 
communicated the flames to part of the town, which 
was, notwithstanding every effort to prevent it, un-. 
fortunately destroyed." Sir Henry Clinton, in his 
official letter to England, expresses his concern that 
the town was burned, but says it was unavoidable, 
and occasioned by the explosion of gunpowder. 

"It ought to be stated as a general fact that Ar- 
nold's orders appear to have been given with some 
reference to humanity and the laws of civilized war- 
fare. Private houses were to be spared, unless in 
some few instances where the owners were particularly 
obnoxious. It was afterwards well understood that 
most of the spoil and havoc in private houses was the 
work of a few worthless vagrants of the town, who 
prowled in the wake of the invaders, hoping in the 
general confusion not to be detected." The loss of 
life was not great, being a half dozen killed and a 
dozen wounded on each side. A few of the inhab- 
itants were carried off as prisoners. 

Tlie next morning at eight o'clock the fleet made 
sail. "By this timet he whole surrounding country 
was in motion. All the militia, all who had friends 
on the seaboard, all who hated the British, all who 
were impelled by curiosity, came rushing to the scene 
of desolation, mingled with the fugitives returning 
after a night of terror and anxiety, to their forlorn 
homes. On the hights, in view of the town, they 
paused and gave vent to lamentations and cries of an- 
guish over the smoking ruins." 

That the enemy suffered so little annoyance on the 
New London side, and were allowed to retire unmo- 
lested to their ships, has been attributed to the want 
of an efficient leader to concentrate and direct their 
force. But even under the ablest commander, • no 
position of attack or defense could have been sus- 
tained. What could be effected by a motley assem- 
blage of two hundred citizens against a compact army 
of one thousand disciplined soldiers!' It was well 

that no daring leader came forward to germinate and 
encourage rash attempts, whose only result must have 
been a duplicate of the slaughter on the other side of 
the river. A single spark more, to kindle indignation 
to a flame, and the inhabitants had come rushing down 
on the enemy to pour out their blood like water. 

The loss of New London, from this predatory visit 
can only be given in its main items: sixty-five dwell- 
ing houses were burnt, occupied by ninety-seven fam- 
ilies; thirty-one mercantile stores and; 
eighteen mechanics shops, twenty barns, and nine 
other buildings for public use, including the Episco- 
pal church, court house, jail, market, custom house, 
etc. Nearly all the wharfing was destroyed, except 
sixteen sloo})s which escaped up the river. 

While at New London the loss of life was inconsid- 
erable, it was different on the other side of the river, 
at Groton; and the occurrences of the 6th of Septem- 
ber are among the most sad and tragic of the revolu- 
tionary period. A small body of brave men, hastily 
gathered together in the morning, occupied Groton 
fort. They numbered only one hundred and fifty men 
all told, and were commanded by Colonel Ledyard. 
They were assaulted by an overwhelming force of 
eight hundred British, under command of Lieutenant 
Colonel Ej-re, and though they made a heroic de- 
fense it was all in vain, the fort was taken, nor did 
the work of butchery stop even after the surrender. 
The few remaining brave men were mostly massa- 
ci'ed. Arnold says eighty-five were killed and sixty 
wounded, most of them mortally; about thirty of the 
least injured were taken away as prisoners. The 
others were paroled, taken out of the fort, the maga- 
zine of which was then set on fire, but it was extin- 
guished, before the explosion, by an American who 
approached the fort soon after the British had left. 

"As soon as it was known that the British had re- 
embarked, all Groton was moved, enquiring for her 
sons. Women and children assembled before the 
morning dawn, with torches in their hands, examin- 
ing the dead and wounded in search of their friends. 
They passed the light from face to face, but so bloody 
and mangled were they — their features so distorted 
with the energy of resistance, or the convulsion of 
pain, that in many cases the wife could not identify her 
husband, or the mother her son. Forty wives had 
been made widows that day, all i-esiding near the 
scene of action. A woman,, searching for her hus- 
band among the slain, cleansed the gore from more 
than thirty faces before she found the remains she 

The wounded men left, in a house at the foot of the 
hill, were given attention. Two had already died, 
but most of the others finally recovered. Fourteen 
among the dead, and three among the wounded, bore 
the title of captain, some having served in the army, 
others in the militia, while others commanded vessels. 
Of the killed, sixty belonged to Groton and twelve to 



New London. Eleven bore the name of Avery and 
six that of Perkins. 

The British loss is stated to have been fifty-four 
killed and one hundred and forty-three wounded. A 
granite monument one jiundred and twenty-seven feet 
in height, bearing the names of the heroic dead, com- 
memorates the scene of the bloody encounter. 


In the latter part of the year 1776, this town was 
selected as a place for the deposit of military stores 
for the Continental army. A large quantity having 
been collected, Governor Tryon, with a detachment 
of two thousand British troops, set out to destroy 
them, in which attempt they were successful, as the 
inhabitants were not prepared to defend the town 
against such odds. They entered the town in the 
afternoon of April '26, 1777, and left the next morn- 
ing. The amount of stores destroyed was about three 
thousand barrels of pork, one thousand bari'els of 
flour, several hundred barrels of beef, one thousand 
six hundred tents, two thousand bushels of grain; 
also, rum, wine, rice, etc., a considerable amount. 
Nineteen dwelling houses, a meeting house, and 
twenty-two stores and barns, were destroyed by fire. 


The attack on New Haven was preceded by a proc- 
lamation, or address, to the inhabitants of Connecti- 
cut, dated July 4, 1779, and signed by Commodore 
George Collier, commander-in-chief of his majesty's 
ships and vessels on the coast, and also by Major 
General William Tryon, commanding his majesty's 
land forces on a separate expedition. Three sentences 
of the proclamation will indicate its character: ''The 
ungenerous and wanton insurrection against the sov- 
ereignty of Great Britain, into which this colony has 
been deluded by the artifices of designing men, might 
well justify in you every fear which conscious guilt 
could form, respecting the intentions of the present 
armament. Your towns, your property, yourselves, 
lie within the grasp of the power whose forbearance 
you have ungenerously construed into fear, but whose 
lenity has persisted in its mild and noble efiorts, even 
though branded with the most unworthy imputation. 
The existence of a single habitation on your defence- 
less coast, ought to be a subject of constant reproof 
of your ingratitude." 

On the following day a descent was made upon 
Now Haven. The fleet consisted of forty-eight sail, 
under command of Commodore Sir George Collier. 
There were on board about three thousand troops un- 
der command of General Tryon. They soon got full 
possession of tlie town, not without opposition on the 
part of the hastily collected militia, who soon deliv- 
ered it up to promiscuous plunder and destruction. 
A number of stores were burned, and eight houses in 
East Haven. The conduct of the troo]is was luulal. 
and many needless cruelties and indiginins jiiMctirrd 
upon the persons of the inhabitants. Wimnikd men 

were put to death, women were ravLshed and aged 
people murdered. Twenty-seven of the inhabitants 
were killed, and some thirty or forty carried off as 
prisoners. Among the wounded was Rev. Naphthali 
Daggett, president of Y'ale college, who was maltreated 
after he was taken prisoner. 

This place was laid in ashes by Governor Tryon. ia 
the revolutionary war. The event took place July S, 
1779. A few militia assembled to oppose the advance 
of the British ti'oops, but the invasion was so sudden 
and unexpected that their efforts were fruitless. The 
town was plundered; a great part of the houses burnt, 
and the inhabitants turned out into the world almost 
literally destitute. Eighty-four dwelling houses, two 
churches, an elegant eouct house, fifty-five barns, fif- 
teen stores, and fifteen shops were destroyed by fire. 

After having laid Fairfield in ashes, Governor Tryon 
and his forces, crossed the sound to Huntington Bay 
and remained until July 11, 1779, when they sailed 
over to Norwalk and landed in the evening. In the 
morning they proceeded to burn the town. Only six 
houses were left standing, eighty being consumed, as 
well as two churches, eighty-seven barns, four mills, 
and five vessels. 


From the preceding chapter the reader has learned 
how the inhabitants of the suffering towns sustained 
losses during the revolutionary war. To make com- 
pensation for these losses, the State of Connecticut, 
l^rior to the sale to the Connecticut Land Company, 
released and quit-claimed to the suffering inhabitants 
five hundred thousand acres, to be taken from the 
western end of the Reserve. The tract so granted 
embraces the present counties of Huron and Erie, the 
township of Ruggles in Ashland county, and of Dan- 
bury in Ottawa county. The name "Fire-lands" had 
had its origin in the fact that the lands were donated 
because of losses which occurred by reason of fire. 

Frequently did the inhabitants of the nine suffering 
towns appeal to the Connecticut legislature for some 
material recognition of their claims for relief. The 
State afforded limited aid by the abatement of taxes, 
but no adequate compensation was provided for some 

In 1787, at tlie May session, the memorialists made 
another and a strong appeal, asserting the justness 
of their claims and complaining of the neglect their 
previous petitions had suffered. They earnestly 
urged the attention of the legislature to their prayer, 
which was signed for the petitioners of the several 
towns as follows: By Charles Chauncey, of New 



Haven; Philip Burr Bradley, of Ridgefield; Daniel 
Ta^'lor, of Daubury; Thomas Fitch, of Norwalk; 
Jonathan Sturges, of Fairfield; John Mead, of Green- 
wich; John Deshon, of New Loudon; and Andrew 
Ward, of Groton. The assembly referred this memo- 
rial to a special committee, consisting of Hon. Andrew 
Adams, of the upper house, and Colonel Jeremiah 
Wadsworth, Major Charles Phelps, Major Wni. Hart, 
Colonel Charles Burrell and Captain Moses Cleave- 
Jand, of the lower liouse. [See documents relating 
to revolutionary war, volume XXXVI, number three 
hundred and fifty-one.] 

In October of the same year, this committee re- 
ported that, for want of exhibits, certificates and 
vouchers, they were unable to present either a correct 
statement of the amount of losses, or of the relief 
already granted by the State; that the houses, build- 
ings and furniture destroyed by the enemy ''onglit fn 
be, by this State, paid for at their just value;" and 
that the only means in the power of this State at 
present to pay the same, is in western lands." [lb.. 
Doc. 117.] 

The report, after discussion, was approved, and 
with this the matter rested. Further action being 
postponed from session to session, Thaddeus Burr 
and others, at the December session of 1790, presented 
a new petition. Thereupon a committee, consisting 
of Hon. John Treadwell, Ashur Miller and Captain 
John Chenwood, was appointed to ascertain the 
amount of the losses of the memorialists and others 
who had undergone similar misfortunes. This com- 
mittee entered upon its work without delay. At the 
May session of 1791, further time was asked and 
given. It was not until May, 1792, that the labors 
of the committee were so far completed as to enable 
the assembly to take action, which it then did as fol- 

"At a general assembly o£ the State ot Connecticut holden at Hart- 
ford on the second Thursday ot May, A.D., 1702: 

"Upon the memorial of the inhabitants of the towns ot Fairfield and 
Norwalk, shewing to this assembly that many of the inhabitants of said 
towns suffered great losses by the devastations of the enemy during the 
late war, praying a compensation therefor, and a report of a committee 
appointed by the assembly at this session held at Hartford in May, 1791, 
to ascertain from documents in the public offices the ajnount of the 
losses of the said memorialists, and others under similar circumstances, 
which had been estimated conformably to acts of this legislature, being 
such as were occasioned by excursions ot the enemy during the late 
war, distinguishing the losses ot buildings and necessary furniture from 
those of other articles, by said documents or otherwise, and also to 
ascertain the advancements which have been made to sufferers by 
abatement of taxes or otherwise, and to report the same, with their 
opinion relative to the ways and means ot affording for the relief, as 
per memorial and report on file. 

"Resolved, By this assembly, that there be and there hereby are re 
leased and quit-claimed to the sufferers hereafter named, or their legal 
i-epresentatives where they are dead, and to their heirs and assignees 
forever, five hundred thousand acres of land belonging to this State 
lying west ot the State ot Pennsylvania, and bounding northerly on the 
shore of Lake Erie, beginning at the west line ot said lands and extend- 
ing eastward to a line running northerly and southerly parallel to the 
east line of said tract of land belonging to this State, and extending the 
whole width ot said lands, and easterly so far as to make said quantity 
of five hundred thousand acres of land exclusive of any lands within 
said bounds, it any be, which may have been heretofore granted to be 
divided to and among the said sufferers, and their legal representatives 
where they are dead, in proportion to the several sums annexed to their 
names as follows in the annexed list." 

The total'amount of losses awarded was one hun- 
dred and sixty-one thousand five hundred and forty- 
eight pounds eleven shillings and six and a half pence 
New England currency, equivalent to five hundred and 
thirty-eight thousand four hundred and ninety-five 
dollars and twenty-six cents. The board of commis- 
sioners ascertained that the number of sufferers was 
about eighteen hundred and seventy. The follow- 
ing table will show in what proportion these sufferers 
and their losses were distributed among the suffering 
towns : 

Greenwich 883 persons, £13,000 Os. OJ^tt 

Norwalk 289 " 23,889 19 2J^ 

Fairfield 269 " 34,339 11 

Danbury 187 " 8,238 10 7^ 

New and East Haven 410 " 16,986 5 4 

New London 273 " 54,398 7 3^ 

Ridgefield , 65 " 1.736 1 10 

Groton 93 " 7,739 13 6 

Total 1,870 " £161,548 U.S. e^d 

The names of the sufferers are classified by towns, 
and the amount of loss sustained by each is given in 
pounds, shillings and pence. The following list is 
taken from the "Classification Record," an old book 
in the office of the recorder of Huron county, and, 
though far from being well arranged, the names have 
been copied in the order there given. Even where a 
cursory glance might seem to show the list alj^ha- 
betical, further examination will disclose many ex- 
ceptions. The largest amount awarded to any one 
individual was to Jeremiah Miller, of New Londouj^ 
in the sum of two thousand five hundred and thirty- 
five pounds eighteen shillings and ten pence, or eight 
thousand eight hundred and forty-five dollars and 
thirty-one cents; the smallest on the list is that of 
Marah Kilby, of New Haven, two shillings six pence, 
or forty-one and two-thirds cents. 

The names on the list are familiar ones. Many of 
them and their descendants settled on the Fire-lauds, 
and their posterity are numerous here to-day. The 
family names are almost exclusively of English deriva- 
tion, there being a notable absence of the Irish, 
Scotch, French and German names so common at 
the present day. Buf the .baptismal names were 
peculiar, and, in this respect, time has wrought 
changes. Amos, Abijah, Ephraim, Ebenezer, Eleazar, 
Hezekiah, Joshua, Justin, Jedediah, Jotham, Oba- 
diah, Nehemiah, Titus, Timothy and Uriah were as 
common as Abraham, Benjamin, John, James, Mat- 
thew, Moses and Solomon, while Eliphalet, Eliakim, 
Shadrach, Shubael and Zechariah and many more 
names now unheard of are of freijuent occurrence. 
The names of George. Charles, Albert, Edward, Wil- 
liam, Henry, Frederick and Richard were not alto- 
gether wanting, but were less esteemed than tliose 
taken from scripture. In the names of women, Anna, 
Abigail, Charity, Deliverance, Deborah, Prudence, 
Priscilla, Ruth, Thankful and Temperance, are as 
easily picked out as Lucy, Mary, Jane and Sarah. It 
is needless to say there were no Allies or 
.lennies or Minnies. 



Another feature will strike even the most casual 
reader, and that is the absence of middle names — 
scarcely one person in a hundred is so provided — 
while Jr., 2d, and even 3d, are common suffixes used 
to distinguish those of the saflie family having the 
same name. 



John AiMington 
Samuel Ask 
Abigail Armour 
Lauren Bruniall 
James Brown 
William Bush 
John Bxish 
James Barnes 
Samuel Banks 
Roger Brown 1 

Isaac Bush 
Neheniiah Brown 
William Blake 

Isaac Anderson 
Obeiliah Banks 
Peter C'vphus 
James Lunningham 
Joseph C hambers 
Debcirah Close 



hen Havis 
Daniel Iiarrow 
Humphrey Denton 

Charity Banks 
Silas Butts 

James Brush 
Samuel Brush 
Deborah Brush 
Walter Butler 
Charles Brundage 
Elisha Belcher 
William Brundage 
, Peter Brown 
'John Clapp. Jr. 
Thomas llapp 
Odel Close 
Jaciih Conklin 

.■lose (Adii 

Keuben Coe 
Abraham Close 
Joseph Close : 

Jonathan Coe 
Jeremiah Chapman 
Odel Close. Jr. 
Horse X. Church 
Episcopal Church 
Jonathan Connery 
Abraham Hays 
Thomas Hobby, Jr. 
Hannah Hays 
Joseph Hubby, Jr. 
John Hobby 


David Hallcock 
Isaac Hclmes, Jr. 
William Hubbard 
Nathaniel Hubbard 
Thomas Hitchcock 
Nat Huested 
Ebenezer Howe 
Jona. Hubbard, Jr. 
Benjamin Hubby 
Ebenezer Hubby 
John Dunn 
Isaac Davis 
James Kerriss 
Urial Fields 
Oliver Kairchild 
Jabez Ferris 
Jonathan Finch 
Nathaniel Finch 
Timothy Ferris 
Solomon Finney 
Joshua Franklin 
Sylvanus Ferris 
Jabez Filch 
Josiah Ferris 
Timothy Finch 
Joseph Ferris 
Moses Ferris 

Charles Green 
Anne Greggs 
Jabez Holmes 
Reuben Holmes 
Mills Hobby 
Isaac Howe' 













































Mindwell Hitchcock 18 

Jonah Knapp 44 

Nathaniel Knapp 15 

Eunice Knapp 14 

Joshua Knapp 125 

John Knapp 23 

Charles Knapp 11 

William Kinch 5 

Jonathan Knapp 26 

Ezekiel Knapp 25 

Abraham Knapp 2 

Widow Kinch 8 

Samuel Lockwood 108 

Israel Lock-wood 51 
Philip Loekvvood 

Enos Lnckwood !3 
Thaddeus Lockwood 54 

Peter Heusted S6 
Abraham Heusted 

Moses Heusted. Jr. 2 

Ebenezer Holmes 9 

James Hounam 208 

Meeting House 20 

Thomas Hobby 69 

Benjamin Huested 6 

Nathaniel Hubby 12 

Sarah Halt 3 

Joseph Hubby. Jr. 31 

Elizabeth Ingersoll 68 

Nathaniel Ingersoll 59 

William Jacobs "60 

Anne Ingersoll 14 

Job Ireland 

Amos Jes-sop 20 

Thomas Johnson 41 

William Johnson 8 

James Johnston 8 

Israel Knapp. Jr. 4 

Ebenezer Knapp 147 

Javed Mead 68 

Daniel Marshall 22 

Elizabeth Moore 7 

Martin McDonald 4 
Ezra Marshall 

Ben.iamin Mead 111 

Rachel Marshall 10 

Peter Mead, Esq. i:i8 

John Mead 162 

Hannah Mead . 2 

Sarah Mead 71 

Ebenezer Mead 5 

Charles Mead 

Eliphalet Mead. Jr. 95 

Ichiel Mead 5 

Abraham Mead 17 

Eliphalet Mead 5 

Nehemiah Mead 55 

Mathew Mead 61 

Titus Mead 95 
Nehemiah Mead, Jr. 9 

Daniel Merritt 36 

John Loudon 7 

Caleb Lyon 9 

Joseph Lockwood 30 

William Lee 7 
Timothy Lockwood 10 
Hannah Lockwood 29 
William Lockwood 18 

Gilbert Lyon 16 
Abraham Lockwood .. 

Amos Lyon 19 

James Lyon 58 

Ezekiel Lockwood 9 

James Lyon, Jr. 7 

Caleb Lyon. Jr. 29 
TheophilusLockwood 2 

Jonas Mead 20 

Andrew Marshall 26 

Peter Mead. Jr. 41 

Caleb Mead aS 

Reuben Merritt 25 

John Mead. Jr. .54 
Nathaniel Mead, 3d 18 
Jeremiah Mead. Jr. 92 
Gilbert Marshall 
Delivtrance and Ja- 

red Mead 200 

Henry Marshall 25 

Joseph Mead 39 

Shadrack Mead 42 

Caleb Mead, '.d 76 

Abigail .Mead 6 

Jonah Mead 24 

Enos Mead 12 

Sibil Mead 80 

Angus McCall 13 

Zacbeus Mead !i 

Ezra Marshall .56 




Elkanah Mead 




John Mesnard 


Andrew Mead 


Jotham Mead 



Eliphalet and Ichiel 


Robert Nutt 



Francis Nash 



Daniel Ogden 




Silas Mead 



Thomas Mesnard 



William Marshall 




Deliverance Mead 



Jemima Mead 




Rev. Jonathan Mur 





Jesse Mead 




Henry Mead 



Elizabeth Mead 




Dr. Amos Mead 



Joshua Mead 



Jerusha Mead 

John Mesnard, Jr. 


James Moe 



Nathaniel Merrit 



Edmond Mead 



Titus Palmer 



Jere and John Wood 




Hoiton Reynolds 




William Rundall 




Susannah Reynolds 

Anue Reynolds 

Nath. Reynolds, Jr. 
John Ricf. 






Hannah Rundell 


Hannah Ritch 

Mary Ritch 



Reuben Randall 


Anny Rundall 



Joanna Reynolds 



Solomon Rundall 




Thi mas Ritch 



Timothy Rundall 


Jonathan Reynolds 


Abigail Rundall 



Samuel Rundal" 

Ambrose and Jona 

than Reynolds 




Nathaniel Reynolds 



Shubael Rundall 

Joseph Sackett 



Samuel Seymour 




Joshua Smith 


Jonah Smith 



Justus Sackett 




Daniel Smith 


Oliver Sherwood 


Drake Seymour 




Jabez Shei wood 



Henry St eedwell 



Gilbert Sherwood 


Rev.William Seward 25 


Benjamin Sutton 




David and Joshua 



Thomas Steedwell 










Sarah Parsons 




. 50 





James Phillips 


Denham Palmer, 


John Palmer 



Mary Peck 


Catharine Peck 


Heth Peek 




John Purdy 
Winans Palmer 






Daniel Palmer 



Benjamin Peck 




Samuel Palmer 




Gould John Sellich 


Roger Sutherland 




John Town 




William Town 


Oliver Tompkins 


Michael C.fempany 76 



Mary Town 



Zebediah Taylor 


William Wairos 




Ebenezer Whelplej 


Isaac Wood 



John Willis 




John Weeks 




Francis Wilmott 


Jeffrey Wilmeten 



Isaac \Vhelpley 





Thomas Benedict 



Josiah Thatcher 



James Fitch. Jr. 


Thomas Fitch 



James Fitch 



John Lockwood. Jr 



Abraham Camp 





Seth Seymours h'r 


Fountain Smith 





John Seymoiu-. Jr 




Abraham Benedic 




Thomas Betts l''i7 
John and Daniel Ev- 

ersley 1.54 

John Benedict 172 

Daniel Hyatt 85 

Peter Betts 180 

Ebenezer Whitney 108 

Gould Hays 195 

Uriah Raymond 124 

Abigail Raymond 144 

Jabez Saunders 31 

John Cannon 1933 

Lois Whitney 88 

Stephen Smith 48 

Ezra Rickett 82 

John Saunders 241 

William Seymour 93 
Nathaniel Benedict 359 
Eliphalet Lockwood 721 

Hannah Hooker 211 
HezekiahLockwood 176 

John Gregory. Jr. 221 

Ebenezer Gregory 57 

Daniel Smith 99 

Peter Quintard 401 

Noah Smith 89 

John Darrow 192 

Thaddeus Betts 2.54 

Maihew Mallery 87 

John St. John 51 

William St. John 318 

John Hays 72 

Daniel Jackson 53 
Josiah Thatcher, Jr. 193 

Elizabeth Rogers 228 

Eliakim Raymond 297 

Lemuel Brooks 287 

Richard Camp 241 

Asa Hays :381 


Daniel Hanford -303 

Jesse Benedict 114 

Samuel Fairchild 131 

Simeon Raymond 428 

Jedediah Hanford 39 

Euock Benedict 81 
David Handford's 

Matthew Keeler 165 
-MaiT Benedict 40 

David Comstock 313 
Th. masFitchsh'rs4I5 
John Rich 72 

Ebenezer Hyatt 76 

Nathan Mallery 157 

Daniel Thatch's hYs 215 
Samuel (;i-unuuond 30 
Eljcnezer Lockwood 82 
Isaiah Marvin 158 

Eliakim Smith 20:3 

Daniel Seymour, Jr. 87 
Dan Finch 119 

Hezekiah Raymond 1.52 
John Betts 303 

Edward Wentworth SO 
Isaac Scudder 661 

John Lockv\ood. 3d 218 
Nathan Jarvis 279 

Jabez Raymond 293 
Nehemiah St. John 89 
Hezekiah Hanford 2t)8 
Jonathan Fitch's 

heirs 195 

Nathan Hays 180 

Daniel Fitch's heirs 259 
John Belden :303 

Nathan Beers 195 

Benjamin Isaac's 

heirs 406 

Samuel Marvin 319 

Thomas Grummond 205 
Jacob Jennings 22 

Je<lediah Brown 162 
Sarah Johnson M 

Joseph Whitney 182 
Susanah Butler 6 

Abraham Gregory .50 
Lvdia Comstock 9 

Nathl Benedict, 2d 152 
Josiah Raymond 239 
Col.StephenSt. John 713 
Daniel W. Auley 248 
Daniel Seymour 11 

Deborah Dickinson 17 
Jane Hitchcock 19 

Elizabeth Rogers, 2d 1 
Hannah Hanford 60 
Deborah Pickett '22 
Mary Resco 2 

Rebecca Smith 3 

Ohadiah Liscat 3 

Abigail Weeks 3 

Anne Seymour 3 

Piatt Townsend 2 

John Piatt 

Stephen Lockwood 18 
Nathan Hyatt, Jr 29 

10 714 
















Jacob Arnold S4 



Simeon Stewart, Jr. 8 




David Hyatt 9 


Benjamin Steward 14 






John Eversley 11 


John Filleo 1 



Samuel Rowland 476 
Andrew Rowland 1,565 


Nehemiah^Phippeny 12 
James Penfleld 6 


Syphax, (negro) 

Col. Matthew Mead 4 






David Whitney 


David Webb 1 



Samuel Squire 412 


Jabez Perry 2 


Anne Seymour 6 



John Rockwell 5 


John Smedley 763 



John Perry 6 
.Abraham Parrott 4 


John Lockwood 9 



Elizabeth Gaylord 5 

Seth Sturges 431 



David Judah 9 


Nathan Hicock 2 



Joseph Squire 65 

Sarah Penfleld 15 


Timothy Whitney 



Jas. Small Olmstead 3 



Thomas Staples 247 



Benjamin Rumsey 


Thomas Betts, Jr. 13 


Samuel Stewart 13 


Joseph Sturges- h'rs 339 



Lucretia Redfield -38 



Haynes Fitch 42 



Michl Morehouse, Jr. 7 


Jonathan Sturges 748 


Widow Sarah Red- 

Michael Judah 13 


Aiulrt-w Jloreliouse 1 


Hezekiah Sturges 532 



field 28 


Uriah Smith 35 


Michael ?Iniehouse 4 


Samuel Sturges m 
Samuel Smedley 415 


Robert Ross 2 


Samuel Burral 30 



James Keeler 8 




Rev. Hezekiah Rip- 

Hannah Brown 6 



Jnsiali Taylor. Jr. 4 



Eliphalet Thorp 401 


ley -368 



James Haifs heirs 26 



Tha.ldeus Keeler 2 



Jabez Thorp 147 


Josepli Sprague 2 
Grace Spaklmg 90 
Francis D. Sword 3 

Stephen Keeler 35 


Sarah Morehouse 


John Turney .)26 




David Bott 5 



Ebenezer Fitch 2 


Stephen Thorp 515 




Eleazer Scott 16 


Nathan Burrall 2 


Ansel Treebv 96 


Benjamin Squire 1 

James Crowley 3 


Jeremiah Webb 7 


John Wasson 161 




Stephen St. John 30 
Natlianiel StniU 33 

Elizabeth Dunning 7 



Andrew Wakeman 307 



Seth Sm'itii ' " 66 


Solomon Morehouse 5 


Ebenezer Wakeman 68 



Zecheriah Sanford 3 


Moses St John 3 


Rebecca Deforest 7 



Joseph Wakeman 167 



Mary Smith 16 



Isaac Waring 3 


Marv Fleet 15 


Thomas Hanford 

Ebenezer Squire 14 



Giles Mallery 12 



Benjamin Beets, Jr. .3 


Wakeman 239 



Stephen Turney 88 



David Seymour 3 



?Jan- Cutler 48 


Samuel Taylor 9 


Mary Harvey 14 


William sT.^.John 35 


David Annible 43 



William Thorp 24 


Rebecca Wasron 4 



Daniel Gregory 18 



Neh. Buddington 15 
Andrew Bulkley 33 

Ruel Thorp 6 

Jarvis Kellogg 3 



Thaddeus Morehouse 2 




Widow Hannah Tay- 

William Mott 10 


Joseph Olmstead 8 
Thaddeus Betts 18 


James Bulklev 



lor ■ 40 


Mary Avery 11 
Peter Hitchcock 11 




Walter Buddihgton -20 
Widow Abigairaurr 58 
William Buddington 37 


Jehiel White Head 6 





Eliphalet Lockwood 23 



Richard Wane 5 



Joshua Rogers 14 



Jabez Kaymond 38 
Charles Pope 6 


Abigail Whitear 111 


Desire Liscat 8 

Walter Carson 37 

Samuel King 5 
Gideon Wells 29 

Robert Waters 11 



Haynes Fitch 47 


Jonathan Darrow 354 





Jedediah Raymond 10 


Hezekiah Hanford .59 


Isaac Jarvis -^i 


John WiUson 5 


Nehemiah St. John, 

Daniel Hanford 20 

Abigail Jennings 49 


Nathaniel Willson 10 


3nd, 6 


James Fitch, Jr. 23 


Justin Jennings 31 

Jolin Whitehead 17 


Esther St. John 3 


Rebecca Fitch 63 


Levi Mallery 31 


Abigail Wynkoop 59 


Mary Lockwood 2 



Robert Waters 6 

Abigail Osborn 106 


Joseph Wkkeman 4 

James Smith 31 


Dan Finch 3 

John Parsons 33 


Increase Bradley 180 
House of Peter Bulk- 

Betsey Hall 32 


Uriah Smith 4 

Ephraim Bobbins 106 
Ebenezer Sturges 89 



Mary Brown 9 


Simeon Raymond 14 



ley and Jos. Stur- 

Silas Bessey 12 
Abraham Lockwood 3 



WiUiam Raymond 5 

John Squire, Jr. 15 



gess 91 


Moses Ravmond 5 

Judson Sturges 128 


Edward Buddington 81 

Abner Booth 40 



Timothy Hoj-t 6 

Isaac Tucker 68 


Andrus Jennings 310 

^^e^i^W^a i 


Benjamin Merrit 5 

Samuel Smith 19 


Aaron Jennings 100 


Jedediah Raymond 15 

Isaac Turney 30 



William Levesav 152 

Pomp Learning 14 


Hannah Dickenson 23 



John Williams, Jr. 13 


Heirs of Benjamin 

Banlev Arnold 12 


Moses Dickenson's 

John Williams 116 

Osborn 152 

Sarah' Eversley 26 



heirs -259 



Ruth Wakeman 22 



Benjamin Allen 5 



Mary Smith 17 


Silas Bartow 48 



Wright White 46 

Ephraim Burr 95 



Thomas Darrow 17 



Samuel Ketehum 4 



Marf- Alvoid 20 

Gilbert Brvan 19 

Nathan Hendrich 19 



Evert Ellison 13 


Isaac Burr 23 


Ebenezer Baker 21 


William Garner 11 


Michael Judah 


Amelia Burr 10 

Gersham Banks 14 


Stephen G.Thatcher 13 



John Read 9 



Ruth Burr 3 


George Burr 15 



Stephen and Hooker 

Retty Javiss 3 


Charles Burr 34 


John Banks 22 


St. John 30 


Luce Burr 4 


Ephraim Burr, Jr. 4 



Nathaniel Raynipnd 4 



George Batterson .55 


Nathan Bennit 15 


Susannah Fitch *4 


Dudley Baldwin 7 



Joseph Bennit 56 


Thomas Hays 18 

Abraham Audress 430 


William Batterson 16 

Francis Bradley, 3d 2 



Auley W. Aulev 30 
Joseph Allen Wright 95 




Samuel Burr, Jr. 3 


Pinkney Burr 14 



Col. Elijah Abel 719 



Samuel Burr, 3d 14 


Elias Bennett 19 



Dr. Uriah Rogers' 

John Allen .545 



David Burr 10 



Job Bartran 13 


heirs 225 

David Allen 476 



Abigail Burr, Jr. 50 


Thomas Bennitt 3 



Jesse Ravmond 147 


George Allen 331 



Nathan Bulkley 11 


Sarah Bryant 17 


John Richards 7 



Anthony Anniball 155 



Olive Bulkley ^ 30 



James Bennitt -26 


Joseph Waring 14 



Peter Burr 282 


Wid. Abigail Bulk- 

Abigail Desbrow 9 



Isaac Richards 44 



Reuben Beers 510 



ley and Jonathan 

Jason Desbrow 16 


Eli Read 58 



David Beers 164 



Bulkley 54 

Hezekiah Cooley 3 


Jesse Read 3 


Samuel Beers 96 



Ebenezer Bulkley 



John Crosman 5 


John Bigsley 7 


Ebenezer Baitran 144 



Nehemiah Banks 4 


Caleb Desbrow 8 



Benjamin Read 42 



Joseph Beers 90 


David Barlow 374 


Jabez Desbrow 5 



Daniel Richards 12 


David Burr 388 


Priscilla Burr 283 



John Desbrow 15 


Solomon Whitman 17 





Nathaniel Burr 22 


Shubael Gorham 4 


David Read 126 



Samuel Burr 481 


Nathan Burr 4 


Solomon Gray 1 



Nathan Waring 33 



Job Bartran 962 



William Carter 16 

Ann Godfrey 3 


Richard Youngs 31 



Gersham Burr 300 


Ann Caldwell 8 



Hezekiah Hull 10 

Marv Read 47 


Thaddeus Burr 1,373 


Thomas and Simon 

Isaac Hays 28 

Gersham Richards 31 


Simeon Couch, 3d 337 


Couch 10 

John Hyde 47 


Clapp Raymond 34 



John Davis 62 



Abigail Chapman 2 


John Hvde. Jr. 7 

JohnRichards 35 



Ann Dimon 317 


John Cake 



Joseph "Hyde 35 

Seth Abbott .55 



AVilliam Dimon 625 

Caleb Disbrow 18 


Ebenezer Jessup 3 


Capt. Eliakim Ray- 

N.ThompsonNichols 67 
EUzabeth Gold iM6 


Rev. Andrew Elliot .>J9 



Joseph Lvon 31 


mond 80 




Francis Forgue 151 


Seth Meeker 22 


Simeon Stewart 69 



Nathan Godfrey 309 



Abigail Thompson 8 
Nathan T. Niclkols. 81 


John Morehouse 15 


Capt. Phineas Han- 

David Jennings, 2d 255 




Benjamin Meeker 15 


ford 43 


Rebecca Jennings 137 


Hannah McKensey 1 


Rebicca Nash 6 


Azor Mead 30 



Moses Jennings 599 



Jemima Gould 6 


Sarah Ogden 19 


Phineas Hanford.Jr. 25 



Isaac Jennings 281 


Abel Gold 113 



Daniel Osborn 


Richard Dunning 26 



Peter Hendrick 399 



Abel Gold, Jr. 3 



Cornelius Stratton 1 


Matthew Marvin 19 

Abigail Hubbell 176 


Daniel Gorham '20 

' John Stratton 1 


Elizabeth Whelpley 17 



Stephen Jennings 195 


5 ■ 

Ebenezer Sherwood 2 

Lvdia Fitch 19 
Elijah Fitch 10 



Jeremy Jennings 196 



Martha Fairchild 44 



Joseph Sherwood 9 




Ebenezer Jessup 282 



Justin Hohart 15 



Jehiel Sherw-ood 4 


Samuel Keeler 30 


Moss Kent 185 


Jabez Hubbell 33 



Samuel "iurr 35 

Samuel Middlebrook 14 



Lathrop Lewis 37 


Isaac Hubbell 18 



Ezra Waterbury 11 



Sturges Lewis 52 



Isaac Haves 86 



Andrew Sturges 13 


Hannah Gregory 13 



Jonathan Lewis 931 



Anna Hull 64 



Ebeuezer Bennit, Jr. 14 



Widow Eunice More- 

John HiL-kling 30 



■Wilfiam Thorp 3 

Nathan Adams 14 

house 68 

Sarah Hews IB 


Jessup Wakeman 12 


James Betts 17 


Gideon Morehouse 66 



Peter Jennings 7 



Samuel Whitney, Jr. 26 


Benjamin Keeler 10 



Ebenezer Morehouse 83 


Lyman Jennings 5 
Hezekiah Jennings 1 



Peter Whitney 7 

Nathan Keeler 3 


GrammonMorehouse G 

Widow Elizabeth 

James Whelpley 4 
Capt. Sam'l Comstock 2 



John Morehouse 33:3 


Daniel Jennings 32 



Sturges 150 
MosesBulkley 50 

Hezekiah Nicolls 394 


SrriL^°et;^fgs 1 



Benjamin Betts 2 



Daniel Osborn 135 



Josiah Bulkley 10 

Rev. Isaac Lewis 5 



Eleazer Osborn, Jr. 181 



Ephraim Jennings 6 
Margaret Keeler 18 



Nathan Beers 1 

Daniel Sturges 1 


Widow Mary Pen- 



Ebenezer Munro 1 


Peter Sturges 


field 139 


Esther Lord 7 


Admr of Nehemiah 

Esther Wasson 5 

Solomon Sturges 319 



Jonathan Maltbie 47 





Capt. Josiah Thatcherl6 
Ephraim Stewart 5 
Silas Hicock 3 

Mabel Osborn 605 


Jona. Middlebrook 4 


Mary Alvoid 8 



Samuel Penfield 1,065 



Jesse Morehouse 16 


Jonah Bulkley 




John Parrot 86 



Hannah Morehouse 33 



George Cable 400 

Jesse Birchard 7 


Nathaniel Parsons 86 



David Osborn 21 


County House 


Goal and Goaler's Matthew Gregory 

House Jacob Fiiitch 

School House on the James Fieiaing 

Green Matthew \\ ilks 

Meeting House John Barnum 

Old School House John Porter 

Church House Nathan Taylor, Jr. 

Meeting House at Timothy Northruni 

Green's Farm Timothy Benedict 

Churoh, Glebe House Timothy WMl.lmau 

and Barn iIhx.ih I. r >t;-wart 

Daniel Taylor, Es<i., B5B 

Major Taylor WS 

John McLean 5d8 

Zadock Benedict 67 

Joseph Wildman 378 

John Wood 36',i 
Matt. Benedict, Jr. 818 

David Wood 288 

Abigail Wood 18 

Jonah Benedict 206 
Rev. Ebenezer 

White --ilS 
Jos. P. Cook, Es.i., 53 

Ezra Starr 13U 

Matthew Benedict 176 

Benjamin Sperry 113 

Jabez Rockwell 158 
Thaddeus Benedict, 

Esq 349 

Eli Slygatt, Esq. 512 

James Clark 524 

Comfort Hoyt 50 

Comfort Hoyt, Jr. 4TS 

Sarah Benedict 40 

Daniel Church 40 

Eliphalet Barnum 42 


Elnathan Gregory 3: 
Rev. Xoah Wetmore 2! 
Elizabeth Henries 1! 
Christian Rose ( 

Matthew Barnum S 
Comfort Barnum i 
Joshua Benedict li 
JIatthew Crowfeet 
Ann Shepherd ( 

David Judd S 

Charles Peck ( 

Joseph Benedict, Jr. ^ 
Preserve Wood J 

Joseph Gregory ! 

Hannah Lockwood : 
Isaac Callin 
Christian Starr I 

Nathan Taylor, 3d i: 
Samuel Taylor, Esq. 2: 
John Taylor 1 

Rachel Gregory 
Samuel Lambert • 

Horace Knapp 
Nathaniel Lockwood ' 
Seth Crowfeet 
Samuel Andruss i 

Wait Desbrow 
Isaac Davis 
Hannah Andruss 1 
Timothy Ketchum 2: 
Caleb Baldwin 
John Knapp < 

Abijah Benedict 
Thomas Wildman 
Samuel Wood 
Hannah Wood 
Thomas Starr ! 

Jonas Benedict 
Seth Shove 
Elias Taylor 
Rebecca Crofeet 
Phineas Peck 
Eliphalet Peck 
Benjamin Shove 
WiUiam WiUe 
Comfort Wildman 1 
Aaron Stone 
Sarah Peck 
Jonathan Taylor 
Abijah Barnum 
Oliver Taylor 
Abial Philips 
Daniel Hicock 
Benjamin Wood 
Ezra Stevens 
Bethuel .ludd 
John Peck 
Joseph Benedict 
Anne Nf.rthorp 
Benjamin Hicock 
Benjamin Curtiss 
Samuel Bi-nedict 
William Griflin 
Elisha Dibble 
Patience Guthrie 
Benjamin Boughton 
Andrew Comgtock 
Nathaniel Stevens 
Joseph Beebe 1 

Jonathan Hays 1 

Nathaniel Gregory 1 
Daniel Millson 
Stephen Trowbridge 
Justus Hoyt 

Josepli Broadbooks 
Oliver Benedict 
Ebenezer Benedict 
David Northrop 
Enos Camp 
Ephraim Barnum 
Daniel Stevens 
Elijah Wood 
Thaddeus Barnum 
Philip Corbin 
Nathaniel Benedict 
Thomas Tavler 
Thomas Tavler, Jr. 
James Trowbridge 
Daniel Wildman 
Benjamin Ta.vlor 
John Elliot 
Matthew Starr 
Thomas H. Benedict 
William Stone 
John Stone 
Lemuel Benedict 
Nathaniel Starr 
John Gregor 




Amos Northr 
David Northrop 
Abial Pickett 
John Sturdevant 
Sallie Pell 
Eleazei- Hoyt 
Caleb Church 
Thomas Benedict 

Samuel Brown 
John Coach 
Stephen Jarvis 
Ezra Dibble, Jr. 
Joseph M. White 
Aaron Knapp 
Joseph Guun 
Thomas Tayler 
Benjamin Barley 
Shadrack Morriss 
Noah Hoyt 
Samuel Gregory 
David Pierce 
Richard Smith 
Henry Peek 
David Comstock 
John Shepherd 
Joseph Burchard 
Judith Taylor 
Sarah Basset 
Amos Collins 
Joshua Starr 
Matthew Taylor 
WiUiam B. Alger 
Caleb Hoyt 

Abraham Augur CO 

Uezekiah Augur 29 

Eldad Atwater 52 

David Austin, Esq. 2T8 

Timothy Atwater 8 

Phineas Andruss 18 

Joseph Adams 13 

John Allen 15 

Christopher Allen 6 

Samuel Austin 89 

Abner Austin 60 

Abiah Allen 13 

Oliver Allen 40 

Samuel Bird 42 

Abraham Bradley 101 

Joseph Bradley 40:3 

Benjamin Brown 30 

Israel Bishop 31 

Isaac Bishop 3" 

Abel Bsrret 27 

John Bradley, Jr. 31 

Stephen Ball 36 

Francis Brown 12 

Peter Bontion 70 


Phineas Bradley, Jr 
Daniel Bishop 
John Beecher, Jr. 
Gurden Bradley 
Azariah Bradley 
Samuel Barnes 
Stephen Bradley 
Thomas Burrall 
Timothy Bartique 
James Bradley 
Buckminster Brint- 

Eleazer Brown 
Nando Cambridge 
Charles Chauncey 
Samuel Candy 
John Chandler 
Timothy Dwight 

Amos Doolittle 
Nathan Dummer 
Jonathan Fitch 
Jehiel Forbes 
Levi Forl)es 
Samuel Green 
Samuel Griswold 
Caleb Gilbert 
James Gilbert 
Stephen Gorham ai 
Hezekiah Gorham 21 
William Greenough 27 
Samuel Gills 58 
Timothy Gilbert 3 
Samuel Gorham 9 
Richard Hood 36 
Nathan Howell 10 
Samuel Huggins 91 
Ezekiel Hays T2 
Josiah Holly 52 
Abiah Hall 3 
Amos Hotchkiss :14 
Samuel Horton 77 
Jonah Hotchkiss 19 
Ebenezer Hoggings 47 
Marv Hubbard 5 
Joseph Howell 75 
Samuel Howell 39 
Susannah Hotchkiss 14 
Obediah Hotchkiss 69 
Caleb Hotchkiss 9 
Henrv F. Hughes 38 
EUjah Hill 16 
Stephen Herrick 15 
Jabez Johnson 13 
Timothy Jones, Jr. 38 
Timothy and Wil- 
liam Jones 167 
Isaac Jones 148 
Levi Ives 46 
Peter Johnson 20 
Silas Kimlierley 9 
Azel Kiuiberley 52 
Mary Kimberley 18 
Elaiii Luddington 408 
Daniel Lvman, Esq. 368 
Jesse Leavenwoith 143 
WUham Lyon 92 
Ebenezer Lewis 20 
John Lathrop 71 
Jeremiah JlcCumber 20 
Amos Jlon-is 12:ii 
William Mansfield 47 
Jonah Mix 15 
Stephen Munson 22 
Joseph Mix 11 
WilUam Miles 5 
Joseph Munson 10 
John Miles 48 
William JIuuson 73 
Samuel Munson 41 
Israel Munson 27 
Alliss Miles 5 
Edward Maloy 265 
Amos Munson 18 
Paul Noyes 2 
David Osborn 30 
Nathan Oaks 19 
JIahittibal Osborn 

William Plugmart 

•Elijah or 

Abijah Pardy 

Jacob and 1 

JIary Pardy 

Hezekiah Parmely 109 

Mostin Parrott 27 

William Punchard 20 

Jacob Pinto 22 

Ichabod Page 59 

Sarah Parmely 8 

James Plant 94 

.lereiniah Parmely 18 

Charles Prindle 47 

John Pease 18 

Benjamin Pardy 88 

John Robertson 26 

John Richards 13 

Philemon Smith 53 

Benjamin Santoi-il 32 

William Sherman 37 

Francis Sage 34 

Jonathan Sabin 64 

Elias Shipman 10 

Caleb Trowbridge 123 
Jere Trowbridge. Jr. 7 
Daniel Tuttle 13 

Isaac Townsend 11 

Benajah Thomas 7 

Robert Townsend 15 
Hezekiah Tuttle 54 
Richard Tuttle 13 

Michael Todd 73 

Jeremiah Townsend 36 
Jacob Thompson 60 
Timothy Townsend 11 
Abraham Tuttle, Jr. 27 
John Townsend 3 

Stephen Trowbridge 8 
Samuel Tuttle 270 

James Tuttle 93 

Tftnothy Tuttle 79 

Noah Tucker 99 

Jesse Upson 47 

Jotham Williams 2 
John Woodward 838 
John Woodward.Jr. 740 
Moses Wells 256 

Samuel Willmott 62 
William Ward 22 

.lohnWise 31 

Daniel Willmott 42 

John White, Jr. 23 

Rev. Chauncey Whit- 
tlesey 326 
Thomas Wooster 590 
John Whitney, Esq. 158 
Titus Beecher 5 
Hannah Bingley 10 
Isaac Beecher 3 
Sarah Brown 12 
Peter Buckley 2 
Joseph Bishop 8 
Elias Beech 3 
Aivhibald Blakeley 11 
Tillv Blakeley 13 


tins Br 
rge C^ 


ham 20 
John Cathn 8 
Nathan Catlin 8 
Zachariah Candee 7 
Levi Chnton 6 
David Cook 29 
Russell Clark 1 
Samuel Clark 7 
Samuel Cook 19 
Samuel Chatterton m 
Jolm Clause 3 
John Carcu > 8 
Sarah Davenport 1 
Isaac Doolittle 26 
Samuel Dunwell 34 
Henry Doggett 37 
Rttoda Denison 10 
Hamlin Dwight 2 
Doct. Naphtali Dog- 
gett 32 
Isaac Diekerman 32 
William Dock 15 
Rev. Jonathan Ed- 
William Eyers 5 
Robert Fairchild 10 
Ezra Ford 16 
Abel Frisby 25 
Samuel Goodwin 14 
John Goodrich 140 
Timothy Gorham 10 
Ruth Gordon 7 
Henry Gibbs 4 
Amos Gilbert 13 
Sarah Goldsmith 53 
Joel Gilbert ■ 2 
Daniel Goodsell 12 
David Gilbert 8 
Martin Gattee, de- 
ceased 19 
John Goodsell 8 
Stephen Hotchkiss 4 
Clunstian Hanson 21 
Ebenezer Hull 5 
Hannah Hotchkiss 4 
Sarah Hunt 3 
Frederick Harding 12 
Eleauore Hoy 1 
Joseph Hutts 1 
Jared Hemmingway 5 
Hannah Howe 13 
Sarah Howe 14 
William Holmes 4:1 
David Hull 19 
James Hull 9 
Silas Hotchkiss 3 
Nehemiah Hotchkiss 14 
Nehemiah Higgins 2 
Enos Hotchkiss 3 
Mary Horton 5 
Stephen Honeywell 1 
Abigail Hughes 37 
Stephen Johnson 14 
Simeon Joulin 10 
Amaziab JouUn 25 
Abraham Johnson 5 
Mabel Johnson 6 
Enos Johnson 1 














Jack and wife 



Newton Whittlesey 33 


Timothy Durtey 20 
IsaacChamplin 142 


Joseph Plumb 



Jai-ed IngersoU 


Henry York 4 


Green Plumb 




Riehafil Johnson 

David Abbott 4 


Clark Elliot 290 



Ichabod Powers, Jr 




Lytlia Johnson 
Elijah King 



Joseph Ailing • 4 

John Champlin 104 



Andrew Palmer 





James Ailing 12 

Sarah Edmunds 20 



Widow Piner 


Sarah Kimberley 



Samuel Ailing 20 


John Crocker 34 


Simeon Peck 



Marah Kilby 

Ebenezer Ailing 16 

Abigail Elliot 496 



James Parker 



Lydia Kimberley 
Nathaniel Kimberle 


Lorrain Ailing 4 


John Jrevin 800 

Sarah Pool 





Hezekiah Ailing 11 


Jacob Finch 130 


Joshua Powers 


James Lvndes 


David Atwater 3 


AnnFosdick&Sons 1043 



William Pack-ivood 


Edward Larkins 



David Austin, Jr. 12 


Ebenezer Goddard 7 

Ichabod Powers 


Samuel Little 


Abigail Andruss 2 


MarvHoodtaith 15 

.John Penwert 




Jlajor Lines 



Jedediah Andruss 9 


Elizabeth Griflln 5 

John Potter 



James Lane 


Jeremiah Atwater 227 


Thomas Gardiner 22 


Joseph Packwood 




Mark Leavenworth 

Jonah Atwater 16 


Roger Gibson 884 



Joshua Potter 




Gad Luke 



Archibald Austin 71 


Mary Gardiner VXi 


.lohn Prentice 



Susannah Mahon 



William Alley 9 

David Gardner 11 

Elizabeth Plumb 



John Mix, Jr. 


.lohn Austin 10 

John Gordon 1 


James Pittman 




Daniel Mansfield 


Stephen Austin 12 
Joel Atwater 1 


George Gibbs 21 

Stephen Rougett 




Elisha Mix 


Matthew Griswold 10 

Marv Rogers 
Patrick Robinson 



Marv Miles 



Samuel Bishop, Esq. 13 


Russell Hubbard 1012 


Amos Morrison 


Phebe Brown 7 

Joseph Hurlbut 965 


Ann Richards 




Robert :\Iattliews 



Timothy Benticon, 

Thomas Hopkins 198 


• lames Rogers 




Esther Mansfield 



Jr. 13 


Ruth Harris 63 

Guy Richards and 

Kirsted Mansfield 



Eleanor Benticon 33 







James Murray 
Nathan Mansfield 



Stephen Brown 19 


Thomas Hancock 148 

Mary Richards 
Benjamin Rogers 
Jabez Richards 





Jonathan Bridglen 8 


Mary Hurlburt 212 





Silas Jlerriman 



Abraham Bradley, 

Joseph Harris, Jr. 5 




David Mulford - 


Jr. 6 


Stephen Holt 229 
Natlianiel Harriss 3 

Solomon Rogers 



Hannah Mansfield 


Willard Brintnall .36 


Amos Rogers 



Patience Mix 



Lemuel Benham 12 




Samuel Roberts 




Phebe Miller 



Thomas Bill 9 


Edward and John 

Geurtre Roeers 



David Murison 


Hanover Barney 11 


Hallam 310 


David Richards 



Hannah Mix 



Lucy Barker 1 

Edwa rd and George 

Ja.,„-s R,.gers 



Dr. Timothy Mix 



Israel Bunnel 9 


Hallman 215 

Harriss Rogers 




Moses Mansfield 



Naihan Beers 13 

Edward Hallam 10 


Peter Rogers 




Nathaniel Mix 



William Brintnall 16 


William Higgins 4 


William Rogers 



William Noyes 



David Beecher 19 


Daniel Hurlburt 126 


Peter Rogers. Jr. 
Peter Robinson 




Ann Plait 



David Brown 5 


Sarah Harris 177 





Jlarv and Lydia 

Timothy P. Benti- 

John Harris. 2d 33 



John Rogers 







con 4 


John Hempstead 

David Roberts 



William Punchard 



Lamberton Painter 24 

and others 30 


William Rogers 


Ebenezer Peck 



Silas Kimberley 193 


John Hallam 417 


James Penniman 





Jlarv Kimberley 20 

Benjamin Harris 19 

Daniel Stale 



Thos Pimderson, Jr. 14 


John Beecher ^ 25 


Abigail Holt 18 



Gurdon Salton- 

Mary Pease 


Thomas Benham 10 


NathanielHempstead 7 


stall. Esq. 


David Phipps 


Jotham Williams 6 

John Hanle 44 



Thomas Smith 


.rohn Pierpont 


Andrus Smith 14 

Joseph Holt 3 


William Skinner 



Abigail Potter 


^Villiam Trowbridge 7 


Lydia Harriss 60 


Seth Sears 



Moses Pardy 



Anna Clinton 4 


Thomas Holt 4 


Jonathan and I.Starr 53 



Solomon Phipps 
Lamberton Painter 


Rev. Noah Williston 27 

Bridgett Harriss 24 


Bathsheba Skiune '" 


Azel Kimberley 32 



James Holt 21 







Elijah Painter 


John Mii 37 


John Harriss, 1st 


Eliza Shajiflv 



Martin Patehin 

Walter Harriss 17 



Allan) Sliai>-ly 



Levi Pardy 




Grace parriss 29 

Lydia Siiiiick 




Jonas Prentice 



Ebenezer Holt 15 



Ann Squire 


Sarah Pomeroy 



Phillip Allen 9 



Daniel Harriss 5 

Nathaniel and 

James Prescott 


i^^^ '1^ 

Eliphalet Harriss 20 



Thomas Shaw 



Philip Rexford 




Daniel Holt 32 



John Shepherd 



Samuel Robinson 


Abigail Bill 6 



Jonathan Holt K 


Robert Smith 



Rachel Russell 



William Brooks 65 



Ann Hancock 140 


Starr & Tallman 


Zechariah Read 


John Barr 71 



Titus Hurlburt 1961 

John Springer 


James Rice 



Ann Bulkley 493 



Stephen Hempstead 70 



Ann Simmonds 



Hannah Russell 



Sanmcl Brown 493 



Moses Jeffrey 36 



Peter Perry 


Martin Ray 



Stephen Babcocfc 34 



Lydia Johnson 21 


John Coster 



Hannah Sackett 


Jonah Bebee 236 



Robert Kennedy 3.50 

Widow Dorsett 


Adonijah Sherman 



David Byrne 336 


Mary Lewis 5 


Judas P. Spooner 




John Scott 

John Barna M 



Christopher Lefllng- 

Richard Stroud 



James Sherman 



Jeremiah Brown 124 


well 25 

James Smith 


Leveret Stevens 

Hannah Beebe 6 


.lames Lampher 233 


Jane Stewart 




Sarah Stevens 



Hannah Bolton 32 



Lydia Lattimer 27 






Elizabeth Stillman 



Walter Beebe 9 



James Lamjihier.Jr. 42 



Widow Scovil 

Percy Beer 6 


Pickett Lattimer 565 


Sarah Sitchell 



William Sherman 



Nathan Bailey 20 



Sanu.el Lattimer 910 





Moses Strong 



Cornelius Cunning- 

Amos Lester 12 






Abigail Starr 
Benjamin Smith 


ham 62 



Ebenezer Lester 8 


Roswell Salton- 


Joannah Culver 10 


John Lester 35 




Nehemiah Smith 


Richard Chapman 73 



Edgcomb Lee 48 


Winthrop Salton- 

George Smith 


Esther Cutler 7 

Diodate Little 207 






Nathan Smith 



Joseph Cheds 73 


Samuel Lattimer 24 



Nathaniel Thorp 







Joseph Collins 41 


Michael Love 83 

Bethiah Tallman 



Hezekiah Sabin 



John Critchett 6 


Richard Lattimer 26 



Daniel Tinker 




Hezekiah Sabin, Jr. 



Joseph Coit 1298 



Rasman Lawrence 54 

James Tilley 




Edmond Smith 


William Coit 44 



Peter Lattimer 317 



John Tillev 




Amos Sherman 



James Culver 8 


John Lathrop 1 






Joseph Smith, 3d 



Joseph Cocks 1 



Amasa Larnid 18 





Lodwick Champliu 11 



Jeremiah Miller 2535 



Edward Tinker 




Hannah Sloper 


Elizabeth Christo- 


John Welch 



James Thompson 


pher 49 



James Matthews 29 



Walter Welch 



John R. Throop 


Rebecca Church 52 



Robert Manwaring 21 


Ebenezer Way 






William Comstock 3 


James Miller 93 



John Ward 








Thomas Coit 23 



John Morriss 29 


Lucretia Wolfe 



Thankf ull Thompson 3.3 


Nathaniel Coit, Jr. 15 



Giles Mumford 44 

Anthony Wolfe 


Isaac Thompson 


Joshua Coit 40 

James Minor 7 



Simon A-olcott 


Abraham Tuttle 



Joseph Champlin 72 



Lawrence Marting 55 



Elizabeth Westcott 



Abraham Thompson 



Jonathan Colefax 15 



Ephraim Minor 348 



Temerance Moore 



Stephen Tuttle 




John McCurdy 1128 

Lvdia Green 12 




Timothy Tnlmadge 



Samuel Coit 19 

Antony Mitchell 83 



Samuel Belden 



Joseph Trowbridge 


John Clark & Sons 135 



David Jhmitord 318 



Joanna Short 



Ebenezer Town send 



John Deshon 1177 



Isaac Moseley .500 

James Thompson 
Michael MelaTly 



William Trowbridge 




Deshon & Co. 556 


David .Manwaring 51 



.lohu Trowbridge 



Henry Deshon 900 

Lewis Minor 71 


John Way 




fornelius Thayer 




Joseph Deshon 100 


Thomas Jones 40 



Thomas Bowhay 




Moses Thompson 
William Vanftuersor 


Richard Deshon 266 



Elizabeth Newcomb 12 

Joshua Hempstead 
Nathaniel SaVton- 







Mons'r Dumont 26:J 


George Newcomb 238 



Moses Ventures 



JonathanDouglass 1446 



Widow, Nelson 63 






Michael Vaun 




Sarah Daviss 8 

Na'Lnfe'l Overton 27 


John Thompson 
Spere Dougfass 




Thomas Willson 




Richard Douglass 262 
Robert Douglass 200 





Lois Wells 


Isaac Oliver 40 


Chapman Simmons 22 


Thomas WiUmott 



Ebenezer Douglass 17 



Owen Neal 91 



Elizabeth Beebe 



AUice Wise 



Peter Darrow 10 

Joseph Owen 75 



John Hallam and 

John Ward 




Nathan Douglass 941 



Richard Potter 382 



Benjamin Harris 
Stephen Culver 
Mabitabil Leet 


Rev, McWilUston 



Nicholas Darrow 9 



Christopher Prince 518 
Abigail Potter 573 
Zuriah Preston 21 




Sample] White 


James Darrow 3 







John Warner 




Nathaniel Dickinson 15 








Ezekiel Bailey 


Samuel Olmstead 




Stephen Billings 


Ebenezer Olmstead 



James Bailey 

Thaddeus Rockwel 



Samuel Chester 


Samuel Olmstead. 3a .» 


Eldridge Chester 

Philip B. Bradley, Es 


Jedediah Chester 






Benjamin Chester 
Benjamin Chester 


Timothy Keeler, ad 





as executor 


Benjamin Northrop 



Charles Chester 


Daniel Smith 




Thomas Chester 




Daniel Chester 


Thomas Sevmour 




Jason Chester 


Hannah Seymour 



Esther Conklin 


Sarah Morehouse 




Simeon Chester 


David Olmstead 


Nathan Darrow 


Joseph Stehbins 



Mary Dodge 
Chas. Eldridge, Jr. 
Daniel Eldridge 
Sergeant Daniel El 


Daniel Smith, 3d 





James Sturges 




John Douchey 



George FoUcott 






Daniel Smith. 2d 




Thomas Grifllu 


Ebenezer Jones 



Robert Gallup 


Bartlett Folcott 




Andrew Gallup 


Ebenezer Stebbins 



John Hicks 

Jesse Benedict 




Jonathan Havens 


Jonn Abbott 


Ruth Holliday 


Bartholomew Weec 




Edward Jeffrey 


Hope Rhodes 


Alexander Kvdd 


Stephen Smith 



Thomas Mumford, 

Martha Keeler 






John Watrous 



David Perry 









Philip Dauchev 
Matthew Keeler 


Prudence Minor 




Rebecca Minor 


John Smith 



Joshua and Isaac 

Samuel Smith 




Benjamin Smith 



Marv Moore 


Jeremiah Burchard 



Samuel Camp 




Frederick Moore 


Isaac Ki^eler 


Ebenezer Ledyard, 

Lemuel Abbott 



James Xorthrop 






Abraham Rockwell 


.Tohn Latham 


John Keeler 


Bridgett Ledyard 






Youngs Ledyard, 






Jemima Keeler 


William Leeds 


David Rockwell 



Benjamin and Caleb 

Samuel Keeler 





Ebenezer Sherwood 



Anne Ledvard 


Stephen Xorrice 


Aune Leeds 

Daniel Coolev 


Benajah Lester 


Mary Hays 



Capt. Edw'd Latham 4 

Abijah Rockwell 




Thomas D. Lavis 

Abijah Smith 



Widow A. Latham 


Jonah Foster 




Capt. Wilham La- 

Sarah SUsby 




Elihu Deforest 



Lydia Latham 
Mary Latham 


Price Xortnrop 




Nathan Foster 



Jonathan Latham 

Mary Gray 




EUzabeth Latham 


David Rockwell, -Jd 



Amos Prentice, Esq 


Abner Willson 

Elisha Prior 


Samuel Keeler, Sd, 



AbiK-ail Palmer 



dvanced t 


Alexander Reed 


town of Kidgefield, 


s of 

Thomas Starr 


general assembly 
from each man's r 


Nathan Seabury 




Thankful Stanton 

and the neat balances ascertained. 

Jabez Sholes 
Nathan Sholes 


John Starr 

Sarah Stedman 

Amos .\very 




Lucretia Sholes 


Prudence Avery 




James Smith 


Thankful Avery 



Experience Ward 


Rnf us Averv 




Eunice Williams 


Lydia AverV 




Samuel Walsworth 


Latham Avery 




Christopher Wood- 

Ebenezer Avery 





Phebe Averv 


Peter Williams 

Peter Avery 



Benjamin Vose 


George Avery 




Ezekial Yeuington 


Hannah Averv 



Elizabeth Seabury 

Elizabeth Avery 


John Brown 


Benjamin Avery 



Daniel Williams 

Caleb Averv 


Elisha Avery 




Whatever may be thought of the liberality of the 
State in making provision for the benefit of the suf- 
ferers, it may be said that the territory disposed of 
was not such as that to wliich Connecticut had a 
clear, unquestioned title. In the first place, it be- 
longed to the Indians, and secondly, subject to their 
right of occupancy, it was claimed -by the United 
States, and, at the treaty of Greenville, August 3, 

1795, by which the Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas and 
the Portage path between them was in part fixed as 
the Indian "boundary, the entire consideration was 
paid by the United States without a pro rata rcmun- 
j eration from either the State of Connecticut or the 
land company; and up to this time, at least, the 
United States had not by direct act acknowledged 
the State's title to the Reserve. But the State of 
Connecticut not only asserted a right to the fee, but 
claimed also the riglit of enacting and enforcing laws, 
and otherwise exercising jurisdiction the same as if 
its own title were undisputed. 

At the close of the revolution, the general govern- 
ment sought, by peaceable means, to acquire the red 
man's title to the soil northwest of the Ohio. On tlic 
21st of January, ItSS, a treaty was concluded at 
Fort Mcintosh with four of the Indian tribes, the 
Wyandots, Delaware.'^, C/iippewas and Ottawas. By 
this treaty tlie Cuyalioga, the Tuscarawas and the 
Portage, between them, were agreed as the boundary 
on the Reserve between the United States and the 
Indians. All east of this line was ceded to the United 
States. But the Indians soon became dissatisfied and 
refused to comply with the terms of the treaty, and, 
on January 9, 1789, another treaty was concluded at 
Fort Harmar, at the mouth of the Muskingum, be- 
tween Arthur St. Clair, acting for the United States, 
and the Wyund.Hs, Delatvares, Chippewas and Sac 
nations, by which the terms of the former treaty 
were renewed and confirmed. But only a short time 
elapsed before the Indians violated their compact. 
Peaceful means failing, it became necessary to compel 
obedience by the use of arms. Vigorous means for 
the relief and protection for the white settler were 
called for and enforced. At first the Indians were 
successful; but in 1794, General Wayne, at the head 
of three thousand five hundred men, encountered the 
enemy on the 20th of August on the Maumee, and 
gained a decisive victory. Xearly every chief was 
slain. The treaty of Greenville was the result. Gen- 
eral Wayne met in grand council twelve of the most 
powerful northwestern tribes, and the Indians again 
yielded their claims to the lands east of the Cuyahoga 
[ and made no further effort to regain them, and the 
line then fixed remained as the Indian boundary until 
the treaty of Fort Industry in 1805, when the Indian 
title to the remaining portion of the Reserve was oh- 
tained by purchase. 

In May, 1795, an act was passed by the legislature 
of Connecticut, requiring that deeds conveying any 
of the lands so granted, shall be recorded in the town 
clerk's office where the loss or damage of tiie original 
grantee mentioned in said grant was sustained. 

In October, 179j6, on the petition of the proprietors, 
the assembly jjassed "An act for incorporating the 
proprietors of the half million acres of land lying 
south of Lake Erie." By the terms of the act a body 
politic was created, with power to appoint officers and 
to levy taxes or assessments, and provided for tlie 
sale of rights to jviy delinqueiipies. Tlie ]>owers 



granted by this act were exercised to a greater or less 
extent until a new charter, in almost tlie same words, 
was obtained from the State of Ohio. 

It must be remembered that at this time the West- 
ern Reserve was within the limits of the northwestern 
territory, which had been duly organized under the 
famous ordinance of 178T, and that these claims of 
Connecticut were inconsistent with those of the sov- 
ereign power of the United States. The controversy 
that followed on this point resulted in a compromise. 
Congress, in 1799, proposed to Connecticut to release 
the right of soil to the grantees of that State, pro- 
vided the State would relenquish her claim of juris- 
diction. On May 30, 1800, Connecticut acceded to 
these terms, and thus the cloud upon the title of the 
lands of the Western Reserve was removed, saving the 
right of the Indians to occupy that portion west of 
the line fixed at the treaty of Greenville. 

When the State of Ohio was organized, a new 
charter was obtained from the legislature of that 
State. This act (approved February 15, 1803.) recites 
the resolution of the legishiture of Connecticut pre- 
viously quoted, and also further recites: 

"And Whereas, The geueral assembly of said State, at their sessions 
holdcn at New Haven in said State of Connecticut on the second Thurs- 
day of October, Anno Domini, 1796, incorporated the owners and pro- 
prietors of said half million acres, with full power to do and transact all 
business of said company necessary to be done; 

"And Whereas, Said State of Connecticut, by their proper deed, hare 
since duly ceded to the United States all their judicial right in and to 
said half million of acres, which cession has been duly accepted by the 
congress of the United States, and said land annexed to the government 
of the State of Ohio; 

"And Whereas, Said half million of acres of land are now within the 
limits of the county of Trumbull, in said State, are still subject to Indian 
claims of title: 

"Wherefore, To enable the owners and proprietors of said half mil- 
lion acres of land to purchase and extinguish the Indian claim of title 
to the ^same (under the authority of the United States when the same 
shall be obtained), to survey and locate the said land, and to make par- 
tition thereof to and among said owners and proprietors, in propor- 
tion to the amount of losses which is or shall be by them respectively 
owned," etc. 

After this preamble follow tiie different sections of 
the act, the first section constituting the owners and 
proprietors of said tract a body corporate under the 
name of "The proprietors of the half million of acres 
of land lying south of Lake Erie, called sufferers' 

The second section provides for a board of nine 
directors, one of whom is to represent each of the 
suffering towns, except in case of New Loudon, 
which was allowed two directors. These directors 
were authorized to take steps to extinguish the Indian 
title, to survey the land into townships, and partition 
the same among the owners and proprietors according 
to the amount^ of their several interests, to defray 
expenses, consequent upon these and other necessary 
acts, and were allowed to levy a tax on said land and 
enforce the collection of the same. 

The third section of the act names Jabez Fitch, of 
Greenwich; Taylor Siierman, of Norwalk; Walter 
Bradley, of Fairfield; Philip B. Bradley, of Ridge- 
lield; James Clark, of Daubury; Isaac Mills, of New 
Haven and East Haven; Elias Perkins and Guy 

Richards, of New London; and Starr Chester, of 
Groton, as the first board of directors, and pro- 
vides for the manner of organization, calling of 
meetings, etc. 

Tiie next section provides tliat, after the first meet- 
ing, the directors shall be cliosen once in two years 
by the proprietors of said lands, holding losses sus- 
tained. Other sections following provide for appoint- 
ment of clerk, treasurer, collector of ta.xes, etc., and 
specify tiie manner of selling land for non-payment of 

The eighth section authorizes the directors to insti- 
tute suits against trespassers on the lands, and to 
adjust and settle the accounts of former incorpora- 

The ninth section makes sales by collector, of 
rights sold for non-payment of taxes, valid unless 
redeemed within six months, by paying tax, twelve 
per cent, interest, and cost of sale. 

The ninth section authorizes directors "to do what- 
ever shall to them appear necessary and proper to be 
done for the well-ordering of said owners and pro- 
prietors, not contrary to the laws of this State." • 

The eleventh section requires the directors to make 
an annual report, and directs them to dispose of any 
surplus funds remaining "after the Indian title shall 
be extinguished, and said lands located and parti- 
tion thereof made, shall be used by said directors 
in laying out and improving the public roads in said 
tract. " 

The twelfth and final section states that the act 
shall be and remain a jntblic act during the pleasure 
of the assembly. 

The first meeting of the directors was holden at 
the dwelling house of Marcus Miles, inn-holder, in 
the city of New Haven, Connecticut, on the second 
Wednesday of February, 1804, eight of the nine 
directors being present. Philip B. Bradley was 
chosen chairman, and Isaac Mills, clerk. 

On the 14th of September, 1804, William Dean, of 
Easton, originally of the county of Bucks, in the 
commonwealth of Pennsylvania, submitted to the 
directors a proposition in writing to extinguish "the 
Indian right of 3oil at six cents per acre (or thirty 
thousand dollars), and deliver the possession in due 
form of law (as relates to Indians) in the presence of 
a commissioner of the United States, to be appointed 
for that before the 1st of September of the 
next year, 1805. I will, at my own expense, pay the 
consideration to the Indians, the presents to l)e made 
to them at the treaty, the pay of the commissioner 
and all other expenses incident to the same (except 
those of tlie agent of said companj-)." Mr. Dean also 
specifies the time and manner of payment and other 

The directors, at their meeting on September 30, 
considered the matter and voted to accept the jiropo- 
sitiou, specifying at some length various conditions, 
which were immediately accepted by Mr. Dean. At 
this meeting a tax of twenty-five cents to the pound 


of original loss was levied. September 25, the chair- 
man Avas directed to make application to the Presi- 
dent of the United States, to appoint a commissioner 
to treat with the Indians, as provided in agreement 
with William Dean. 

On March 27, 1805, Isaac Mills, the clerk of the 
board, was appointed agent, in behalf of the directors 
of said comi)any, to attend the Indian treaty to be 
held by William Dean, and was also authorized to 
take steps towards running and establishing the 
boundary lines, and was to be allowed five dollars per 
day for his services, and his own expenses. 

On October 31, 1805, Isaac Mills, agent for the 
directors, submitted his report, reciting that on May 
7, he left Xew Haven for Cleveland, Ohio, the point 
originally selected to hold the treaty with the Indians. 
On his arrival at Cleveland, he found that the In- 
dians could not be collected at that place, and that it 
was decided to hold it at Fort Industry, on the 
Miami of the lake. In order to carry out the treaty, 
Mr. Dean, not having the specie, drew checks on 
the United States Bank at Philadelphia to the amount 
of six thousand dollars, on which specie was obtained. 
On the 4th day of July, 1805, the Chippewa, Ottawa, 
Pottawutoinie, Wyandot, Delaware and Miinsee, to- 
gether with the Shawanese nations of Indians, exe- 
cuted a treaty by which all the lands belonging to the 
company were ceded by said nations to it, and Charles 
Jewett, commissioner for the United States, certified 
that William Dean had procured the proper convey- 
ance from the Indian tribes, Avhich would become 
absolutely vested in the company when the treaty 
should be ratified by the United States senate. Here- 
with is the treaty referred to: 

"To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting; I certify. That 
the annexed writing contains a true copy of a treaty-concluded with 
certain Indian tribes at Fort Industry, on the 4th day of July, 1805, the 
original whereof remains in this office. In faith whereof, I, Robert Smith, 
secretary for the department of state of the United States of America, 
have signed these presents, and caused the seal of my office to be affixed 
hereto, at the city of Washington, this -HA day of March, A.D., 180n, and 
In the thirty-third year of the independence of the said States. 

[I., s.] R. SMITH. 

Thomas Jefferson, President af the United States of America: To all to 
whom these presents shall come, greeting: 

" Whereas, A treaty was held on the 4th day of July, A. D., one thou- 
sand eight hundred and five, under the authority of the United States, 
with the sachems, chiefs and warriors of the Wyandot, Ottaira, Chip- 
pewa, ^fllnsee, and Delaware, Shavanee and Pottauatomie nations or 
tribes of Indians at Fort Industry, on the Jliami of the lake, in the pres- 
ence and with the approbation of Charles Jewett, the commissioner of 
the United States, appointed to hold the same, the following agreement 
was made between the said nations and tribes of Indians and the agent 
of the land companies hereinafter mentioned. 

"A treaty between the United States of America and the sachems, 
chiefs and warriors of the n'yandot. Ottawa, Chippewa, Miinsee and 
Delaware, Shawciiee and Pottawatomie nations, holden at Fort In- 
dustry, on the Jliami of the lalfe, on the 4th day of July, A.D., one thou- 
sand eight hundred and five. 

"Whereas, Thomas Jefferson. President of the United States, did ap- 
point Charles Jewett. Esquire, a commissioner to hold a treaty with said 
Indian Nations, for the purjJose of enabling the agents of the Connecti- 
cut Reserve, to negotiate and conclude a cession of their lands: and, 

"Whereas, The company incorporatedby thenameof the Proprietors 
of the half million acres of land lying south of Lake Erie, called 'Suf- 
ferers' Lands," and the'ownersand proprietors of one half million acres 
of land, part of said Connecticut Resene. lyingon the west end thereof, 
and south of the shore of Lake Erie; and. 

"Whereas, The Connecticut Land Company, so called, are the owners 
I and proprietors of the remaining part of said Reserve lying west of the 
river Cuyahoga: and. 

"Whereas, Henry Champion, Esquire, agent of the said Connecticut 
Land Company, and Isaac Mills. Esquire, agent of directors of the com- 
pany, incoi-porated by the name of the 'Proprietors of the half million 
acres of land lying south of Lake Erie, called 'Sufferers" Lands." were 
both duly authorized and empowered by their respective companies and 
I the directors thereof, to treat lor the cession and purchase of said Con- 
j necticut Reserve : 

*'Non', knotr all men by these presents. That we, the sachems, chiefs 
and warriors of the Nations aforesaid, for the consideration of eighteen 
thousand nine hundred sixteen and sixty-seven one-himdredths dollars 
received of the companies aforesaid, by the hands of their respective 
agents, to our full satisfaction, have ceded, remised, released and quit 
cla-med. and by these presents do cede, remise, release and forever quit 
claim to the companies aforesaid, and the individuals composing the 
same, and their heirs and assigns forever, all the interest, right, title 
and claim of title of said Indian Nations respectively, of, in and to all 
the lands of said companies lying west of the river Cuyahoga, and the 
Portage between that and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum' 
north of the northernmost part of the forty-first degree of noith lati- 
tude, east of a line agreed and designated in a treaty between the United 
States and said Indian Nations, bearing even date herewith, being a line 
north and south one hundred and twenty miles due west of the west line 
of Pennsylvania, and south of the northwesternmostpart of the forty- 
second degree and two minutes north latitude, for them the said compa- 
nies respectively, to have, hold, occupy, peaceably possess and enjoy 
the granted and quit claimed premises forever, free and clear of all let, 
hindrance or molestation whatever, so that said Nations, and neither of 
them, the sachems, chiefs and warriors thereof, and neither of them, or 
any of the posterity of said Nations respectively, shall ever hereafter 
make any claim to the quit claimed premises, or any part thereof, but 
therefrom said Nations, the sachems, chiefs and warriors thereof, and 
the posterity of said nations shall be forever barred. 

"In witness whereof, The commissioner of the United States, the agents 
of the Companies aforesaid, and the sachems, chiefs and warriors of 
the respective Indian Nations aforesaid, have hereunto interchangeably 
fixed their seals and set their names. 

■'CHARLES JEW-ETT, [l. s.] 
■HENRY CH.AMPION, [l. s.] 
'ISAAC MILLS, [l. s.] 
"NEKIK, or Little Otter, [l. s] 

Here follows the names of the 
other sachems, etc., of the afore 
said Indian Tril es. 
"In presence of William Dea.v, C. F. L. C. , 
"J. B. Mower. 
"Jasper Parish. 
'•Now, be it kno)fn. That I, Thomas Jefferson, President of the"Uuited 
States of America, having seen and considered the said treaty, do. by 
and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, accept, ratify 
and confirm the same and every article and clause thereof. 

"In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the United States to 
be hereunto affixed, and signed the same with my hand. 

" Done at the City of Washington, the 'JSth day of January, A. D. one 
thousand eight himdred and six, and of the independence of the United 
States of America the thirtieth. 

" By the President. 

" JAMES MADISON, Secretary of State. 
"Recorded and examined by Isaac Mills, Clerk." 

By virtue of this treaty, the title to all the lands of 
the Reserve which was not obtained by the treaty of 
Oreenville, was perfected, and the Indians made no 
further attempt to assert ownership. The two com- 
panies agreed to pay the Indians, l)y reason of this 
relinquishment, sixteen thousand dollars, one fourth 
in cash, and the remainder in annual i)ayments of two 
thousand dollars each, and a perpetual annuity of one 
hundred and seventy-five dollars, the interest at six 
percent of two thousand nine hundred sixteen and 
sixty-seven hundredths dollars, which tw"0 sums were 
secured to the President of the United States by the 
companies. The consideration named in the treaty 
is made up from the two amounts above named, six- 
teen thousand dollars, and two thousand nine hun- 
dred and sixteen and sixty-seven hundredths dollars. 


The Indians were the first owners of the soil, and 
were the last to relinquish their claims. The suffer- 
ers were deeply interested in the above treaty, for 
upon its successful termination depended their ability 
to possess and settle their lauds. 



The treaty referred to in the preceding chapter, was 
not ratified by the United States senate untilJanuary 
25, 180(3; still the Fire-lands Comjjany felt so sure of 
its final ratification, that they authorized one of their 
number, Taylor Sherman, at a meeting held Novem- 
ber 1, 1805, to make an arrangement for the survey 
of the tract. In pursuance of the power thus vested 
in him, Mr. Sherman, on the IGth of December fol- 
lowing, closed a contract with John McLean and 
James Clark, of Danbury, Coni.ecticut, to make the 
survey — these persons to employ Almon Ruggles, or 
some other competent surveyor, to do the work. The 
contract stipulated that the boundaries of the five 
hundred thousand acres should be ascertained and 
fl.xed, and that then the tract should be divided into 
townships five miles square, and each township sub- 
divided into four equal divisions. The price which 
the contractors were to receive was two dollars per 
mile, with an additional sum of fifty cents per mile 
should the survey prove to be entirely satisfactory. 
Care was taken to have the contract stipulate that all 
//ills and viountains should be particularly described. 
The work was to be completed within one year, un- 
less delay should occur in the ratification of the treaty, 
or the labors of the surveyors interrupted or hindered 
by the Indians. 

On account of unexpected delay, on the part of the 
United States, in running the south line of the Re- 
serve, the time for finishing the survey was extended 
to June 1, 1807. 

On the Cth of Fel)ruary, 1800, it was agreed be- 
tween the Counecticut Land Company and the Fire- 
lands Company that the five hundred thousand acres 
granted the latter company should include the island 
in Sandusky bay (Johnson's Island), but not the 
waters of the bay itself. 

The survey was begun in the spring of 1806. Fifty 
six miles of the base line of the Reserve, westward 
from Pennsylvania, was run in 1796, by Mr. Seth 
Pease, a surveyor in the employ of the United States, 
and Mr. Gallatin, secretary of the treasury, appointed 
him to run the remainder of the line, which he per- 
formed, commencing June 2-4, 1806, and starting at 
the terminus of the first line on the Tuscarawas. The 
southwest corner of the Reserve and Fire-lands was 
fixed at a distance of one hundred and twenty miles 
from the- Pennsylvania line, and thereupon township 
and section lines were run, and the survey was com-' 
pleted in about one year. 

Although the base line was run on the true parallel 

by Mr. Pease, yet an error had lieen made in starting, 
the point of beginning being too far to the westward, 
which carried the point of ending beyond the real 
western limit of the Reserve. 

Amos Spafford, as agent for the Counecticut Land 
Company, made a survey in the interests of the com- 
l)any in the year 1806, but his chain men purposely 
made the base line longer than it should have been, 
the object being to include more land in the Reserve 
than it was entitled to. Objections being made to 
Spafford"s survey, the Connecticut Land Company 
employed Joshua Stow to run the line anew, which 
he did, establishing the southwest corner of the Re- 
serve a full half rcile east of the point determined by 
the Spafford survey. 

In 1808, the government having learned of the mis- 
take made by ilr. Pease, commissioned Mr. Maxfield 
Ludlow to run the base line of the Reserve anew, 
which was done, and the western terminus was foiuid 
to be a trifle more than a mile east of that fixed by 
Mr. Pease's survey. The Ludlow and the Stow sur- 
veys were in accord, and a post sunk in an almost 
impenetrable swamp was made to designate the south- 
west corner of the Fire lands and of the Reserve. 

Almon Ruggles had made a division of the five 
hundred thousand acres into townships and*sections, 
beginning at the southwestern terminus as established 
by Mr. Pease. After the Ludlow survey, this division 
had to be made anew, and Ruggles was again em- 
ployed. Beginning, in the year 1808, at the proi)er 
point as fixed by Ludlow, he ran east on the base 
line of the Reserve to such a probable point as that 
from which, if a line were run north to the lake parallel 
with the west line of the Reserve, the included area 
would be equivalent to five hundred thousand aci'es. 
It was extremely difficult to find this point, owing to 
the irregularity of the northern boundary caused by 
the trend of the lake. Mr. Schuyler, in his centennial 
address, says: "He fixed the southeast corner of the 
Fire-lands on the Ludlow line twenty-eighty chains 
and sixty-eighty links west from the ninety-fourth mile 
post from the Pennsylvania line. The line ran from 
that point north four degrees forty seconds west to 
the lake to a point forty-three links east of a black oak 
tree marked J. Stow, on the east side, and A. R., on 
the west side, and standing near the bank of the lake, 
and near the first perpendicular bluff of rocks, east 
of the Vermillion river. On computation of the 
survey afterwards, it was' found that the quantity of 
land so cut off was five hundred thousand and 
twenty-seven acres." The length of the land, from 
east to west, thus set off to the sufferers', is twenty- 
five miles, fift3'-one chains, and thirtj'-two links. 
When the tract was survej'ed into townships, the 
breadth 'of each, from east to west, was, therefore, 
about two-fifteenths of a mile more than five miles. 


.Joseph Wakeman, Isaac Mills, Taylor Sherman and 
William Eldridge were appointed a committee by the 



directors of the Fire-lands Company, September 13, 
1808, to devise a mode of partition of the lands. 
November 8, 1808, this committee submitted a some- 
what lengthy report, reciting first that Almon Riig- 
gles had completed his survey whereby the tract was 
divided into five ranges of townships from south to 
north, numbered the twentieth, twenty-first, twenty- 
second, twenty-third and twenty-fourth ranges. The 
report goes on to enumerate facts already given. 

The townships in each range were numbered from 
south to north, the one adjoining the south line of 
the Reserve being number one, and were intended to 
be five miles square, except those adjoining Lake Erie, 
which were fractional. 

The townships generally were further divided into 
four parts or sections, the southeast rpiarter being 
designated as section one; the northeast quarter as 
section two; the northwest quarter as section three, 
and the southwest quarter as section four. 

In the twentieth range there are five townships 
about five miles square, and containing about sixteen 
thousand four hundred and eighty-one acres each, 
leaving between town five and Lake Erie a fraction 
containing twelve thousand and forty-nine acres. 
Tlie tweffty-first range also contains five towns of the 
same dimensions with a fraction on the north of six 
thousand five hundred and thirty acres. The twenty- 
second range, five towns and fraction of thirteen 
thousand seven hundred and sixty-six acres. The 
twenty-third range, six towns and fraction of two 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-three acres. 
The twenty-fourth range contains the same number 
of square towns, as the twenty-third i-ange, with a 
fraction of three thousand two hundred and sixty- 
eight acres. 

The peninsula lying north of Sandusky bay, con- 
tains sixteen thousand three hundred and twenty-one 
acres, and the island (Johnson's) adjacent thereto in 
said bay contains three hundred and twenty acres, 
the whole amounting to five hundred tliousand and 
twenty-seven acres. 

In order to equalize the fractions adjoining the 
lake, the following combinations were made: 

To e(|ualize town six in range twenty were added 
four thousand one hundred and twenty-three acres 
from the east part of the fraction in range twenty- 
one; this now forms Vermillion township in Erie 
county. The remaining fractional jjart of town six in 
range twenty-one, amounting to two thousand four 
hundred and seven acres, was added to town six in 
range twenty-two, and is now called Huron town- 

The peninsula and island in the bay were jiut to- 
gether not being considered as being ei|nal to more 
than a township. 

To section one, in town one of range twenty-four, 
(Richmond), were annexed seventeen liundred and 
eight-three acres off the east end of the fraction of 
two thousand seven hundred and eighty-three acres 

lying between township six of the twenty-third range 
and Sandusky bay. 

To section four of the same township, were added 
five hundred acres taken from the same fraction, and 
the remaining five hundred acres were annexed to 
section four of township one of the twenty-third 
range, (New Haven). 

To section one of township six in the twenty-fourth 
range, were added four hundred acres off the east 
end of the fraction lying between said township and 
the bay. To section three of said township were 
added twenty- two hundred and sixty-eight acres taken 
from the same fraction, and the rest of it — six hun- 
dred acres — was added to the fourth section of the 
same township. 

The peninsula and island were divided into four 
equal sections or quarters. 

By using in this way sundry tracts for annexation 
purposes, the different townships were made equal in 
value in the opinion of the committee. 

The mode of partition was ingenious and interest- 
ing. There were just thirty townships (equalized,) 
to be distributed. There being four sections to each 
township, there were one hundred and twenty sec- 
tions. The whole amount of loss was therefore 
divided into one hundred and twenty equal parts, 
each part representing one thousand three hundred 
and forty-four pounds seven shillings. This sum was 
therefore the value of each section or one-fourth of a 
township. One hundred and twenty tickets were 
prepared. On each ticket were written the names of 
various sufferers, classified in such a way that their 
lo.sses aggregated one thousand three hundred and 
forty-four pounds seven shillings. Four of these 
tickets numbered respectively one, two, three, four, 
representing five thousand three hundred and seventy- 
seven pounds eight shillings, equivalent to the value 
of a whole township, were taken and rolled up 
together, forming a package. In this way thirty 
packages were formed, or as many as there were 
townships. These thirty packages of classifica- 
tions were placed in a box, and in another box 
were placed thirty tickets, each containing the four 
sections of one township. Then some disinterested 
person drew from the box of township tickets, and 
some other disinterested person drew from the other 
box a package of classifications. The package was 
then opened, and the four tickets opened. Ticket 
number one corresponded to section number one; 
ticket two to section two: ticket three to section 
three, and ticket four to section four. The names on 
each of these tickets constituted the owners for each 
of these sections respectively. In like manner were 
all the other townships drawn, and each proprietor 
knew at once in which township and section his land 
was located. The draft was made November 9, 

Names were given to the different townships, 
which, with the following exceptions, have not been 
changed to tlie present time. 


jesup since changed to Florence. 

Canterbury " " " Hartland. 

Eldridge Berlin. 

Avery Milan. 

Vredenburg " " "Peru. 

Cannon " " •'Richmond. 

Patterson Margaretta. 

Wheatsborough Lyme. 


October 19, 1809, the directors ordered that a road 
be laid out and cnt through Huron county, from 
north to south, passing from, or near the shore of 
Lake Erie, on the east side of Huron river, running 
thence on the most suitable route until it strikes near 
the center of the north line of the township of 
Norwalk, and thence southward on a line as near the 
center of the other township as the ground will admit; 
that William Eldridge be appointed agent to cause 
the road to be laid out and cut, causewayed, logged 
and bridged in the best and most prudent way regard- 
ing the interest of the Fire-lands Company; to be cut 
and cleared off at least sixteen feet in width, and the 
stumps to be cut down smooth with the surface of the 
ground at least twelve feet in width. The sum of 
eight hundred dollars was appropriated for the work, 
the agent to receive no compensation for his services. 

A second and similar road was ordered laid out 
north and south through the county, on or near the 
line between the twentieth and twenty-first ranges. 
Six hundred dollars was appropriated for the work, 
and Ebenezer Jesup, Jr., appointed agent to carry it 
into effect, and to serve without compensation. 

A third, leading east and west in the county, to 
commence on the east side thereof, at the termination 
of the road already laid, marked or cut through the 
lands of the Connecticut Land Company, leading 
from the Portage in the southerly part thereof, but- 
ting on said east line, and extend to, or near the 
middle or center of the south line of the town of 
Norwalk until it intersects the road already voted to 
be laid out, or as near as the nature of the ground 
will admit. 

That a fourth road be laid out to commence at or 
near the south line of Norwalk, where the north and 
south road crosses it, then running west on township 
lines, or as near the same as practicable, to the west 
line of the county. 

Another similar road to begin on the south line of 
Fairfield at the north and south road and running 
west, following town lines as near as practicable to 
the county line. 

Five hundred dollars were appropriated for the 
construction of the first road and six hundred dollars 
for the other two roads, and Isaac Mills appointed agent 
to construct them, to serve without compensation. 


The report of Joseph Darling, treasurer, was sub- 
mitted, showing the total receipts up to October 10, 
1809, as forty-seven thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-five dollars and seventy-seven cents, with a 


balance in the treasury of thirty-five hundred and 
sixty-nine dollars and eleven cents. This amount 
was reduced at subsequent meetings of the directors, 
by payment of the sums appropriated for making 
roads, salaries of directors, etc., until the balance 
in the treasury was i-educed to one hundred and 
twenty-two dollars, which was by vote at the final 
meeting appropriated: sixty-two dollars to cut a road 
fi-om Norwalk to Sandusky bay, and sixty dollars to 
cut a road or roads in the town of Danbury, on the 
peninsula. The last meeting of the board of direc- 
tors was held at the county house in New Haven, 
Connecticut, August 28, 1811, the full board being 
present. Their names were as follows: Guy Richards, 
and William Eldridge, of New London; Ebenezer 
Avery, Jr., of Groton; Ebenezer Jesup, Jr., of Fair- 
field; Taylor Sherman, of Norwalk; Philip B. Brad- 
ley, of Ridgefield; and Epiphras W. Bull, of Dan- 

The board then drew up a petition to the general 
assembly of Ohio, reciting that they had performed 
the duties required of them by the act of incorpora- 
tion, and asked that their records be legalized, so that 
they may be forever kept as a part of the records of 
Huron county, and that they, or duly eei-tified tran- 
scripts, be received as legal evidence. 

It was voted that upon the payment of outstanding 
orders already drawn, the bond of the treasurer sliall 
be cancelled. 

" Voted, That this meeting be adjourned without 
day, and never to be holden again. 

"Attest: Isaac Mills, Clerl:" 



Huron" county lies at the southwest portion of the 
Connecticut Western Reserve, and originally and for 
many years after its settlement it comprehended all 
of the Fire-lauds, or five hundred thousand acres. 
Its southern boundary is the forty-first parallel df 
latitude, and until 1838, when Erie county was 
formed out of its territory, it extended northward to 
the shores of Lake Erie, including the peninsula and 
islands north of Sandusky bay. The present territo- 
rial limits of Huron county embrace, with the excep- 
tion of Ruggles township, which was set off at the 
time of the formation of Ashland county in 1846, 
towns number one, two, three and four in the twen- 
tieth, twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third and 
twenty-fourth ranges of townships in the Connecticut 
Western Reserve. These townships were laid out as 
nearly five miles square as possible, but owing to the 
fact that the breadth of the Fire lands' tract, from 
east to west, is twenty-five miles, fifty-one chains and 
thirty-two links, each township, from eiist to west, is 
a fraction more than five miles in extent. 



The county is, then, generally speaking, a rec- 
tangle, twenty-five miles long by twenty miles in 
widtli — its greater length being from east to west. 
By the original survey, each township was to contain 
about sixteen thousand acres of land. This would 
give the area of the county as four hundred and 
seventy-five square miles, or three hundred and six 
thousand acres. The auditor's duplicate for 1877 
has three hundred and six thousand and ninety- 
seven acres, which, however, does not include lands 
regularly laid out into town lots. Land occupied by 
roads is sometimes, but not generally omitted, as are 
public grounds, cemeteries, &c. ; so that probably 
two or three thousand acres are thus left out. 

The county is bounded on the north by Erie 
county, on the east by Lorain and Ashland, on the 
south by Ashland and Richland, and on the west by 
Seneca and Sandusky counties. It has nineteen 
townships, as follows: Wakeman, Clarksfield, New 
London, Townsend, Hartland, Fitchville, Greenwich, 
Norwalk, Bi-ouson, Fairfield, Ripley, Ridgefield, 
Peru, Greenfield, New Haven, Lyme, Sherman, Nor- 
wich and Richmond. Its principal towns and vil- 
lages are Norwalk, Bellevue, Monroeville, Plymouth, 
Wakeman, New London and Collins. The popula- 
tion of the county in 1870 was as follows: 







Hartland 9M , Ripley 10S9 

Lyme, exclusive o£ village. . 1161 Sherman 1260 

Lymepart of Bellevue 1219 , Towusend . 

New Haven 1221 ' Wakeman. 

New London township 797 , 

' New London village 678 , Total 

Norwalk township 1254' 

980 ! Norwalk city 4498 

1062 , Norwich 1172 

1.332 ! Peru 1297 

795 1 Richmond 880 

954 Ridgefield 1189 



The village of Bellevue lies partly in Sandusky 
county, and that of Plymouth partly in Richland 

Huron county has no lakes or considerable ponds; 
no large or navigable streams; no high hills, rocky 
ledges, nor ravines or gorges of considerable depth or 
extent, and yet the surface is far from an unbroken, 
monotonous plain; on the contrary, it is pleasantly 
diversified with hills and dales of often picturesque 
Ijeauty and attractiveness. The slope of the county 
is to the northward, the numerous streams that are 
found within its limits all bearing tribute to Lake 
Erie. On its southern boundary these streams are 
well nigh insignificant in size; in fact, within five 
miles, the divide is reached, south of which the streams 
are tributary to the great Mississippi basin. Huron 
county is drained by two principal water courses — 
Huron and Vermillion rivers — at the mouth of each, 
especially at the former, there are good harbors; but 
the streams themselves are too small to be navigable 
to any distance. However, by the aid of a canal the 
former stream was at one time ascended by lake craft 
as far as the village of Milan. 

Vermillion river has its source in Savannah lake, 
Ashland county, where it connects with streams 
which are tributary to the Ohio, the valleys uniting 

at the divide in a continuous channel, now deeply 
filled with drift, indicating that the drainage of both 
valleys was formerly southward. The connection of 
the head waters of Huron river with the streams run- 
ning south is not so distinctly marked, yet it can be 
easily traced between them and the two valleys, one 
to the east and one to the west of Mansfield, in Rich- 
land county, where the drainage is also to the south. 
This is indeed a general characteristic of the streams 
in this part of the State, which have their origin near 
the divide, between the waters of Lake Erie and the 
Ohio river. They are not separated by a water shed, 
and fed by springs flowing from opposite sides of it, 
but have their common origin in valleys having a 
northerly and southerly direction, and usually com- 
mence in marshes or small lakes, now occupying the 
summit of the pass. Here they receive the surface 
drainage from the higher lands on each side, which 
accumulates in the pond or marsh, and gives rise to 
streams flowing in o])posite directions. The valleys 
of these streams are filled with alluvium, resting 
upon drift deposits, and they have rocky beds only in 
places where ^obstructions have diverted the stream 
into new channels. 

There is one peculiar feature of Huron county, 
through rarely, if ever, mentioned in print: it is the 
eastern limit of the prairies. Here the adventurous 
explorer, making his way westward, first saw indica- 
tions that there was anything within the country be- 
sides interminable woods and forest jungles, and soon 
became aware that these little openings, or "savan- 
nas,*' sometimes but little better than marshes, were 
the precursors, or forerunners, of the vast treeless 
plains of the farther west, on which the rank grass 
grew and S'wayed in the wind, which, though gentle at 
times, often sweeps over them like the tempest on the 
open sea. But Huron county was mostly in the 
heavily wooded region. Here grew the giant oaks, 
the spreading beech; the sturdy maple yielding its 
saccharine sweets; the drooping and graceful-boughed 
elm; the slender, smooth, strong hickory with its 
gnarling limbs, its shaggy bark and its plentiful sup- 
ply of nuts; the walnut, white aud black; while the 
stately shining trunks of the sycamore aud ash, sym- 
bolic of toughness, were not wanting. On the sandy 
ridges grew the chestnut, blooming in midsummer, 
and furnishing the early settler with rail timber, easily 
wrought, light to handle, and resisting decay for a 
generation. Here, also, was found the wild cherry, 
with its not unpleasant, though bitter and medicinal 
fruit, and its close-grained and handsome wood, suita- 
ble for cabinet work, but now superseded by the black 
walnut. The dogwood, with its broad-petaled blos- 
soms aud its clusters of glistening crimson berries; 
the juneberry, its flowers appearing before the frost 
and snow are fairly gone, and its pleasant tasting fruit, 
ripening at the time of strawberries; the sassafir.s, 
with its tender and fragrant boughs, its strong-scented 
bark and roots; the grape-vine, climbing among the 
saplings of the forest, and with its broad leaves 


thickly massed forming overhead a canopy which shut 
out the sun and almost defied the rain to penetrate. 
There were not wanting scenes of sjivau beauty, and 
no wonder the wild Indian and the scarcely less wild 
white hunter loved the forest better than the corn- 
field and meadow, and at their approach fled west- 
ward where they would be undisturbed by the echoes 
of the ringing axe, and the cnishing, cracking sound 
that was heard when a great tree was felled. 



The underlying rocks are sandstone, argillaceous 
and bituminous shales, with a strip of lime rock in the 
northwestern border of the county. These rocks have 
been broken up and pulverized by nature's vast ice- 
plow. The finely comminuted debris has been in- 
timately mixed with that of the granite of the north 
and of all the intervening rocks, and the whole spread 
out over the surface of the county. As the waters 
which covered the surface at the close of the glacial 
epech receded, terraces were formed, and each, for a 
long period, constituted a shore swamp, in which the 
decomposing vegetable material accumulated to form 
a soil of unsurpassed and permanent fertility. 

The material composing the upper terraces were 
long subjected to the action of shore waves, and iu 
places the surface is occupied by sand dunes and as- 
sorted gravel. The lower terrace is a broad prairie, 
with swampy muck soil. When the country was first 
settled, some of this was not reclaimed from water, 
but the greater part of it is now remarkably fertile 
farming land, especially adapted to the cultivation of 

The general elevation of the level prairie land in 
Lyme township is one hundred and twenty-five feet 
above the lake. Here is a succession of remarkable 
sand dunes, which rise to the height of thirty feet. 
These sand hills were formed, as was much of the 
main sand ridge of the county, by wind and wave 
action along the lake shore, and on the margin of a 
shore swamp, caused by this barrier, in which vege- 
table debris accumulated for a long time. The north 
side of the ridge exhibits the irregular winding out- 
line of the lake beach, while on the south it is usually 
bordered by irregular, billowy dunes of sand — the 
ridge, api^arently formed by the waves, the dunes by 
the wind. West of Monroeville, the ridge is a regu- 
lar, Avell marked beach line, rising about ten feet 
above the plain, at the south of it, and fifteen above 
that, at the north. On the south side are the irrregu- 
lar dunes, and on the north a wide stretch of level 

At Four Corners, the ridge becomes less conspicu- 
ous but maintains the same elevation, the marginal 
swamps of tlie old lake having become quite shallow. 
Beyond this, to the limit of the county, the ridge has 
an elevation of onlv from ten to fifteen feet above the 

■ From Geological Sta 

ey ot Ohio, volume III. 

level plain, which stretches away to the north of it. 
At a point near where the Bellevue road crosses the 
county line, the limestone rock, in beds, may be seen 
cropping out of the sand ridge, indicating a low rock 
bluff, formerly the shore of the lake, which the waves 
have bui'ied beneath the sand. Where the ridge does 
not rest upon the bed rock, the materials below it are 
here fifteen to twenty feet of silicious, blue clay, with 
abundance of granite bowlders and pebbles, and frag- 
ments of shale, with quicksand below, resting upon 
the rocks, and in which a supply of water is reached 
by wells. 

While the great body of this level land, reclaimed 
from the old swamps, is exceedingly fertile, there is a 
remarkable exception in a large tract north of Monroe- 
ville, and extending into Erie county. The soil is a 
fine, black, peaty mold, presenting nothing to the eye 
to distinguish it from the productive coi-n lands sur- 
rounding it. It was cleared and put under cultiva- 
tion, but it refused to tolerate grain, or corn, or any 
valuable crop. Here and there an apple tree sprang 
up, spontaneously seeded, and grew vigorously. Ef- 
forts at thorough drainage were unavailing. The soil 
is comparatively thin, the bed rock coming near the 
surface; but equally thin soils, in adjacent places, are 
productive, so that this cannot be the real cause of its 
infertility. A washing of the soil showed, with lit- 
mus paper test, a decided acid reaction. The vege- 
tation also indicates the presence of acids. This is, 
undoubtedly, the sole cause of its sterility. The un- 
derlying rock is Huron shale, which is filled with 
concretions of the bi-sulphide of iron; wherever this 
is exposed to the joint action of air and water, it is 
decomposed, the sulphur set free, which uniting with 
the oxygen of the air, produces sulphuric acid. These 
changes are facilitated by cultivation, so that steps 
taken to improve the soil only aggravate the evil. If 
this is the cause of the difficulty, the remedy is easily 
found. A generous application of ashes, or of quick- 
lime, will be sufficient. The lime, uniting with the 
acid, will form sulphate of lime, oi- plaster, itself a 
good fertilizer. The alkali must be well mixed with 
the soil, and the application may have to be repeated, 
until all the pyrites within reach of atmospheric in- 
fluences has decomposed, and yielded up its sulphur. 
East of Xorwalk the sand ridge has a gently wav- 
ing contour on the north, and is bounded by a broad 
water plain, except as modified by recent erosion. 
On the south it is very irregular in its outline, the 
billowy dunes being of varying height and form, and 
often extending a long distance from the ridge. The 
materials of the ridge are, at the top, finely washed 
sand, resting upon gravel, with a profusion of granite 
bowlders, and below this, bowlder clay or bed rock. 
This is the only well marked and continuous sand 
ridge in the county, a winding highway, thrown up 
by the action of the waves, resting in places directly 
upon the bed rock, iu others upon the coarser ma- 
terials of the drift clays, sometimes burying beneath 
it the debris of the old shore swamps, and at others 



extending over chasms one lumdrecl or more feet in 
depth, filled to the general level with drifted material. 

Granite bowlders of varions sizes may be occasion- 
ally seen projecting through tlie sand of the ridge, 
and through the peaty marsh soil between the ridge 
and the lake, presenting the appearance of having 
been di'opped from floating icebergs. About one 
mile southwest of Monroeville a granite bowlder, eight 
and one-half feet long and five feet in breadth, pro- 
jects four feet ten ihches above the black mould of 
the prairie soil; others, somewhat smaller, are found 
here and there, and in places the surface is dotted with 
them. Careful examination revealed the fact that 
these bowlders, except in cases where they had been 
moved by human agency, rested upon the rock, or 
upon the clay or gravel underlying the ridge. Every 
fact thus far observed tends, to the conclusion that all 
the bowlders were dropi^ed before the sand ridge or 
]ii-airie soil was formed. However, near the south- 
west corner of Bei'lin township, in a primitive forest, 
composed mainly of large oaks, a great number of 
bowlders was discovered resting upon the undisturbed 
vegetable mould. 

Remains of other sand ridges than that described 
can be detected in other parts of the county. Be- 
tween Xorwalk and Olena, on the line which sepa- 
rates Bronson and Hartland townships, the surface 
presents to the eye the appearance of a broad, level 
jjlain of rich sandy loam, but it rises imperceptibly 
to the height of two hundred and fifteen feet above 
the sand ridge of Norwalk, or three hundred and 
sixty feet above the lake. About one-half mile east 
of Olena, a long, sandy and gravelly ridge rises to 
the height of three hundred and ninety-five feet 
above the lake. Near the northeast corner of Hart- 
land township there are also the remains of another 
sand ridge, fifty feet lower than the last, which has 
suffered much from erosion, and is cut up by irregular 
valleys leading down to the west branch of Vermillion 
river, exposing the coarse drift below,' with many 
large striated bowlders. In the western part of 
Fitchville township, a long, sandy ridge, trending 
nearly north and south, rises in the highest parts to 
four hundred and twentj'-five feet above the lake, 
rising ten to fifteen feet above the level land to the 
east, and twenty to twenty-five feet aliove that ou the 

In Peru township the bed of Huron river is about 
one hundred and thirty feet above the lake, the bluffs 
generally composed of modified drifts. These bluffs 
rise to a height of from one hundred and eighty to 
two hundred feet above the lake, and are modified by 
surface erosion. 

At Greenfield Center the Ijarometer marked an ele- 
vation of two hundred and ninety feet above the lake. 
•The surface of most of the township is covered with 
irregular undulating hills of gravel and drift. 

In Greenwich township the north and south center 
road, south of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati 
jind Indianapolis railroad, passes over clay lands at an 

altitude of four hundred and eighty-five feet above 
the lake, presenting the appearance of a broad water 
plain, and resembling in all respects the heavy clay 
lands in northeastern Ohio, which are underlain by 
the Cuyahoga shales. 


About one hundred feet of the lower part of the 
Cuyahoga shale underlie the southeastern part of the 
county. This formation is frequently exposed in the 
banks of the Vermillion river and its tributaries, 
where the harder layers are quarried for local use and 
furnish building stone of fair quality. The rock is a 
compact, fine grained sandstone, in rather thin strata, 
containing what the quarrymen call "turtle-backs." 
These show contorted lines of cleavage, which cause 
the rock to break up in rounded, flattish masses, 
bearing a rough resemblance to the animal which has 
given them this name. The dip of the strata is 
irregular. At the quarry worked by W. R. Stan*, 
south of Clarksfield village, along the line bearing 
south sixty degrees east, the rock dips to tlie north 
eleven degrees. Fifteen rods north the di|i is seven 
degrees in the opposite direction. 


This important quarry rock covers much of the 
county, but its value is greatly impaired by local dis- 
turbances. At Jefferson's quarry, near the town line 
at the northeast corner of Townsend, on a long ridge 
running north and south, the surface of the Berea is 
two hundred and seventy-five feet above the lake; the 
dip is southwesterly seventeen degrees; the line of 
strike north sixty-seven degrees west. The upper 
layers only are exposed; these are thin, but strong, 
and less broken than in most places in the county, 
indicating that here good quarries could be opened. 
A half mile further north, the diji is fifteen degrees; 
the surface marked with glacial stria;, bearing north- 
east and southwest. At ]\Ir. Milliman's quarry, near 
the northwest part of Townsend, the dip of the Berea 
is twenty degrees south, and south by southwest the 
stone is of good quality; glacial striag northeast and 
southwest. East of the two last exposures, and ou 
the east bank of the Vermillion, the surface of the 
Berea is twenty-five feet below the last. Fifteen feet 
of the rock are exposed in large, massive blocks, 
nearly horizontal, but dipping slightly in different 
directions. Near Plymoutii village the Berea crops 
out on the banks of the stream, showing massive rock 
about twelve feet in thickness, nearly horizontal, and 
of good quality. At Edgar Bovier's quarry, just east 
of the village, the rock is in thin horizontal layers, 
becoming thicker as the opening is carried downward; 
color, grayish blue, many of the layers affording a 
sharp grindstone grit. Here, and at openings further 
north on the river, streaks of coaly matter, derived 
from plants, are not infrequent in the Berea. The 
rock is here unaffected by glacial action, but the dis- 
turbance becomes very marked further down the river. 



At G. Graham's quarry, in Greenfield township, the 
rock dips thirteen and a half degrees soutli westerly, 
with the line of the strike sosth thirtj'-tive degrees 
east, is in very even layers, all finely ripple-marked, 
some with the puzzling mammary surface, probably 
caused by the action of eddies where "two seas met" 
on the old ocean shore. 

At Cole's quarry, one and one-half miles south- 
east of Norwalk, the Berea is only two hundred and 
five feet above the lake, and in its position and sur- 
roundings affords a remarkable illustration of the 
superficial disturbance which prevails over a lafge 
part of the county. The rock is in thin, evenly- 
bedded layers, dipping twenty-seven degrees south- 
easterly, the line of strike being twenty-two degrees 
east. Directly north some fifteen or twenty rods, 
and on the opposite side of a small stream, the 
black shale is in a position at the same level: the 
strata horizontal and undisturbed. About two. rods 
north, and a little east of the quarry, the Bedford 
shales are exposed, dipping south about twenty- 
seven degrees north from the last, and on the 
opposite side of the stream, a bluflf, twenty-five feet 
high, shows a mixture of Erie and Bedford shales. 
In the immediate neighborhood the Berea is exposed 
in several places, dipping in various directions, and 
varying from twenty to forty degrees. These dis- 
turbances have left the Berea here resting on the 
Cleveland shales, and have so broken up and crushed 
the strata as to greatly impair the value of the quar- 
ries in the county. In a few places, even where the 
rock is tilted up to quite a sharp angle, the strata are 
still entire, and excellent rock can be quarried. At 
many of the openings the broken, worthless rock 
largely exceeds that which is suitable for building 


These are exposed only in the different branches of 
the Huron and Vermillion rivers. Where undis- 
turbed they range from forty to seventy-five feet in 
thickness, and consist of hard, fine grained sand 
rock in thin layers, alternating with thinner bands 
of argillaceous shales; the thicker strata of the sand 
rock are frequently composed of a mass of the pecu- 
liar contorted rock called "turtle-back," rendering 
it quite worthless. Sometimes, however, this forma- 
tion yields a fair building stone. In places where 
quite a heavy bed of the Berea constitutes the surface 
rock, these sholes are entirely wanting, the Berea 
resting upon the Cleveland shales. 


These have the ordinary characteristics of this 
formation, as described in the reports of the north- 
eastern counties of the State, differing materially only 
in two particulars. The deposit is thinner here, 
varying from fifteen to thirty-two feet at the points 
where measurements could be obtained. It also con- 
tains less carbonaceous matter and more iron, passing 

into the red shale which gives its name to the Ver- 
million river, and furnishes an inexhaustible sup2>ly 
of war paint to the native inhabitants of the region. 
The Cleveland shale rests upon the 


The largest measurement of these shales in the 
county, thus far obtained, is thirty-two feet. Tiiey 
are composed of soft, argillaceous, bluislt shades, with 
hard ealcareo-silicious bands a few inches in thickness. 
The great changes in the thickness of this formation, 
and its position between the two beds of carbonaceous 
shales, are of interest, as showing the topography of 
the region, and the changes of level at the time of the 
introduction of the carboniferous vegetation of the 
coal measures. These two deposits of carbonaceous 
shales are as well defined_and as easily distinguished 
from the including strata, as beds of coal. They may 
in one sense be called coal, containing from eighty- 
five to ninety per cent, of ash, and having an origin 
similar to that of true cannel coal. The fine homo- 
geneous material of which the shales are composed 
indicate their deposition from quiet water; and the 
wide range of the formation, as well as the remains 
of huge fishes which it contains, forbid the idea of its 
having accumulated in shallow swamps. Whatever 
may have been the condition under which the Huron 
shales were formed, these conditions were abruptly 
changed; and the epoch was followed by long con- 
tinued intervals, in which the growth and deposit of 
this carbonaceous matter were interrupted. 


These are highly bituminous black shales having 
somewhat the appearance of cannel coal, containing 
in places the remains of i)lants accompanied with 
films of true coal. They also frequently include thin 
strata of blue argillaceous shales, containing very little 
bituminous matter. Spheroid, and in the lower part 
of the Huron shales, elongated concretions are very 
abundant, varying in size from a half inch to fifteen 
feet in diameter. The smaller ones are composed 
almost entirely of pyrites, the larger ones of impure 
carbonate of lime. The shales are so highly charged 
with sulphur and potash, that in exposures protected 
from the rain an efflorescence of alum is sometimes 
seen three-fourths of an inch in thickness: and occa- 
sionally a nearly pure sulphur of equal thickness may 
be observed. 

From the reported boruig for water in the machine 
shops, Mr. Read estimates the thickness of the Huron 
shales to be about seven hundred feet above the toji 
of the nearest exposure of the Cleveland shale. Tiie 
Huron shale is the great oil-producing rock of Eastern 
Ohio and Western Pennsylvania. The slow distribu- 
tion of bituminous matter in it has resulted in the 
production of gas and petroleum, which along the 
outcrop of the strata, have steadily escaped. The 
petroleum flowing into the fissures in the rocks, where 
it was retained, has parted witli its volatile matter. 



leaving a residuum of asphaltum which by continued 
desiccation has become minutely cracked, and the 
fissures have been gradually filled with barite. Such 
deposits afford no proof that a valuable deposit of coal 
may be found outside the coal measures. True coal 
in very thin laminse is occasionally found in this shale, 
and in all the formations between it and the coal 
measures, land plants seem to have flourished under 
favorable conditions during the time of the deposit of 
all the upper Devonian, and the sub-carboniferous 
rocks. It lias left its record in plant impressions, and 
in isolated thin films of coal which may be found on 
almost any horizon of these rocks; but if taken as 
indications of the presence of workable deposits of 
coal, they will unquestionably lead to disappointment. 


This important group of limestones and shales of 
the New York geologists is here represented by a 
thin and unimportant deposit of bluish, yellow marly 
limestone. This is quite soluble, and therefore much 
honeycombed and eroded at its points of ex])osure. 
Were it not for the profusion of Hamilton fossils 
contained in it, this would be regarded as the upper 
part of the corniferous limestone upon which it rests. 
It is apparently only from ten to fifteen feet in thick- 

roKxiFERors limestone. 

This formation contributes the surface rock at 
Bellevue and a small territory adjacent in the north- 
west part of the county. Two and a half miles 
north of the village, and on the county line, it is 
covered with only from eighteen inches to two feet of 
soil, and has been exposed in a quarry to the depth 
of eight feet. The rock is in thin layers, hard, com- 
pact, highly fossiliferous, and presenting the ordi- 
nary characteristics of the upper layer of the cornif- 
erous at Sandusky. Its surface is thirty feet above 
the railway at Bellevue. South from this point, and 
three-fourths of a mile north of the south line of 
Lyme township, it is struck as the first rock in sink- 
ing wells at a depth of twelve feet from the surface. 
Still further south, and west of Weavers Corners, a 
ridge of limestone soil, filled with its debris, crowns 
the west line of the county, at an elevation of fifty 
feet above Bellevue, making the thickness of the 
rock in the county approximately fifty feet. 



The most interesting featuies in the geology of 
Erie county are the splendid series of glacial mark- 
ings inscribed on the corniferous limestone in and 
about Sandusky City, the lake ridges which traverse 
the county from east to west, and the remarkable 

•From the Geological Survey of Ohio, vol. II. 

petrifying fountains, known as the Castalia springs. 
In its topography, Erie county is without any strongly 
marked features. Tire surface, to the eye, seems 
nearly level; while, in fact, it forms agentle slope from 
the south line of the county, where it has an eleva- 
tion of one hundred and fifty feet above the lake to 
the lake level. This monotony of surface has been 
produced by the planing action of the great glacier 
that excavated the basin of Lake Erie; not only that 
basin which now holds the water, but the greater one 
of which the southern boundery is the water shed 
between the lake and the Ohio. Erie county, there- 
fore, lies near the bottom of this greater basin, and 
the great ice mass which filled it, moving from the 
northeast to the southwest, ground down the under- 
lying rocks to a nearly uniform surface. The outlines 
of the lake shore have been apparently determined 
by the same great cause. The general bearing of the 
south shore of Lake Erie is essentially the same from 
near Buffalo to the mouth of the Huron river. There 
the coast line forms a large angle with its former 
course, and stretches, with only local variations, 
directly from Huron to the mouth of the Maumee. 
By a glance at the map, however, it will be seen that 
the west end of Lake Erie is blocked up with islands, 
and that a series of these islands stretches northward 
from Sandusky and forms a barrier which must have 
offered serious opposition to the westward movement 
of the glacier. The effect of this ridge thrown 
across the lake basin and struck obliquely by the 
moving ice mass, was to deflect that slightly to the 
south, and to cause it to cut the deep notch in the 
lake shore at the mouth of the Huron. The excava- 
tion of this point was also facilitated by the compar- 
ative softness of the Huron shale which underlies this 
portion of the county. 

The drift deposits which overlie the glaciated sur- 
face in most parts of the State have been removed 
from the greater part of Erie county. The bowlder 
clay is, however, found covering the rock surface 
in the southern part of the county. This is, as 
usual, a blue, or where exposed and its iron oxyd- 
ized, reddish-yellow, unstratified clay, thickly set with 
angular fragments of shale taken from the lake basin. 
With these are more or fewer, generally small, bowl- 
ders, usually ground and striated, derived from the 
crystalline rocks north of the lakes. In this part of 
the county are also found beds of sand and the lake 
ridges which rest upon the bowlder clay. These latter 
deposits are evidently the effect of shore waves, and 
are in fact old beaches formed when the lake stood 
much higher than it now does. A good illustration 
of the mode of deposition of such sand banks and 
ridges is seen on the lake shore between Cedar Point 
and Huron. Here the mouth of Sandusky bay is 
partially closed by a ridge thrown up by the waves 
which will ultimately dike out the lake from and 
reclaim a large area formerly covered by navigable 
water. Between the ridges and sand hills which 
stretch east and west, north of Front's station, is a 


surface, level to the eye, foi-med by a fine black soil 
which covers the limestone here, ijresenting a remark- 
ably level surface and nowhere deeply buried. This 
district was originally prairie, with islands of timber, 
and has proved the most fertile and productive portion 
of the county. We have here a broad surface of lime, 
stone planed down nearly as level as a house floor. 
This was doubtless once covered with drift cla}', but 
has been removed by the waves of the lake when 
they swept over it. Subsequently, when the water of 
the lake had been withdrawn, this tract was left in a 
condition similar to that of the upper end of Sandus- 
ky bay, or to that of the space behind the barrier east 
of the city, viz: covered with shallow, quiet water, 
which was gradually replaced by a fine sediment, 
mixed with the remains of the luxuriant vegetation 
that grew there. The result was a sheet of remark- 
ably fine, rich soil, having all the characteristics of 
the prairie soils of the west, and, like them, covered 
with a growth of grass rather than trees. In future 
ages, when Lake Erie shall be furtlier drained, wliat 
is now Sandusky bay will undoubtedly present nearly 
the same -appearance as the district under considera- 


The phenomena presented by Castalia springs have 
excited considerable curiosity and interest, both on 
the part of the residents of the county and of visitors 
from other States, and deserve a few words of descrip- 
tion and explanation. As is known to most persons' 
at Castalia a volume of water which forms quite a 
river, flows u]) from several deep orifices in the lime- 
stone rock, and supplies in its descent to the lake the 
motive power for several mills. The water maintains 
nearly the same temperature winter and summer, and 
its flow is more uniform than that of surface streams 
in the vicinity, though sensibly affected by periods of 
unusual and wide-spread drought. The water of the 
springs is highly charged with lime, rapidly incrusting 
any object covered by it, and it has deposited a sheet 
of travertine over an area of several square miles in 
the vicinity. The rock in which the subterranean 
channels are excavated, through which the waters of 
the springs flow, is the water lime, the uppermost 
meiubers of the silurian system. This is a magnesian 
limestone, in fact, a typical dolomite, containing 
about fort3'-two per cent of magnesia and fifty-five of 
carbonate of lime. This rock forms on the surface an 
unbroken sheet, reaching from Castalia to Logan 
county, the highest land in the State. The true 
theory of the formation of these springs is simply 
this: the Helderberg limestone, like many others, is 
soluble in atmospheric water containing carbonic acid. 
It forms the slope of the water-shed, and the drainage 
of the country south from Castalia, jiassing over and 
through it, has dissolved out a connecting system of 
channels which are really subterranean rivers. Casta- 
lia springs are formed at the mouths of one of these. 
Similar springs and undergound streams are met with 

in all limestone countries. The table land of central 
Kentucky affords innumerable examples of them. 
This plateau is underlain by a thick mass of unusually 
soluble limestone. The surface water dissolves it 
away so easily that it dissolves every crack it pene- 
trates, and has formed a connected S3'stem of under- 
ground channels by which all the drainage of the 
country is effected. The celebrated Mammoth Cave 
is only one of these channels. Along the margin of 
this plateau there are a great number of fountains 
like Castalia springs, which mark the mouths of the 
subterranean streams that have been described. Such 
fountains are also common in other countries, and 
the classical Clitumnus bursts out at tlie foot of a 
limestone mountain, forming a fountain precisely like 
that of Castalia. 


The section of the rocks underlying Erie county 
is, in descending order, as follow's: 

First, Berea grit BO £eet. 

Second, Bedford shale 75 feet 

Third, Cleveland shale 50 to 60 feet! 

Fourth, Erie shale; 50 (?) feet. 

Fifth, Huron shale .300 feet. 

Sixth, Hamilton limestone 20 feet. 

Seventh, Corniferous limestone 100 (?) feet. 

Eighth, Oriskany limestone 0—5 feet. 

Ninth, Water lime group 100 (?) feet. 

Tenth, Onondaga salt group ' 30 to 40 feet. 

In the oil well, bored at the mouth of the Vermillion 
river, the Niagara limestone, the Clinton group, and 
Medina sandstone were penetrated, but they nowhere 
come to the surface, within the limits of the county. 
Of tlie foregoing strata, the first, the sandstone quar- 
ried at Amherst and Brownhelm, of which the out- 
crop crosses the east line of the county, within loss 
than a half mile of the lake shore; thence it sweeps 
round to the south and west, passing through Berliu- 
ville, and a little east of Norwalk, in Huron county. 
Within the area lying to the south and east of this 
line, the Berea grit underlies most of the surface, but 
it is very generally covered by the drift materials; and 
it is only where its more compact and massive portions 
have resisted the action of erosive agents, and these 
have been left in relief, that it projects above the sur- 
face. The hills in which the Amherst and Brown- 
helm quarries are located, and the elevation known 
as Berlin Heights, are all masses of this character. 
They were once bluffs upon the shore of the lake, and 
everywhere show marks of the action of water and 
ice. Along the outcrop of the Berea grit, its softer 
portions have undoubtedly been most extensively 
eroded, and are now deeply covered by drift dejiosits, 
so that probably little of this portion of the area it 
occupies will furnish valuable quarries of building 
stone; but as the surface rises, and the rocks dip to- 
ward the south and east, it soon passes below the 
surface, and there is every probability that within 
the townships of Berlin, Florence, and Vermillion, 
the Berea grit will hereafter be quarried in many 
localities, precisely as it now is at Berea. 



Below the Berea sandstone is a bed of shale, forty 
to sixty feet in thickness, which is sometimes blue, or 
banded in color, but more generally red. This red 
shale is conspicuously shown in the valley of the Ver- 
million, and is exposed at many places in this section 
of the State, immediately underlying the Berea sand- 
stone: it may, therefore, serve as an important guide 
to those who are seeking for the excellent quarry stone 
furnished by that formation. 

Neither the Berea sandstone, nor the red shale, 
have, ill Erie county, furnished any fossils; but at 
Elyria, Lorain county, and at Berea and Bedford, 
Cuyahoga county, a large number of remains of mol- 
lusks and fishes have been taken from these strata. 


Under the red shale in the banks of the Vermillion, 
occurs a black, bituminous shale, sixty or more feet 
in thickness. This is a constant member of the Wa- 
yerly or lower carboniferous group, and forms the base 
of that series. It is is unusually well exposed in the 
vicinity of Cleveland, and I have therefore called it, 
for convenience sake, "the Cleveland shale." In its 
lithological character, this shale is hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from the great black shale (the Huron 
shale), which is a member of the Devonian system, 
and whicli here lies only a little below. Further east, 
however, they are separated by an interval of several 
hundred feet, and the fossils which they contain are 
widely different. In the Cleveland shale are bones, 
scales, and spines of fishes of small size, and of car- 
boniferous types. In the Huron shale, on the con- 
trary, we find the remains of fishes of enormous size, 
of most peculiar structure, and such as clearly belong 
to the old red sandstone fauna, so fully described by 
Hugh Miller. 


The lake shore from the Pennsylvania line to Erie 
county is, for the most part, formed by a series of 
green and blue shales, vvliich represent the Chemung 
and Portage rocks of New York, and belong to the 
Devonian formation. These shales thin out rapidly 
westward, and seem to be recognizable beyond the 
point under consideration. In tlie valley of the Cuya- 
hoga they are exposed to the depth of one hundred 
and forty feet, and have there yielded the most 
characteristic fossils of the Chemung. 

The upper layers of the Huron shale are inter- 
stratified with the lower ones of the Erie in the 
northeastern portion of the State, as we learn by bor- 
ings made at Cleveland and further east. ■ Some 
traces of this interlocking may be seen at Monroe- 
ville, where the well sunk at the railroad station cuts 
some blue as well as black shales. South of this 
point, however, the Erie shale has not been recog- 
nized, and it probably reaches but ;i little way back 
from the lake shore. 


This is the name we have given to the great mass 
of black shale designated by the first geological board 
as "the black slate," and of which the outcrop forms 
a belt which extends entirely across the State, from 
Erie to Scioto county. This is the shale which forms 
the banks of the Huron river at Monroeville and below. 
It is not here a homogeneous black shale, as there 
are some gray, argillaceous layers iuterstratified with 
the more carbonaceous portions. The greater part of 
it is, however, black, and highly bituminous, con- 
taining ten per cent, or more of combustible matter. 
From this bitumen, by slow spontaneous distillation? 
petroleum is evolved, and flows out in oil springs at 
a great number of localities. The process of distilla- 
tion also gives rise to the gaseous hydro-carbons, and 
gas springs are even more abundant than oil springs 
over the outcrop of this formation. 

The Huron shale in some places contains many 
concretions of impure limestone, of Avhich hundreds 
may be seen at Monroeville, where they have washed 
out of the river banks. These concretions are some- 
times almost absolutely spherical; .and because of 
their geometric regularity, they have been collected 
as objects of curiosity by the inhabitants of the 
vicinity, often serving as ornamental caps to gate 
posts, etc. Some of these concretions contain the 
bones or teeth of huge fishes, first discovered in the 
same formation at Delaware by Mr. Hertzer, and 
from its formidable character, called Dinichthys, 
(terrible fish). 

Two species of this genus have been found in Ohio 
— one at Delaware, near the base of the Huron shale, 
and named after its discoverer, Dinichthys Hertzeri; 
the other from the summit of the formation in Shef- 
field, Lorain county, and this I have named Dinich- 
tliys Terrilli, to commemorate the service rendered 
to science by Mr. Jay Terrell, to whose zeal and 
intelligence we owe all the best specimens yet ob- 
tained. Both these remarkable fishes will be found 
described in the palaeontological portion of this re- 
port. Numerous fragments of the great bones of 
Dinichthys have been broken out of the concretions 
which have fallen from the shale banks of Huron 
river, but the specimens yet obtained from these are 
too imperfect to show to which species they belong. 
Little effort has been made to collect at this point, and 
it is probable that careful search would be rewarded 
by the discovery of some specimens of great interest. 

As nearly as we can determine, the thickness of 
the Huron shale in this part of the State is about 
three hundred feet. 


At Prout's station and Deeji cut, on the Sandusky, 
Mansfield and Newark railroad, tliebase of the Huron 
shale is exposed, and beneath it are seen layers of 
light, cherty, and bluish, marly limestone, which are 
the representatives of the Hamilton group of New 



York. Here the formation has become insignificant 
in dimensions, compared with wliat it is furtlier east; 
wliere it is not more than twenty feet in thickness, 
wliile in Central New York the Hamilton group is 
twelve hundred feet thick. There is no mistaking the 
e(|uivalence of these strata, however, for they are full 
of fossils. At Front's station the following sjiecies 
are found, viz: Spirifera mucroi'.ata, Cijrtia, Hatn- 
Ufotieiisis, Straphodonta demissa, Athyrus .yjiri/e- 
roides, HeliophijUuin Halll, Phacops, bufo, etc., etc., 
the most characteristic fossils of the Hamilton. 
From the softness of the Hamilton limestone in Erie 
connty, as well as from its inconsiderable dimen- 
sions, it forms no well marked line of ontciop, 
but it will often be detected in sections which include 
the base of the Huron shale and the top of the cornif- 
erous limestone. It may be said to underlie a very 
narrow belt of territory, extending southwesterly 
from the lake shore, at a point half way between 
Sandusky and Huron, to the Lake Shorw railroad, 
midway between Monroeville and Bellevne. 


The most interesting, and perhaps the most impor- 
tant formation in Erie county is the corniferous lime- 
stone. This is the rock underlying Sandusky city, 
that which forms Marblehead, Kelly's Island, Middle 
Island, etc., the source from which the greater part 
of the lime used in northern Ohio is derived, and a 
rock scarcely less extensively employed as a building 
stone than the Berea grit. The upper portion of the 
corniferous limestone is blue in color, and lies in tliin 
strata. It is this subdivision of the formation that 
is opened in the quarriea at Sandusky, and which 
furnishes the blue limestone known as the "San- 
dusky stone," and largely used for building, paving, 
and flagging at Sandusky and elsewhere. The lower 
portion is light colored, and much more massive, and is 
that quarried at Kelly's Island and Marblehead. The 
fossils of the corniferous limestone are exceedingly 
numerous and of great interest. Like most other 
limestones this has been derived from the decomposi- 
tion of organic structures, and in many places it is 
almost altogether made up of corals and shells. In 
chemical composition it is a magnesian limestone, 
containing- twenty per cent, or more of magnesia. 
This peculiarity has been quoted as objectionable in 
its adaptation to the manufacture of lime; but, on 
the contrary, it is benefited by this ingredient, the 
magnesia making it slower in setting, "less hot," as 
masons say, and therefore much more manageable. 

The fossil fishes of the corniferous limestone have 
attracted more or less attention from geologists for 
many years. ■ They are now chiefly obtained from the 
quarries on Kelly's Island and Marblehead, in the 
lower corniferous limestone; and those of Sandusky 
and Delaware, from the upper member, or Sandusky 

Of Macropetalichthijs, the <jnly portion yet found is 
tlie cranium. This is com]K)sed of a number of geo- 

metrical plates of which the external surface is beau- 
tifully tubercled. It is known to most of the quarry- 
men, and by them it is generally regarded as the car- 
apace of turtle. It is, however, in fact, the cranium 
of a large fish, as any one will plainly see who will 
take the trouble to compare with it the cranium of 
our common sturgeon. 

Onychodus was an e<|ually large fish, of whicli the 
cranial bones were much more numerous and easily 
separated, so that they are generally found detached 
and scattered through the rock. The jaws of this 
fish are not unfrequently met with. Tiiey are a foot 
or more in length, and are studded with teeth along 
the upper margin. The most singular feature in the 
structure of this fish is formed by a crest of seven 
large, curved, pointed teeth, which, attached to an 
arch of bone, were inserted between the extremities 
of the under jaw, apparently acting like the prow of 
a ram. 


Beneath the corniferous limestone, on the penin- 
sula, and near Castalia, a thin band of limestone is 
visible. This holds the position of the Oriskany 
sandstone in New York, and though it has here 
yielded no Oriskany fossils, they are said to have 
been obtained from it in Indiana; and there is little 
doubt, therefore, that it should be regarded as the 
equivalent of the Oriskany sandstone. 


The upper portion of the Silurian system is, in 
Ohio, represented by the water lime and Salina form- 
ations. Of these, the water lime is the uppermost 
and by far the most conspicuous. It underlies a 
larger portion of Ohio than any other formation ex- 
cept the coal measures. It composes all of Catawba 
island, Put-in-Bay, and the other islands of that 
group. Erie county just reaches the edge of the 
water lime area, and, as has been mentioned, it is in 
this rock that the subterranean channel has been 
excavated through which flows the stream of water 
that forms Castalia springs. 


The water lime is immediately underlain by a 
series of calcareous shales and beds of gypsum, 
which apparently represent the Onondaga salt group 
of New Y^ork. The gypsum quarries worked by Mr. 
George A. Marsh, on Sandusky bay, lie within the 
limits of Ottawa county, and the same formation 
extends under Sandusky, where it has been reached 
in boring wells for oil — at too great a depth, how- 
ever, to be profitably worked. These beds of gyp- 
sum also form the jpottom of the lake off the point of 
Put-in-Bay island, so that they apparently underlie ii 
large area in this vicinity. They deserve to be care- 
fully sought for, as they may be found in localities 
where they will be readily accessible. From the con- 
tinuity of the surface clays, this exploration, how- 
ever, can only be effected by boring. The gypsuni of 



Sandusk}' is of excellent quality, and the quantity is 
apparently inexhaustible. About ten thousand tons 
per annum are produced at the (|uarries of Mr. 


No portion of the State is more abundantly sup- 
])lied with excellent building materials than that 
immediately about Saudusky. The Amherst sand- 
stone, which is known, and I can almost say used, 
all over the United States, reaches into Erie county, 
and, though not }-et quarried there to any consid- 
erable extent may, perhaps, become hereafter an im- 
portant contributor to the wealth of the inhabitants. 

The Sandusky limestone is also highly prized as a 
building material, and its capability of supplj-ing 
suitable stone for large and handsome structures is 
illustrated in the splendid high-school building and 
various other edifices at Sandusky, as well as 
churches, stores and residences at Toledo, Cleve- 
land, etc. 

The quarries o'f the corniferous at Marblehead and 
Kelly's Island, are in Ottawa county, but the strata 
worked there underlie all of Erie county, and may 
be reached at various points with little trouble. The 
same beds of the corniferous furnish quick lime not 
inferior to any manufactured in the State, so that 
lime may be specified as one of the important mineral 
staples of the county. 


The carbonaceous matter contained in the Huron 
shale is equivalent in heating power to that of a thick 
seam of coal, but up to the present time we have not 
discovered any mode of making that source of power 
available, except by distilling oil or gas from it. Both 
these useful substances are constantly being evolved 
from this great carbonaceous mass by spontaneous 
distillation, and it is possible that they may be here- 
after, when the supply of petroleum from wells has 
failed, artificially generated from this source so 
cheaply as to pay a profit to the manufacturers. It is 
also worth rememl)ering that further east along the 
lake shore, as at Erie, Pennsylvania, and Fredonia, 
New York, the spontaneous flow of carbureted 
hydrogen gas from the Huron shale has been exten- 
sively utilized. Fredonia was for many years exclu- 
sively, and still is partially lighted by natural gas, 
and at Erie, wells sunk for the purpose, are supplying 
combustible gas, which is being successfully applied to 
the heating and lighting of residences and manu- 
facturing establishments. 

The gypsum and hydraulic lime of the water lime 
and Salina groups should, perhaps, be enumerated 
among the material mineral resources of Erie county, 
as, though not found upon the surface, they lie not 
far below. The (piantity and accessibility of these 
materials are, however, yet so much in doubt that no 
.IMP would be justified in anticipating a great increase 
in tbi- wealth of the county from this source. 



No PERIOD of history i.« more fascinating to the 
student than the period in which history has not 
begun. In the study of ascertained and chronicled 
facts there is not much scope for the workings of 
fancy; but the imagination may run riot amid the 
wildest conjectures as to times of which no records 
tell. There may be poetry and romance based ui)on 
the sober realities of historic eras, but the myths and 
traditions of every land, belonging to ages before its 
history began, are not based upon, but are themselves, 
poetry and romance. 

This chapter is to treat of the Fire-lands before the 
days of the i)ioneers. It is not to chronicle events, 
but, rather, to grope in the darkness of forgotten 
times, and attempt to gather up such broken threads 
of knowledge as have not been utterly lost, that they 
may be woven into some semblance of reality. It is 
to search and inquire, rather than to teach. 

The ages embraced in the term, "jH-ehistoric times," 
have an end but no beginning. 

Who, if any human beings, inhabited the Fire- 
lands befoi-e that mysterious people, the Mound- 
Builders, began to rear their strange structures along 
our river terraces, we have no means of knowing. 
All before their era is an absolute blank, m which we 
find no myth, nor tradition, nor moldering ruin, to 
aid us in our efforts to obtain some knowledge of 
the remotest past. 


Our name for tlie people who wrote in our soil the 
fact of their existence, but left us no other records. 
We may know some of their habits of life, we may 
know that they mined copper about Lake Su]>erior 
and mica in the Alleghanies: that they trafficked in 
the markets of the southwest and brought shells from 
the Gulf of Mexico; but their memorable events of 
war and peace, the names of their statesmen and 
philosophers, warriors and poets, have been utterly 
forgotten, and no man knows to-day whether or not 
any remnant of tiie great race remains on the earth. 

In all the valleys of the Mississippi and its tribu- 
taries, their works remain in abundance to testify of 
the mysterious workers. Of the origin of these works 
the Indians knew nothing. Their traditions did not 
reach back so far. 

Accustomed as we have been to the thought of 
primeval forests in all this region, thinly inhabited 
by nomadic tribes of savages, disputing the title to 
the soil with the fierce panther and the howling wolf, 
we can hardly realize that, ages ago, a dense agricul- 
tural population filled all our borders, cultivating 
their farms, building substantial dwellings and lofty 
temples, establishing governments and enacting laws, 
holding commercial relations with different jiarts of 
the continent. 


The erection of the tlionsands of artiticiul inouiids, 
terraces and earthwork enclosures which still remain, 
with all the other vast works which must have been 
obliterated by "the waves and weathers of time," 
could only have been possible in a land like Mesopo- 
tamia or Egypt, of great agricultural resources. 
Where tliere were so many toiling hands, there were 
many mouths to be fed, and to supply the enormous 
demand there must have been other workers, pro- 
ducers, tillers of the soil. 

Maples and beeches, tough hickoi'ies and giant oaks, 
"the green-robed senators of mighty woods," did not 
always darken the face of Ohio as in the days of the 
Indian hunters; but long, long before the red men 
had found their way to the fertile Fire-lands, grain, 
golden as the sunlight which ripened it, was waving 
over myriads of these our fields. Where there was 
grain, there were granaries, and where the builders 
of the terraced mounds toiled day by day, there were 
buying and selling, and there were a hundred trades 
and employments which men have ever found the 
inevitable concomitants of civilized society. 

The character of the earthworks in this region evi- 
dences the fact that the Fire-lands are on the northern 
frontiers of the ancient emjjire. Nearly all the works 
along our river banks in northern Ohio are manifestly 
defensive fortifications, with external facite, as in 
modern works of like character; and north of the 
lakes there are no such pyramidal foundations, for 
now lost structures, as abound in the central part of 
the United States. Traveling southward from the 
lakes, one finds mysterious ruins growing in number 
and magnitude, until they are merged in the wealth 
of monumental remains, shadowed by the tropical 
forests of Central America. 

Fascinating as is the study of these relics of an 
ancient empire, this chapter has space but to deal with 
those which belonged to this one of its outlying prov- 
inces. We shall not find on the Fire-lands such great 
pyramidal mounds as those of southern Ohio, West 
Virginia, and Illinois; nor shall we marvel at such 
monolithic images and carven tablets as abound in 
Yucatan and Guatamala. We shall, however, find 
unmistakable evidences that the same race which left 
these records of an extinct civilization, had out-posts 
along the river banks which are most familiar to us. 

The works upon the Fire-lands were, for the most 
part, circular fortifications on the highlands over- 
looking the river banks, some of them enclosing smal] 
mounds supposed to have been burial places. These 
works have been almost obliterated by continual culti- 
vation during the past half century; but we are fortu- 
nate in the fact that some of the observing pioneers 
who came and saw them before the leveling plowshare 
had crossed and recrossed them year after year, have 
put upon paper their rementbrances of them. 

By such means we are informed that the Mound- 
Builders are believed to have left their traces in at 
least the townships of M.irgaretta, Vermillion, Berlin, 
Huron, Milan, Ridgefield, Norwalk, New Haven and 

Norwich. The works which, in tiie early part of tlie 
century, remained in the localities which have become 
the townships above named, are briefly described as 

The township of Margarettta had, when first set- 
tled, a number of fortifications and'mounds, some of 
the latter quite large and constructed of stone. 

In Vermillion there were two extensive fortifica- 
tions on the banks of the river of the same name, and 
another in the southern part of the township. There 
were, in the same township, a number of mounds in 
in which human skeletons and scattered bones were 

In Berlin, in the western part of the township, 
there was a mound covering a (|uarter of an acre, with 
large trees growing upon it. Near the center of the 
township, on the fai-m formerly owned by the late 
Lewis Osborn, was another mound, and in the nortJi- 
errt part of the township, a fortification. 

In Huron township, mounds were found on the 
highlands on both sides of the river. Two of these 
mounds on the west side of the river and about two 
miles from its mouth, were quite large and nearly 
ronnd. Human bones and "beads of different colors'' 
were found in them. 

In Milan, the pioneers describe "three forts," one 
in the first section, one in the second and one in the 
fourth. Their embankments, when first seen by the 
whites, were from two to four feet high. At differ- 
ent places in the township other earthworks were 
found, and in some of them human bones and imple- 
ments of stone and clay. 

In Ridgefield township, Huron county, circular for- 
tifications were found in lot two and lot three of the 
first section, and a small mound containing human 
bones, in lot eighteen of the second section. The 
fortifications are on high banks of branches of the 
Huron river. 

In Norwalk there were tlii-ee fortifications near the 
Ridgefield line, and crossing it, on the farm now 
owned by Isaac Underbill. That gentleman has pre- 
served reminiscences of his plowing, when a boy, 
through the dry and brittle bones of the men of whom 
these works are the monuments. 

In the western part of New Haven township was a 
circular fortification with large trees growing on its 
embankments when first discovered. 

Except a few "conical mounds" said to haye been 
found in Norwich, in the southeast part of the town- 
ship, no record, so far as we know, has been preserved 
of any other traces left by the Mound-Builders on the 
soil of the Fire-lands. 

It may be. indeed, that not all the remains which 
have been mentioned, belong properly to the age of 
the Mound-Builders, for the pioneers were not always 
careful to discriminate between the works of that 
ancient race and those of the later inhabitants of 
these lands, the Indians. But at least this may be 
said with confidence, that some, if not all, these 
works were wrought by the hands of that mysterious 

i1 1233^0 



people, whose origin, character and history have been 
a pregnant tlieme for many a flelver in the world's 

It is not tlie province of this local history to enter 
into extended inquiries of this kind. The evidences 
are many of the' great antiquity of the remains, and 
the fact is- no less clearly proven tliat the men who 
erected them were much higher than the red men in 
the scale of civilization. Whether they came of the 
Mongolian stock, were a remnant of the "lost tribes 
of Israel," or belonged to an original family unknown 
to the old world, we shall not stop here to investigate. 
It is enough to say that long ago, ])crhaps many 
ages before the coming of the Indians, the Mound- 
Builders vanished from the Fire-lands, leaving behind 
them neither tradition nor historv. 

When and whence came tlie red men to the Fire- 
lands, no research will now inform us. It seems 
most i)robable that they were of Asiatic origin and 
drifted across the country from the northwest, but 
the matter is one of conjecture, and it is not the pro- 
vince of this work to discuss the arguments in favor 
of any particular hypothesis. 

Whenever they came and whatever their origin, 
they found here, on the southern shoie of Lake Erie, 
green and fertile lands, drained by the waters of the 
Sandusky, the Huron and the \'ermillion. 

These were prairie and wood land, well ^yateredand 
abounding in game. It would have been strange if 
no wandering tribes of red men, whose highest idea 
of happiness was embodied in a paradise of well- 
stocked hunting grounds, should not have lingered 
along the river banks, where, even in the days of the 
pioneers the feathered arrow of the Indian seldom 
searched vainly for a victim. 

It is interesting to note that here, in one group of 
counties, by that process of language-petrifaction, 
which has left upon our lakes and rivers. States and 
territories, the names which were familiar and ex- 
pressive words to the tribes of people whose graves 
are all over the Fire-lands, we have six Indian titles: 
Erie, Samb/ski/ and Ottawa, Huron, Seneca and 

All these but one were tribal designations; but not 
all the tribes whose names have been so perpetuated 
had any habitation on the Fire-lands at the coming of 
tlie pioneers. Oftawas, Hurons or Wyandots, and 
Senecas, there were in the first years of this century; 
but hmg Itefore that, naught but a memory remained 
of tlie Erics, that proud, tierce tribe, whose war with 
the Five Nations of New York forms one of the most 
interesting traditions of prehistoric America. 

The Eries, it is said, dreaded the combination of 
five such tribes as, united, made up the Iroquois Five 
Nations. They endeavored to crush the confederacy 
in Its inception, but were themselves defeated witii 
terrible slaughter, between Canandaigua lake and the 
(iciieseo river. They retired to the far west, but \ 

tradition says that many years later a war party of 
their descendants returned from beyond the Missis- 
sippi and attacked the Senecas, who had settled upon 
the fatherland of the Eries; l)ut the result was ;i 
second crushing defeat, and the anniliilation of the 
Erie race, unless a remnant was left to mingle witli 
other tribes in the west. 

As long ago as the middle of tiiu seventeenth cen- 
tury the Eries probably occupied northern Ohio, 
along the shores of Lake Erie, and the famous i)ic- 
tured rocks on Kelley's Island, have been supposed 
by Shingwauk, the Little Pine, an Indian archa;olo- 
gist, to refer to the wars'of this lost nation. 

After tlie destruction of the Eries the greater part 
of northern Ohio seems to have been never so mucli 
the jieculiar territory of any one nation as the com- 
mon hunting ground of many. 

As white settlements' increased along the Atlantic 
coast, and the natives were crowded toward the set- 
ting sun, tribes and remnants of tribes whose homes 
had been in the east, wandered into Ohio and lingered 
there, until the advancing army of civilization pressed 
them still further toward their ultimate destiny. 

It is for this reason that in the chronicles of the 
pioneers we find mention of so many diverse tribes. 
They were sojourners, most of them, rather than 
permanent dwellers on the Fire-lands. The land 
may have seeiricd almost as strange to tliem as to the 
white settlers. 

On the pages of the Pioneer, the magazine of the 
Fire-lands Historical Socuety, the earliest of these 
white settlers have recorded these names of tribes 
represented here during the first years of the nine- 
teenth century. Of the. Algonquin family, the 
Miamis or 3hniviees, the Tawas or Ottaicas, the . 
Chippewas or Ojibways, the Delatvares, S/iaw/iees 
and Potawatomies; and of the Huron-Iroquois fam- 
ily, the Wyandots, or Hurons proper, and the Senecas. 
Of these tribes, that of the Wyandots is perhaps 
oftenest mentioned by the pioneers. The people of 
this tribe lived for the most part along the Sandusky 
river for many years after the town and villages of 
the pale faces had s)n-ung up all over the Fire-lands. 
The Wyandots and, If ui-ons were the same people, 
the latter name lieing the one bestowed upon them 
by the French. 

In the years when the Iroqvois were waging their 
relentless wars against the Eries, the Wyandots lived 
on the Canada side of the lakes, although their hunt- 
ing excursions seem, sometimes, to have reached the 
regions about tlie inoutli of tiie Miami and that of the 

They also became involved in war with the power- 
ful Iroquois, and, as in the case of the Eries. the 
Wyandots were, as a nation, almost exterminated l)y 
the seemingly invincible 'confederacy of New York. 
But in later days, after the Eries had ceased to be 
known in Ohio, and the strife with the Five Nations 
had ended, remnants of the Wya>idots hunted and 
planted corn along tiie valley of the Sandusky. 


There was preserved aijioug them a tradition of their 
migration across tlie lakes, impelled by a great fam- 
ine to search for new hunting grounds. They built 
their "big fire'' or chief town at Upper Sandusky, 
and a map, ]nxblished in 1755, shows the location of 
others of their villages along the river. These settle- 
ments floiu-islied, and the Wyandota became, after 
the lapse of years, the most powerful tribe in this 
region. Tiiere is frequent mention lu the chronicles 
of the pioneers on the Fire-lauds, of parties of these 
Sandusky river Wyandots who crossed the Fire-lands 
in search of game. 

In smaller numbers on the Fire-lands were the Sen- 
eccis, a remnant of the once powerful nation, which, 
with the other tribes of the Iroquois confederacy, a 
century and a half before, had crushed the Wyan- 
dots and the Eries. The white settlements had be- 
come numerous through the territory where the Five 
Nafions had held dominion. The star of the Senecas 
was waning. They had no longer the leadership of 
such chieftains as Red Jacket, the warrior-orator, 
and, driven by the dominant Caucasian race, they 
were drifting slowly across the country towards the 
great plains of the west. 

Besides these two representatives of the Huron- 
Iroqnois family, there were no others on the Fire- 
lands in the days of the pioneers. 

The Algonquin^, however, were here, not in such 
numbers of individuals probably, but more numer- 
ously represented in names of tribes. Among these 
we note the Delawares, the Ttenappi or Lenni-Lenafe, 
as they called themselves, who dwelt along the banks 
of the Huron river, the most of them in Milan town- 
ship. With them were mingled the Ottawas or 
" T(iw-'s," as many of the white settlers called them. 
The one people had come from the east, where, for 
years, they had lived among the other Algonquin 
tribes of the Atlantic coast; the other had come from 
the northwest, and, in perfect peace, they had united 
their fortunes in the pleasant valley of the Huron. 
Upon the picturesque site of the town of Milan they 
built their village, Pequotting, and there and in that 
vicinity, even after the coming of the pale faces, they 
hunted and fished, and raised corn on the fertile river 

We believe that it was these Delaicares and Ottnivas 
of Pequotting who were accustomed to make maple 
sugar on the river bottom west of Norwalk, and 
whose trail lay along tlie sand ridge where now is 
Main street, the pleasant, maple-shaded avenue 
which is the pride of the town. 

The other Algonquin tribes, so far as is known, 
had no fixed residence on or near the Fire-lands, but, 
pursuant to their nomadic habits, they made occa- 
sional visits to this section of the country. This was 
particularly the case with the C/iijjpen'as, Miamis 
and Potau'ttttomies. They were all inhabitants of 
the country to the west and northwest. The Shciw- 
nees were of soutiiern origin. They liad a tradition 

that their ancestors came from some foreign land, 
across the sea. 

According to French accounts, the tribe of Chip- 
peivas or Ojibways is worthy of more than a passing 
notice. They are said to have been a powerful and 
brave race, and their war with the Sioux, which was 
waged for one hundred and eighty years after the 
whites first knew them, and we know not for how 
long before, is one of the memorable events of Indian 
history, and is the surest proof of the indomitaljle 
courage and haughty pride of both tribes. 

The territory of the Chippewns was on both sides of 
Lake Superior, at the head of which was their chief 
town, Chegoimegon, where, it is said, they kept a 
perpetual fire burning. 

They were a tall, well formed race, and their lan- 
guage was praised by the French as the court-language 
of the aborigines. 

Bands of Indians of all these tribes, hunted and 
fished over most, and probably all, the townships of 
the Fire-lands; but except Pequotting, they had no 
village in either Erie caunty or Huron at the time of 
the first white settlements. 

Technically, the lives and characters, the manners 
and customs of the Indians inhabiting the Fire-lands 
after the first white settlements, can scarcely be said 
to belong to the period of "prehistory." But one 
can hardly write of the red men without letting his 
pen cross the line on which history begins. We can 
form no estimate of the lives of the inhabitants of 
these woods before a white man's ax began to hew the 
way for the march of civilization, without a study of 
the characteristics described by the first white chron- 
iclers, as belonging to the red men who remained 
after those times. 

Thus, even in naming and describing tribes, we 
have trespassed upon the nineteenth century. We 
shall find no instance of individual character recorded 
at any earlier period. 

So many years have now elapsed since the last red 
man vanished from the Fire-lands, like a departing 
ghost of a dead and buried past, that we can now but 
dimly trace even the tribal distinctions and names of 
these strange children of the woods. Few, indeed, 
are the names, and faint the memories, of the individ- 
ual warriors and chieftains which have come down to 
us. But before they are all forever lost in the shad- 
ows of the iiast, it should be the duty of the historian 
to rescue and keep bright the names and fame of Sen- 
eca John and Ogontz, the Ottawu, two noble repre- 
tatives of the better class of Algonquin and Iroquois. 

In those days the red men were in a transition 
state. They had been savages, witii all the cruelty, 
the bad passions, and the ignorance belonging to sav- 
agery; but now, from their intercourse with the 
whites, they were learning many of the mean vices 
with a few of the virtues, of civilization. Tlie mis- 
sionary and the trader were working side by side, but 
not in harmony, and too often tlie good work of tlie 


one was destroyei] by tlie liad work wruiiglit by tlie 

Ill sncli a jieriod, tlie characters of Joliii, the Sen- 
ecu, and Ogoiitz, tlie Ottairu, stand out in bold and 
pleasing relief. In the frefjiient mention of these two 
chiefs by the early chroniclers of the Fire-lands, there 
has been found no word of disparagement concerning 
either of them. 

The Seneca was accustomed to hunt in the southern 
and western part of Huron county. The early set- 
tlers of that region always gave him a cordial welcome, 
and some of them have placed on record their appre- 
ciation of his character. He could speak but little 
English, but was always friendly to the settlers, and 
was brave, honest, and trustworthy. 

Ogontz was better known in the region of San- 
dusky, which was one of his favorite resorts at certain 
seasons of the year, for the purpose of fishing and 
hunting, and that locality was for years known, by 
reason of this fact, as " Ogontz place." 

This chief is described as a man of stately form and 
noble bearing, and, like Seneca John, he seems to 
have been in character a nature's nobleman, while, 
unlike John, he had received, at the hands of the 
French, a high degree of culture. 

The tragedy which ended the life of each of these 
hunter and w-arrior chiefs, illustrates the sanguinary 
character of their race. Seneca John was accused of 
witchcraft, and having been condemned by his own 
tribe, was unhesitatingly slain, — his own brother be- 
ing the executioner. Ogontz, years before his death, 
had killed, in self defense, a rival chief, and had 
adopted the latter's son, who, even in his boyhood, 
cherished a desire to avenge his father's death. The 
boy grew up, and, when the opportunity offered, took 
the life of the brave, kind Ogontz, who had been a 
second father to him, better than the first. 

These two men, John and Ogontz, the Seneca and 
the Ottawa, the Jrocjuois and the Algonquin, are the 
type of the aboriginal native of America, uncor- 
rnpted by association with the white men. They 
lived and died, the one an ignorant savage, the other 
an educated gentleman, but both, by nature, proud, 
noble and manly, the proof that the red man was not 
always in his present state of miserable degradation. 

Any view of Indian life and character is incom- 
plete which fails to take in their surroundings. Be- 
fore we can have vividly before ns the life of the red 
man of tlie Fire-lands, we must reconstruct the Fire- 
lands themselves as they were' a century ago. We 
must clear away all the marks of civilization; we 
must rear again the mighty woods, and let the 
prairie grasses grow in the rankness and lu.xuriance 
of nature; we must rescue from the overflowing 
waves of the destroying lake, the fertile lands on 
which they have encroached, and restore the marsh 
land along the rivers to the tillable condition of the 
past; we must sweep all the mill-dams from the 
streams, and let the lake muscalonge and pickerel, 
the lawful prey of the Indian, ascend to the farthest 

limits of Huron county; we m-iist re-peojile the forests 
with screaming panthers, bears and packs of howling 
wolves; deer must abound and rattlesnakes must 
crawl in the damp and gloomy woods. 

Amid such surroundings as these the Indian war- 
rior reared his family. His daily work was hunting 
and trapping game, when he was not on the war 
trail, seeking the scalps of his enemies. According 
to Seneca John, the hunting grounds were, by agree- 
ment, allotted among the tribes, and, doubtless, en- 
croachments on one another's territory, and disputes 
as to boundaries, were the fruitful causes of quarrels 
and bloodshed. 

In the autumn of every year the prairies were 
burned over, that the abundant deer might be more 
easily tracked and hunted over the bare and black- 
ened soil. 

While the young men were engaged in such pur- 
suits, the other members of the tribes remained at 
home. The old men, doubtless, smoked and dozed 
away the hours; or, not unlike our pioneers, lived 
over their youth in tales of daring deeds when their 
eyes were keen and their arms strong. The half- 
naked children played out of doors by themselves, or 
importuned their grandfathers to make them bows 
and arrows, or, may be, ever insatiable, begged to be 
told innumerable stories, entirely after the manner of 
juvenile palefaces, for children are children the world 

The squaws, meanwhile, tied up their little pap- 
pooses in bark cradles, which they hung from the 
limbs of trees, to be rocked by the passing wind — a 
practice said to be the origin of our lullaby song, 
"Rockaby, baby, on the tree top" — and, then, 
meekly recognizing the existence of a "woman's 
sphere " and their wifely duties to their lordly hus- 
bands, which, as in civilized society, had been by the 
latter circumscribed and defined for them, they duti- 
fully brought the water, gathered the firewood and 
hoed the corn, as it was the custom for even the 
strongest-minded squaws to do; and, while they toiled 
with sweating faces and aching backs, they longed for 
the going down of the hot sun and the sight of their 
returning braves, with venison-laden ponie§ or belts 
full of reeking scalps. 

But shall we infer from this slavery, into which 
the fashion of the race forced women, that there was 
no affection between husband and wife? At first 
thought, one might almost so believe, but surely 
there is under all the artificial manners and customs 
of the world a substratum of human nature which 
never varies. Let it not be doubted, then, that the 
Indian husband and wife often loved one another 
with an ;itfection not different from that of the 
palest-faced Caucasians. 

The Moravian missionary, Heckewelder, tells a 
touching story illustrative of such tenderness on the 
part of an Indian husband toward his wife. It was 
in a time of famine, and a sick woman expressed a 
longing for some Indian corn. There was none in 


the region where they lived, but a trader had a small 
quantity at Lower Sandusky, a hundred miles away. 
Thither the woman's husband rode, and, having 
traded his horse for a small quantity of the j^recious 
grain, he returned on foot alone: the weary trail, car- 
rying his precious purchase with him, that he might 
gladden the heart of his loved wife. 

The same human nature sometimes shone out in 
the love of parents for their children. The red war- 
i-ior was, on the surface, a stern and taciturn man, 
and perhaps the little ones ofteuer looked up to him 
with fear and awe than with any other emotion, but 
there must have been something besides sternness in 
the heart of that Wyandot of Upper Sandusky, who, 
while on a hunting excursion east of Milan, lost a 
child by death, and carried the body home in his 
arms, that the little one might sleep in the grave of 
its mother. By day and by night he carried his bur- 
,den and his sorrow, alone in the lonely woods, until 
he reached his dreary home. He was an Indian, and 
would shed no tears; but every white father, who has 
lost the first-born son of his pride and affection, can 
understand the bitterness of the red man's sorrow. 

It is a mystery, how, in this northern climate, the 
Indians obtained the means of living through the 
winter. Even those tribes who did not despise agri- 
culture tilled the soil iu a superficial way, and often 
had short crops. In such a season, their chief de- 
pendence was on fish and game, and even these must 
at times have failed them. It is easy to understand 
that such famines as that which drove the Wyandots 
south of the lake, according to their tradition, were 
not an unfrequent occurrence. Pestilence, too, occa- 
sionally swept the country, destroying whole tribes. 
Ogontz has been spoken of as an Ottawa, but, iu 
reality, according to his own statement, he was an 
adopted son of tiiat tribe — his own parents having 
died in such a pestilence while he was a child. Sam- 
oset, the Wampunoaa, told to the New England colo- 
nists the story of a great plague, which, a few years 
before, had almost denuded the country of its inhab- 
itants, and had left many tribes in a feeble and deso- 
late condition. 

The tongues and dialects spoken by the aboriginal 
inhabitants of our country have been a fruitful field 
for philologists. As the Algonquin tribes inhabited 
that part of the Atlantic coast first settled by the 
English, their language gave to the colonists several 
words which have almost become a part of our Eng- 
lish vocabulary. They are sucli words as "wigwam," 
"squaw," "wampum,'" "tomahawk," "sachem," 
etc. The words in the Indian vocabularies were few, 
and it became often necessary for them to express 
their ideas circuitously, by metaphors aiid other 
figures, and by such combinations of words, as printed 
in English books, have given many people the impres- 
sion that the aboriginal languages were full of un- 
pronouncable, ix>lysyllabic words. 

Many of the Indian proper names were combina- 
tions of expressive words descriptive of the localities 

named. Thus the name Sandusky is a compound 
and corrupted word, meaning, originally, "clear 
water," or, more literally "water not concealing the 
ground," or, as another has translated it, " water in 
pools." Norwalk, which comes from the Connecticut 
town of that name, is another compound word, 
signifying "middle-land," or, like the Greek Meso- 
potamia, "between the rivers." Erie signifies "wild 
cat," ai appropriate title for one of the fiercest of 
the native tribes. 

Many English books have been translated into these 
dialects and languages; grammars and dictionaries 
have been written of the tongues of several of the 
tribes, and comparative philologists have sought, by 
means of verljal affinities, to trace the sources and 
beginnings of the American races. 

There is no subject connected with aboriginal 
America having more of the interest of unsolved 
mystery than this. As with most mysteries, if we 
could lift the curtain which hides from us the genesis 
of the people who inliabited the continent before us, 
the subject would lose much of its fascination. 

We have but glanced at the Fire-lands of pre- 
historic times. A hundred things might still be 
said, and yet the darkness which hides from our con- 
ception the state of a country whose people wrote no 
history, would not be changed to twilight. • 



The sect known as Moravians originated in Bohe- 
mia, and though always insignificant in point of num- 
bers, and none of them remarkable for their wealth, 
or position, or learning, they have never been lacking 
in zeal or enthusiasm in extending their Master's king- 
dom. Indeed, taking into account the fewness of their 
numbers, it may be confidently asserted that no other 
denomination of christians has done so much for the 
missionary cause. Never excelling in ability or skill 
in elucidating abstruse and difficult problems of belief, 
they have sought not to make proselytes among 
already well grounded in the cardinal doctrines of 
christian faith, but to teach the elementary gospel 
religion to those races and trilies wlm liad not yet ])een 
converted to Christianity. 

To the prosecution of this work they have freely 
devoted their lives and fortunes, and no country has 
l)eeii too remote, no shore too forbidding or inhospita- 
ble to prevent their planting the banner of the cross, 
and seeking to bring under its folds the most savage, 
barbarous and degraded of mankind. 

In 1732, while their numl>er was less than four hun- 
dred, they began their missionary work, the first station 
estal)lished being at St. Thomas, in the West Indies, 
In lT4(i. they esral)lislH'd a mission among the Indians 
at Hotlileliein. I'cunsvhania ; but as tiio Indians were 



being gnidually driven westwiird, a permanent loca- 
tion was impossible. The efforts of the missionaries 
never were successful in civilizing the Indians to the 
degree that they could remain in contact with the 
whites, without being corrupted and degi-aded. To 
have any success they must keep in advance of the 
wave of emigration. In 1768 a new location was 
sought near Oil City, Pennsylvania, and in 1770 the 
congi'egation removed to the Beaver river. After 
remaining here for a year or more, they turned their 
steps westward to the valley of the Tiiscarawas, near 
New Philadelphia, Ohio. 

Here, in this pleasant and fertile valley, they 
thought themselves so far in the wilderness that they 
might forever remain undisturbed. They built cab- 
ins, cleared away the forests, tilled the soil, and wor- 
shiped God in peace and happiness. Their numbers 
increased by conversions fr<3m the Indians until the 
settlement contained three villages named Schoen- 
brunn, Gnadenhutten and Salem. But though exer- 
cising only the arts of peace, keeping aloof fi-om war 
and strife, and patiently submitting to wrong without 
seeking to bestow punishment or gratify revenge, they 
could not escape persecution and martyrdom. 

They were distrasted by both the British and the 
Americans. The former took steps to break up their 
mission and bring the inhabitants to Detroit as pris- 
oners. It was a sad blow to the peaceful Christians 
to be forced to leave their homes and ungathered 
crops, and, in a long journey through a pathless wil- 
derness, suffer indignity, cruelty and untold hard- 
ships. The following spi-ing (1782) a jwrtion of them 
obtained permission to i-eturn to harvest their corn. 
Arriving there, a terrible fate soon befell them. A 
detachment of Americans came among them, and, 
seizing a favorable opportunity, rushed upon the 
defenceless Indians and slaughtered them in cold 
blood. The details of the massacre are sickening and 
horrible — it being one of the most unprovoked, cruel 
and bloody deeds in the annals of border warfare. 

Those that had remained at Detroit sought a home 
in Canada, but, after staying a few years anting the 
Chippewas, their hearts yearned for their old home on 
the Tuscarawas, and, in 1780, they started on their 

Reaching a jxiint on the Cuyahoga, about ten miles 
from Clevelaiiil (in Imk'iiendence townshij)). they re- 
ceived intelligence that made them shrink from going 
further. After remaining here for about a year, they 
removed westward, and, in 1787, made a settlement 
on the Fire-lands on the Huron river, about two miles 
north of Milan, in Erie county. But the country was 
still the scene of war and Ijloodshed, and. after re- 
maining five or six years, they abandoned their settle- 
ment, and again sought refuge in Canada, where tliey 
fo-.inded a settlement on the river Thames. 

In 1707, congress, mindful of their iiast wrongs. 
m:ule grants to them of their old lands on the Tus- 
carawas; a porti(m of tlicni returned, aiul the mission- 
aries continued their labors. But the contact of the 

whites interfered with their success, and some of them 
returned to Canada, and others, among them Charles 
Dencke, came to the Huron river and re-established 
the mission. This was in 1804, and they remained 
about five years, until the Fire-lands, having been sur- 
veyed, the white settler began to claim the lands jjur- 
chased from the Indians by the treaty of Fort Industry, 
and they, the missionaries and their Indian adherents, 
returned to Canada. 

The mission village was called Pequotting, or Pay- 
nothing, and consisted of a chapel, mission house, and 
a score or more of cabins, some of which were after- 
ward used by the white settlers. Here, as elsewhere, 
the missionaries taught the Indians not only religion 
but the rudiments of education, and, to a certain ex- 
tent, were successful in inducing them to get their 
food by cultivating the soil instead of by the chase, ta 
live in cabins, and to leave off their paint and feathers 
and clothe themselves in more civilized garb. , 

Their missionary, Charles Frederick Dencke, was 
born in Iceland, his father being a missionary to that 
country. Tradition states that he had a library which 
filled a space of not less than ten feet in length by 
six feet in height, and occujiying nearly one side of 
his log-cabin at Pequotting. Surely, the man who 
would take the pains to transport these books from 
place to place under so many difficulties, could not 
have been an ignorant or uncultivated man. 

It is stated that David Zeisberger was here dui'ing 
their first stay. For an account of this celebrated 
missionary, and his co-laborers, Heckewelder, Post 
and others, it is only necessary to refer the re.ider to 
any authentic history of Ohio. They wei-e not the 
heroes of battles, nor winners of renown in the noisy 
strife of civic triumph. They cared not for the aji- 
plause of men, but in a humble way, in an obscure 
field, in years of lonely wandering, with a stnmg faith 
that sustained them in many a trying hour, tliey 
sought out the rude savage of the forest, and did what 
they could to civilize and elevate him. Is it not best 
that history spares them a jiage. and fame keej) their 
names alive ? 



The survey of tlie Fire-lands having been comjdeted 
in 1808. and tlie Indian title having been extinguished, 
many peo])le in the old ('minecticut began to think of 
emigrating to the new. The names of the earlier set- 
tlers, and the dates of their arrival, lU'c given with 
more or less fullness in the histories of the different 
townships. In some instances, it is difficult to obtain 
accurate information, not only because of the vague- 
ness of memory, and the imjjerfections of records, but 
because it is somcAvhat difficult at this period to dis- 
tinguish between the bona-Jlde settler and the mere 
s(|uatter. This latter class were usually first upon the 



ground. It w;is raivlv ilirtienlt to .«efUR' tlit'ir reniovul 
wlien desired. Civilized society and regular labor wei-e 
an aversion to them. Tliey loved the excitement of 
the chase and the independence of forest life, and the 
advent of cultivated fields was in general the signal 
for their disaiipearance. Here and there one remained, 
living in a hand-to-mouth way, doing odd Jobs of chop- 
l)ing, planting or husking for himself or others, but 
always preferring to hunt or fish, and in hahits, tastes 
and character being an intermediate link between the 
Indian and the white man. Doubtless some of this 
class are often put down as regular settlers, though the 
classification of rights was not made until Novemlier 
0. 1808. 

The following carefully prejiared table shows the 
date of settlement of the different townsiiips: 





New Haven 1811 

Townsend ... 1811 

Ridgefield 1812 

Sherman 1812 

Bronson 1814 

New London 1815 

Peru 181S 

Fairfield .. 
Norwich. . . 
Hartland , 


Huron 1808 i Milan. 

Vermillion 1808 ' Margan 

Danbury (Ottawa County) ' "" i - - ■ 



O.^ford 1810 

Portland 1809 Florence 1811 

Groton ISOSi Birmingham 1816 

Berlin 1810 I Ruggles (Ashland County). .. .183-3 

It will be seen that the first settlements were made 
in Erie county. Indeed, some of these townshijis were 
settled and cleared up while much of the south part 
of Huron county was yet an almost unbroken wilder- 
ness. The number of inhabitants in Milan township, 
at the outbreak of the war of 1812, is stated by Mr. 
Fowler to have been two hundred and twenty-five. 

It will already have been noticed that a large ma- 
jority of the settlers of the Fire-lands, like those of 
otiler parts of the Western Reserve, were of Connecti- 
cut birth. This gave for many years a fixed and 
homogeneous character to tlie population, and, though 
the old stock has given way to younger generations, 
the old traits of character remain to a great extent 

Here, then, in 18(.I9, or twenty-eight yeai's after the 
burning of New London, and thirty-three years after 
the incursion to Danbury, the sufferers could begin to 
see the end, and to avail themselves to some extent of 
the long-sought relief. But the proportion of the origi- 
nal losers and sufferers, finally benefited, was small. 
Death had thinned their ranks, another generation was 
taking their place, and, of those still living, many of 
them with hearts sickened by long-deferred hope, and 
despairing of ever receiving anything, or, compelled by 
the stress of poverty, had sold their rights for a pit- 
tance. Others, vainly striving to raise the money to 
})ay the taxes levied to meet the expenses of purcJiasing 
the land of the Indians and surveying it, were unable 
to do so, and their rights sold. At best, of those who 
were able to retain their interests, but few would care 
to remove to a distant wilderness, and so, in one way 

and aiiotla-r. much of the smaller interests were ali- 
sorlied by the larger, and if not, most of tiie Fiiv-lands 
l»assed into the hands of comparatively a few indi- 
viduals, who had the means to profit by the necessities 
of those less favored by fortune. Indeed, there is but 
little doubt but that, previous to the passage of the 
grant, many of the rights had been bought up on 
speculation for trifiing sums. It is certain that up to 
that time immigrants were rapidly arriving. The war 
of 1812 checked for a temporary period the infiux of 
settlers. In fact, many of them aliandoned their im- 
provements and fled t(3 a ])lace of safety, some of them 
never returning. 

It would be a difficult task to i)ictnre, to the mind 
of the reader living in an age of railroads and tele- 
graphs, the difficulties and hardships attending a jour- 
ney from Connecticut to Ohio in the early part of the 
present century. A distance that is now traversed in 
twenty-four hours, required, then, a journey of weary 
weeks and months. There was no means of instanta- 
neous communication; even the turnpike and stage 
coach were thought of only as among the possibilities 
of the future. Indeed, at thi.~: )irc.<ent time, one can 
traverse the globe, not only with greater (.-(mifort and 
safety, but consume but a little more time than was 
then necessary to ti-avel from Connecticut to the Fire- 
lands. The boat poled up the Mohawk; the skiff 
rowed along the shores of Lake Erie, scarce daring to 
venture on its treacherous waters; the wagon drawn 
by the slow plodding oxen through pathless forests, and 
fording, as best they could, the bridgeless streams, — 
these were the means of communication between the 
east and the west in those days. Nor do they, upon 
their arrival, find anything prepared for their comfort 
ov their safety. Their lot is cast in the wilderness, and 
toil, danger and privation must l)e their pcu'tion for 
many years to come. The wild beast is yet in the for- 
est, and the Indian still lingers on his old jninting 
ground, generally peaceable, indeed. Iwt at times 
spreading consternation along the Ijorder, and at best 
an (jbject of suspicion and distrust. Many a night is 
passed in terror, many a day in weary suspense. Stout 
hearts grow weak, and not a few seek safety in removal 
or flight. No wonder, then, that among tiie pioneers 
of the Fire-lands were found so many men of strong 
frames, robust health and indomitable will. The 
fittest only could stand tlie journey and the subseijuent 
life — the weak and puny must remain behind. 

The damp woods and marshes were full of malari- 
onti jioisons, and the strongest were not proof airainst 
insidious fevers which sapi)ed their strength and laid 
them low on beds of pain and deatii. 

Did they never repme, and mourn for their old 
homes and associations so far away, and curse the evil 
iiour they were induced to leave them? It would be 
strange if there were not those among them that did 
so. But there was little time for the settler to spend 
in vain regrets. He must work or starve. His long 
journey from the east accomplished, he found himself 
too late to raise any cro])s the first vear. For his food 



he must ilqK'ud on wimt he had Iji-ought with him, 
what he euukl i)nrohase of his neighbors, and hist, Init 
1)V no means least, what he eould kill with his rifie. 
He must huild a ealiin for the shelter of himself and 
his faniily. inelosures to jiroteet his stoek from tiie 
wolf and the liear: then, for years, with an exjierienee 
only varied by a little j)lauting and caring for crops, 
an occasional trip to the distant store or mill, year in 
andj-earout, he mitst labor with hi.-s axe, felling the trees 
which covered the land, one by one ; splitting some 
into rails to fence his crops, but generally rolling them 
together and burning. It is worth while to descri))e 
his house-building, farming operations and mode of 
life more in detail. 



A DESCRIPTION- of a pioneer log-caljin and of the 
pioneer home-life, may not lie without its interest to 
the reader of the present day. 

The location of the cabin decided upon, the space 
cleared away, and suitable timber having been selected, 
felled, partially hewn, and cut into proper lengths, it 
remained to "raise" the cabin. Word having been 
given out, the settlers for miles around gathered to 
their new neighbor's clearing, glad to lend a helping 
hand. A man of experience in such matters was 
selected as captain or leader; other expert men, axe in 
hand, were posted at the corners to cut saddles or 
notches in the logs that they might, lie more firmly 
and closer together, tlie ends of the logs often over- 
lapping and projecting for a foot or more. The logs 
having been previously drawn to a convenient nearness 
by oxen, to the major part of the company was assigned 
the duty of conveying the logs to the intended struc- 
ture ; sometimes the coml)ined strength of the party 
sutticcd to lift theni up and carry them, but oftener 
skids and handspikes were called into use; in either 
case the work was done with a will scarce needing the 
energetic tones and sharp commands constantly used 
by the leader. Accidents were not uncommon; severe 
strains often resulted from one man trying to out-do 
another,, while sometimes a log slipped or fell, striking 
a man down in its descent, and breaking his leg or 
arm. The log-carriers were sometimes divided into 
squads, or parties, each having a particular end to keep 
up, and the resulting rivalry made the task a short 
one, the building being rarely over a single story in 
height. The cabin fairly raised, and the roof pole« put 
in position, the remaining work of finishing the cabin 
could be performed more leisurely without the help of 
so many hands. The whisky to which they had re- 
sorted for refreshment during their labors was drank 
more freely than ever, and its stimulating effect began 
to l)e visible im many of the company. Quiet men 
gri'W loud and l)oisterous; modest men l)oastfnl ami iir- 
royaii' : jieaceful, orderly men became (|iiarrelsoine 

and \ indietive. and instances occurred wiiere the pleas- 
ant party of the early day ended in a general row; but 
it is simple justice to the early settler to say tiiat 
the evil effects of whisky drinking were much more 

to drink freely was the custom of the tinier, and such 
a thing as total al)stinence almost unheard of. The 
stimulus was rarely so potent as to lead them into 
other than rough sports and games and rivalry 
in feats of strength and agility. 

The roof .was made by.layijig small logs or saplings, 
the tamarack being often used, which were placetl 
lengthwise. These formed a sujiport for the shingles 
or "shakes," as they were often called. These were 
much longer than the shingles of later years, and, 
when laid, about three feet was exposed to the 
weather. They were generally rived or split out of 
straight-grained, full-grown wljite-oak trees. Xails 
being then almost unknown, and those few- forged by 
hand, their use was out of the question, and the 
shingles were secured by laying poles or logs to keep 
them in position. The chimney was often comj)osed 
of "cats and clay," the cats in question not being the 
familiar household tabby, but small sticks split to a 
regular size. The base was formed of stone, often 
undressed bowlders, and on this superstructure the 
chimney was built, generally outside, and at the end 
of the cabin, the cats forming a frame work which 
was heavily daubed and plastered with clay. As for 
openings, the door usually was rived planks, unless- 
the neighborhood was the happy possessor of a 
•■thunder-gust" saw-mill. The hinges and latches 
were made of wood. Glass was a luxury rarely met 
with. Sometimes greased paper served as a substi- 
tute, and the windows were small, the usually open 
door being another medium for the admission of lighr. 
Often, for months, the ground served for a floor, liut. 
after a time, boards or "puncheons" were split out 
for that purpose; they were hewed a little, conse- 
quently they were never very smooth, often quite 
shaky. Holes were bored in the logs and pegs driven 
in, on which to hang the various articles of wearing 
apparel and household use — a place to hang the ritle 
not being forgotten. These pegs served as a support 
for .shelves and even for lieds. But regular bedsteads, 
cheap and common enough looking these days. wei'C 
soon introduced, many settlers l.iringing them with 
them from Connecticut, and. for the children. 
"trundle-beds" were in common use. I'he caliin 
generally consisted of but a single room. In tlie 
warmer months much of the work of cooking. wa.~ii- 
ing, etc., was performed outside, under the friendly 
shade of .some convenient tree. At other times the 
one room served the jiurpose of kitchen, dining-room, 
parlor, closet and bed-room combined. The larger 
boys generally slept in the garret, access being had by 
a flight 6{ rude stairs or a ladder: and in the winter 
sea.son the snow often found its Way between tin' 
loo.sely placed shingles, so tliat in going to bed they 
"made tracks'" with alacritv. Rude benches, h ng 


enough to seat two or three persons, made of planks 
si)lit and shaved, served as cliairs. In tlie plank, 
holes were bored and sticks inserted, to serve as legs 
or supports. Household utensils were as scanty as 
the furniture, a single pot or skillet often having to 
do duty many times over in preparing a meal. Tin- 
ware was scarce and dear, stoves of course unknown, 
and as for saving fuel, that was of but little moment, 
the huge fire-places admitting a stick as long and as 
heavy as a man would care to carry. 

The tire on the hearth is one of tlie i)leasant memo- 
ries of early days; on a winter's evening, with familiar 
faces grouped around, the scene is most inviting. Is 
the sacrifice of old comforts to modern plans always 
without loss? The bright light of the blazing logs 
often rendered candles or lamps unnecessary, and the 
fire being easily kept up and rarely suffered to die out 
for months together, the modern inventiim of matches, 
now indispensable, was more easily got along without. 
Clocks were the luxxiry of the few, but were- a few 
years later introduced and sold at high prices by ped- 
dlers, the housewife noting the hours by the sunlight 
streaming through the open door or window and cast- 
ing a shadow of the wall upon the floor. 

The food of the settler was "johnny-cake" and mush, 
or bread of coarsely-ground flour or meal, ililk was 
freely used, butter often dispensed with and rarely of 
the best ((uality, and cheese unknown. Pork and 
venison were always at hand; wild turkey, squirrel and 
other game easy to obtain. Sugar from the maple was 
freipiently to be had, and tea and coffee were often 
replaced by decoctions of sassafras, si^ice-bush and 
jiarched corn. As for food, the variety and manner of 
cooking were quite tolerable to those settlers fortunate 
in having a good start and a little money, otherwise 
they often suffered for necessaries, and being jiut on 
short rations was not an uncommon experience. 

In respect to clothing, the contrast with the present 
time was more noticeable. Deerskin was largely used 
for men's clothing. It would wear a long time, but its 
adaptability was sadly lessened by the ease with which it 
would absorb water. A man getting a pair of deerskin 
trousers thoroughly wet would soon find them length- 
ened and dangling at his heels so as to seriously 
interfere with locomotion, and, after hanging them up 
to dry at night, would, on the following morning, find 
them almost as stiff as if made of cast iron. 

The loom and si)inning wheel were found in every 
household, and the women, besides making and knit- 
ting yarn, made cloth of flax and wool, often com- 
Ijining the ditt'erent materials into a coarse fabric 
known as linsey-Wdnlsey. The barks of trees fur- 
nished coloring matter, and the making of the gar- 
ments was completed witlKJUt calling into recpiisition 
any greater skill than the household afforded. But 
these '•home manufacturers" could not "compete" 
with tile "iiau per labor" of New England; and first 
came the calicoes and brown muslins, dear at first, 
doubly so from cost of transportation, handling, and 
especially from the scarcity, but very soon so cheap no 

one could afford to invest money to make them. Not 
long afterwards satinets and jeans wei-e intrudticed for 
men's wear, and very soim the louni had no fuither 
place in the household, and the spinning wheel was 
soon afterward laid aside. More recently the sewing 
machine, books of patterns, and ready-made boots, hats 
and clothing have come into general use, — the lattei- 
commodity no longer content with becoming tlie aji- 
parel of men, but of women also. 

The settler provided with shelter, the work of clear- 
ing, grubbing and burning away the forest and inclos- 
ing his fields must be commenced. This is to be his 
main vocation, especially in the winter season, for long 
years to come. He must rise early and work late, nor 
is the labor itself easy or inviting. As timber and 
wood have no marketable value, they are simply an 
incumbrance to be got rid of; occasionally, however, a 
fine tree is saved for rails or other use. The manner 
of clearing, too, is different from that of later years. 
A shorter, less laborious method must be adopted — 
the labor of felling the trees is often avoided ])y "gird- 
ling" or "deadening" them. The ascent of the sap 
being arrested by cutting notches entirely around the 
trunk, the tree dies, and the trunk Ijecomes dry and 
is burned in much less time, than if it was felled in the 
first instance and allowed to lie on the damp ground; 
and besides, after a time many of the trunks are blown 
over, and the labor of chopping them down avoided. 
Some trees, the beech and maple for instance, begin to 
topple and fall after the third year. 

Grain and other crops were often raised in the 
girdling. After a time the number of fallen trunks 
interferes with cultivation, and selecting a dry time, 
they are set fire to. This burning is systematically 
done; a hundred fires are set, and the woods and skies 
are soon darkened by the smoke. To watch and tend 
the fires, to cut down, an occasional "stub" which is 
left standing, is the work of the settler, which is pro- 
longed far into the night, when the bright flames light 
up the surrounding forests, and make a scene of beauty 
upon which he loves to linger and look. In order to 
facilitate the burning of the larger logs, fires are set 
at different points so as to burn them in two. In 
some places this is called "niggering." When the 
work is sufficiently advanced, the settler invites his 
neighbors, who turn out with the same alacrity and 
willingness they would to a raising. With long hand- 
spikes, the burning logs are rolled together into great 
hea])s. Working in the smoke, treading on hot ashes 
and emliers, facing blazing fires, and at the same time 
exerting all the strength they possess, the task is no 
light or easy one; but the work is done with a will, and a 
hearty "now all together" that shows them in earnest. 
The task accomplished, the scene is often changed 
into merry-making; a hearty supper is jirepared, and 
liquid refreshments are not wanting, . Though the 
wood or timber has no marketable value, the ashes 
are scra]ied u]) and placed in rude conical boxes, flaring 
at the top, and made of staves. Water is i)oured in 
at the to]), and, leaching through, the lye thus formed 



is carefully saved, ami after Ijoiliiijf in hiiLie irun [Kits 
forms "lilack salts," from which potash is niaile. It 
was sold in the form of lilack salts, wliirli had 
tlie important quality of considerable \alue in so 
little weight or bulk that it eould be transported 
to the distant eastern markets. The sale of this pro- 
duet was one of the few resources whicli tlie early 
settler had to obtain money. The soil of the field 
thus burned off was, it is unnecessary to say, of great 
fertility, and enormous crops were often i-iiised. But 
plowing and caring for crops was hard work among 
the roots, stones and stumi)s; tools and implements 
were rudely fashioned and imi)erfect. It was the days 
of reaping hooks and hand rakes; and the grain, 
slowly gathered, was taken to the barn, and the work 
of pounding it out with flails remains to be done. 
Nor was the work of converting into flour less formid- 
able. At first, a pestle and mortar were used, worked 
liy hand with a .spring-pole, but the i)ioneers of the 
Fire-lands had but little experience of this kind. With 
a bag of gram upon his horse, the settler would go 
ten, twenty, yes, forty miles through the lonely woods 
to the nearest mill — a rude affair of Small capacity — 
and return after an absence of three or four days con- 
sumed 'in the slow traveling of the times, and in 
waiting for his turn, and in a few weeks' time he 
would have to make another trip. No wonder then 
that the establishment of a mill in a settlement was 
hailed as a godsend. 

Bountiful crops did not always reward the husband- 
man. The raccoon, the squirrel and the woodchuck 
were sometimes of the opinion that the growing corn 
was their private property. Traps must lie set. and 
hunts organized to catch them and put a stop to their 
depredations, and high and stout fences must lie built 
■to keep out larger animals, hogs, cattle and deer. 

The csire of live stock was no small matter. Sheep 
had to be penned every night to keep them from the 
wolves, and every once in a while a bear would carry 
off a pig in broad daylight. Full grown cattle ranged 
the woods with l)ut little fear from attack by wild ani- 
mals. They were generally provided with bells, so 
that they could be the more easily found at night. 
But the forest-covered country furnished but little 
l)astiirage. In cold weather the slender supply of hay 
and cornstalks was soon exhausted, and the cattle, 
gaunt as skeletons, were turned into the woods to 
browse among the underl)rush and tree-tops of the 
clearings, and in the spring and summer were often 
poisoned by eating noxious herbs and shrubs. That 
terrible mysterious scourge, milk-sickness, sometimes 
made its appearance, and brought suffering and death 
into the settler's cabins. Malarious diseases were more 
prevalent than now. The damp woods and f resh-t urned 
fields were full of fever poisons. Skilled physicians 
were few and. of ten many miles away. But the lot of 
the pioneer was not altogether lonely and clieerless. 
(■onii>anionship was not wanting: other settlers soon 
anived. and they assisted one another in their toils 
with light hearts and merry rivalry. The raising of a 

cabin, the oiieniug of a mad. tlie lug-rollmg and burn- 
ing, and the luisking-l)ee, were the signal for all to 
gather together and turn the hardest tasks into sport, 
while the coon-hunt, the election and the training day 
were not forgotten. Nur was the rustic dance neg- 
lected. On the rude rtnors of the cabins, the pioneer 
youth and his sweet-heart, clad not in l)roadcloth or in 
silks, but in half tanned deer-skin or homespun, 
ranged them.selves, bright and expectant, for the lively 
notes of the violin. A few tallow candles lent a dim 
and glimmering light, but the bright cheeks of the 
maidens did not need the shade ; the color would bear 
the strongest light. The dance begins, and the cares 
of field and kitchen are soon forgotten. Soft eyes 
met loving glances, and the hours sjied away as if on 
golden wings. 



TKl'MBrLi. county wa- 
government, December 

ilished by the territorial 
,S(ili. It included the 
whole of the Western Reserve. Prior to that time, so 
much of the Reserve as lay east of the Cuyahoga, the 
P(n-tage path and the Tuscarawas river, was included 
in Washington county, which was established July 20. 
1788. Eight years "later, Angust 15, 1796, that part 
of the Reserve lying west of said line was constituted 
a part of Wayne county. 

Geauga county was erected by an act of the legisla- 
ture passed December 31, ISo.i. by which aiul subse- 
ipient acts it is supposed that a parr of the Fire-lands 
was included in its limits. 

Portage county was formed from Trumbull county, 
February 10, 1807, and that i.ortion of the Reserve 
lying west of the Cuyahoga river and south of town- 
ship number five was attached to Portage county for 
judicial purposes. 

Huron county was created by the act of Feliruary 
7, 1809, and included all of the Fire-lands, to be 
organized when the legislature should deem proper; 
l)ut, for the time, to remain as it then was. attached 
to Portage and Gc'auga for judicial purjjoses. By the 
same act, Almon Ruggles was appointed recorder of 
Huron county, and to continue such until the county 
organization should be iierfected: and the recorders of 
Geauga and Trumbull counties were to deliver to him 
all books and records relating to the county of Huion. 

Cuyahoga county was organized January li'>. ISKi. 
and Huron county attached to it for judicial pur|>oses. 

January 22, 1811, the limits of Huron county were 
enlarged, the east line being moved ea.stward so as to 
include a considerable part of what is now Lorain 
county, the Ixiundary being changed .so as to extend 
from the luirtheast corner of town four of the twenti- 
eth range to the .southwest corner of town five of the 
sixteenth range, tJience north to the northwest cornei- 
of town six. in the sixteenth range, thence west to tlie 


middle of Black river, and thence, following that 
stream, to Lake Erie. The Ohio legislature, by a 
resolution adopted on the 29th of January, 1811, 
'api)oiuted Ephraim Quinl^y of Trumlnill. Joseph 
Clark of Geauga, and Solomon Griswold of Ashtabula 
county, as commissioners to locate a county seat. 
They selected a site on the farm of David Aljbott, in 
the township of Avery, and near the present village of 

On January 31. 1811. an act was passed further or- 
ganizing Huron county, but the war with England 
prevented it from being carried out, until January 31, 
1815. The first court of common pleas was held at 
the county seat, in Avery township, (now Milan,) 
George Tod, presiding judge, and Jabez Wright, Ste- 
phen Meeker and Joseph Strong, associates. Com- 
plaint ha\ing been made that the location of the 
county seat was unsuitable, the legislature was induced, 
on the 2Cth day of January. 1818, to ajjpoiut Abra- 
ham Tappan, of Geauga, William Wetmore, of Port- 
age, and Elias Lee, of Cuyahoga county, as commis- 
sioners to view the present seat of justice of Huron 
county, and to investigate the claims of other localities, 
and if they should consider that the interests of the 
county require it, were authorized to remove it to such 
a jilace as in their judgment might he more suitable. 

The proprietors of Norwalk were much interested 
in securing a report in favor of their infant village, 
and were not, it is to be presumed, backward in pre- 
senting its claims, which they did with so much suc- 
cess that the commissioners decided in their favor and 
removed the county seat thither. 

The first meeting of the commissioners of Huron 
county was held at the county seat, in Avery, on 
August 1, 1815, at the house of David Abbott. The 
commissioners were Caleb Palmer, Charles Parker 
and Eli S. Barnum ; Ichabod Marshall was apjiointed 
clerky;;-o fern. AViijah Comstock was iippointed county 

Among the townships set off were the following: 

Vermillion, to comprise the whole of the twentieth 
range, together with all that tract of country l^elong- 
ing to Huron county, east of the twentieth range. 

Greenfield, to comprise townships numbers two and 
three in the twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third 
and twenty-fourth ranges. 

New Haven, to comprise townships uuuiIxt one, 
in tlie twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third and 
t wcnty-f ourth ranges. 

The commissioners decided at this meeting that the 
bounty for killing wolves in the county of Huron to be 
paid Ijy said county shall )je: For each wolf scalp more 
than six months old, two dollars; for each wolf scalp 
less than six months old, one dollar. They also 
ordered that the Iniilding at the county seat which 
hitherto had been occupied as a school house, should, 
for the future, l)e used for a court lu)useand gaol until 
other arrangements could be made. 

The second Ijoard of commissioners consisted of 
Nathan Cuniinin!<. for one vcar: Frederick Fallev. tVi|- 

two years; and Bildad Adams, for three years; the 
length of service being determined by lot, and ap- 
pointed Frederick Falley as their clerk. The meeting 
was held at the house of David Al^ljott, Esq., at the 
county seat, on the first Monday of Decemljer, 1815. 

The following townships were ordered set off: Ridge- 
field, comprising the townships of Ridgefield, Lyme, 
the south half of Oxford, together with the township 
of Sherman; Bloomingville, comprising Perkins and 
fractions Ijetween that and Sandusky Bay and the 
north half of Oxford; Margaretta, comprising Patter- 
son, the fraction between that and Sandusky Bay, 
Danbury and the island in the bay and lake. 

At this meeting committees were appointed to lay 
out ten different roads, and Lyman Farwell was ap- 
pointed collector of county taxes and levies for the 
year 1816, and Abijali Comstock was appointed treas- 
urer and gave bond for three thousand dollars, with 
David Abbott and John Hack as sureties. June 8, 
1816, the treasurer's report was sul)mitted : Total re- 
ceipts for the year, two thousand six hundred and 
fifty-three dollars and eleven cents; total expenditures, 
one thousand eight hundred and forty-three dollars and 
ninety-five cents; l)alance in the treasury, eight hun- 
dred and thirteen dollars and sixteen cents. 

The order of notice for proposals to be received for 
building a court house and gaol is in the following 
words: "Notice is hereby given that proposals will be 
received for the building of a brick court house and a 
gaol by the commissioners of the county of Huron at 
the next court of common pleas to be holden in and 
for the county of Huron on the third Tuesday of 
October next of said court, at which time and place a 
plan of said buildings will be exhibited, and time 
made known for the completion of the same. Fred- 
erick Falley, Eljenezer Merry, Bildad Adams, commis- 
sioners. Attest: David Abbott, Clerk." The com- 
missioners ordered that the notice be inserted in a 
paper published at Columbus, and in the Tnonp of 
Fame, for three weeks prerious to the time of receiv- 
ing proposals, and also that notice l>e given in four 
public places by advertisements. 

February 8, 1817, the township of Danl)ury was set 
off from Margaretta (to include the islands), and 
Bronson and Norwalk were set off from Hui'on. under 
the name of Norwalk. 

Township five in the twentieth range wa.s set off 
from Vermillion, to be called Florence. Townships 
one, two, three, four and five, in twenty-first range, 
were set oft', under the name ..r Eldriil-e, April "3, 

The l)uilding of the court house and jail l>eiug put 
up at auction. Ebeiu-zer Merry was the lowest bid- 
der — seven hundred dollars for erecting the frame of 
the niurt house and jail and tiie underpinMing for the 

April 23, 1817. Merry contracted to furnish fifteen 
thousand feet of boards, for finishing the court house, 
at twelve dollars flions;,u.l. 



June S, 1817.— Abijah Comstock, Treasurer, Da. 

ToStatetax 81,535 84 

To county tax 258 99 

To permits and licenses 121' 11 

To old balance **13 15 

To onler on Cuyahoga county 613 59 

To order on auditor tor three per cent, money 150 00 

3,492 68 

Orders redeemed $2,195 42 

For per centage S" ^1 

Balance due the county on settlement $1,209 45 

Sei)teniljer 11, 1819. it was ordered that tlie name 
of Wheatsborough be changed to Lyme. February 
16. 1820, the commissioners ordered that tliere should 
be no more Indians' accounts audited. 

June, lS'i'2, the wolf bounty was fixed at one dollar 
and fifty cents for each wolf over six months old, and 
seventy-five cents for those under that age. 

August 12, 1818, it was ordered by the commissioners 
that notice be given that the coijimissioners will, on 
the first ilonday of December following, receive pro- 
posals for a court house, forty by thirty feet, and a jail; 
and on the 7th of December following, the commis- 
sioners purchased a building of David Underbill & Co. 
for a court house, for the sum of eight hundred and 
forty-eight dollars. 

March I, 1819, the commissioners contracted with 
Piatt Benedict to build a jail, twenty-four by forty-six 
feet, two stories high, for the sum of one thousand 
two hundred and seventy-five dollars. 

The first term of court was held at the old county 
seat, in October. 1815, the first recorded cause being 
an action by John James against Anthony Doyle for 
assault and battery — Samuel Mott, attorney for plain- 
tiff, Elisha Whittiesey for defendant. The cause was 
discontinued before being brought to a trial. 

The first letters of administration were issued to 
Nathan "Wood, on the estate of Robert Harberson. 
deceased, late <if Wheatsborough (Lyme) township. 
The inventory of the goods and chattels gives, among 
other items: 

1 black cott m w 

1 red co« IS 00 

1 pair steer-. -6 00 

5 geese ^ W 

1 large iron kettle <> M 

1 set plow irons 5 00 

1 iron wedge 1 00 

1 axe. . i 00 

1 scythe and snat^ . 1 25 

III the year 1830 a tax or license was charged 
against lawyers and physicians from one dollar to 
three dollars each. Total amount, eighty-three dol- 
lars. The following is the list: 

Lawyers —Ebenezer .\ndrews. Milan; L. S. Beecher, Portland; Eleu- 
theros Cook, Ridgefield: Wm. H. Hunter, Portland; David Higgins, Nor- 
walk; Philip R. Hopkins Milan; Francis Kenyon, Milan ; Picket Lati- 
mer, Norwalk; Ebenezer Lane, Xorwalk; Francis l>. Parish, Portland; 
Thad. B. Sturges. Xorwalk; John Wheeler. Portland; James Williams. 

Physicians,— (jeo. .\nderson. Portland; A. H. Brown. New Haven: 
Geo. O. Baker, Florence; S. B. Carpenter. Oxford: H. M. Clark. Wake- 
man; Cyrus Cole, Ridgefield ; Thos. Davis, Portland: Lyman Fay, Milan: 
Dr. Frisbie, New Haven; I. T. Gilbert, Sew Haven; Amos B. Harris, 
Milan; Junia A. Jennings. New Haven; Wm. F. Kittredge. Xorwalk; 
•Wm. M. Ladd, Greenwich; Philip R. McCrea. Milan: Harvey Manley, 
Clarksfleld; Richard A. Morton. Greenwich; Wm. W. Nugent, Portland; 

Lemuel Powers, New Haven ; Hugh T. Prouty. Ridgefield : Moses C. San- 
ders, Peru; Samuel Stevens, Lyme; Charles Smith. Lyme: Daniel Til- 
den, Norwalk; Ensign Van Benschoter, Portland. 

In 18-iO the following lawyers were taxed. They 
were located at Norwalk, unless otherwise sjtecified: 

Lawyers —J. J. .\ckerman. John Beardsley, C. L. Boalt. David Hig- 
gins. Jr., Jairus Kennan. C. L. Latimer. Noah Newton. J. R. Osboni. W. 
Pierce, Joseph M. Root, Ezra M. Stone, T. B. Sturges, C. B. Squires, 
James Williams. S. T. Worcester, John Whitbeek- J. W. Wilson, of 

Herewith is given a list of the names on the tax 
duplicate for the year 181.5. The book containing 
them is now on file at the county auditor's office in 
Norwalk, and consists of a single sheet of foolscap 
folded so as to make sixteen pages. It has no cover, 
and IS yellow with age. The amount of tax levied to 
each person is given, but is here omitted — the total 
amount levied being one hundred and ninety-two dol- 
lars and forty cents; the largest amount charged to a 
single individual being six dollars and forty cents, — to 
David Abbott. The spelling is that of the record: 


Whe.atsborovgh.— Bildad Adams. Joseph .\lbee. Epm. .\danis. Seth 
Brown. Sumner Bacon. Mathew Benard. John Barney. Charles Blanoh- 
ard, John Baker, Henry Barney. Elijah Biaton. Hiram Blackman, Ste- 
phen Blackmore, Charles Butler. William Bole, Gasper Clutter, Dougal 
Campbell, Samuel Chena. Nathan Cummins. Stephen Crippin. Thomas 
Cook, Josiah Curtis, Luther Coe, Christopher Cooper. James R. Cowen. 
Thomas Curren, Israel Coolidge. Henry Cole, Benj, Drake. ' Phinehas 
Dunham, Levi Dixon. John Dillingham. Peter Dunham, John Evens, 
Francis Evens, Lineus Ensign. Barrel Fitch. William Frink. WiUiara 
Ferguson, George Ferguson, John Fleming. Eli Ford. James Forsyth. 
John Fay. Truman Gilbert. Jacob Goodrich, .\nslow Ciuthrie, Seth Har- 
rington. Job Hughs. Eli Hunt. John Harbison. John Inscho, J. Moses 
Inscho. Joseph Inscho. John Jackson. .Alexis Jackson. Thomas James. 
John James. Samuel Knap. Martin M, Kellogg, Ezra Lee, Sanders Lit. 
tlefield. Cyrus W. Marsh, Harlow Marth r. William McKelvey, Israel 
Markham, James Jlclntyre. Thomas Morris, Chis, May. James More- 
craft. James McCord. Samuel Megill.-Adam Myers. Timothy Olds. Stephen 
Palmer. Daniel Pratt. Caleb Palmer, David Powers. Isaac Powers' Uzziel 
Putnam. -Tohn Paxton. Dan. Putnam, Samuel Pettingale, .\ndres Parker, 
.\ndres Parker.Jr.. Daniel Page. Green Parker. William Richey. Richard 
Richards. Ram.idale on the P. (Peninsula ?). Ebenezer Ransom. Hanson 
Reed. John Roberts, Samuel Rice. George Roberts, John Sower, Erastus 
Smith, Samuel Spencer. Gasper Smith, Math^-w Smith. Danl. Sherman, 
Moses Sutton. Moses Sutton, Jr.. Levi Sutton, Andrew Stull, Francis 
Strong. Zadoc Sanford Selvey. Joseph Strong. Reuben Skmner, 
Samuel Spry, Dorastus P. Snow. Philip Sutton. Jonathan Sprague. Jona. 
Sprague. Senr., Willard Sprague, Nathan Shippy, Junr . Moses Thorp, 
Tulleronthe P. (Peninsula ^i, James Wilson. Thomas Webb, .Michael 
Widner, Leonard Widner. Moses Wilson, Jasper Wood. Nathan Wood, 
Wolcott on the P.. (Peninsula ?i, William York. 

Huron Township.— Isaac Allen. David .\bbott, Daniel Butler, estate of 
David Barritt. Richard Bngley. .\zariah Beebe. George Calvin. Levi D. 
Chapman. Daniel Curtis, Sj-renus Campbell, Abijah Comstock, James 
Conaway, Jeremiah Daniels. John Dickson, John B. Flemmond, .\nson 
Fox, Lyman Fay, Lyman Farwell, Anderson Hubbard, Abijah Hewet, 
George Giles, Eli H"bbard, John Hook, Luther Harvey, William Howard, 
Thomas JefTery, Elijah Kinney, Manoak Kinney. Orsemus Kellogg, John 
Laughlin, Samuel Lewis. John Monigomery, Jacob Mingur, Osmer 
Merry, Moody Mears. Ebenezer Merry. Cornelia Mason. Aaron Noble, 
Benj. Newcomb. Moses Olmsted. Winslow Perry, Charles Parker, Reuben 
Pixley, John Roberts, Richmond Rhodes, Hiram Russell, David Smith, 
Josiah Smith, Tinker K. Smith, Asa Smith, Thomas Starr. Jonathan 
Sprague. Chester Smith. Phineas Tillotson, John Thompson, Kneeland 
Townsend. Joseph Vanorman, Henry Vanwormer, Jerred Ward. Jabez 

Vermiu-ion Tow.vship,— William .Austin, John .\ustin, John Brooks. 
George Brooks, Ira Blackmail, Joseph Brooks, Jonathan Brooks, Daniel 
Barton. John Beardsley. Harvey Bliss. Jeremian V. Benscotre. Lemuel 
Blackin, James Buroughs. William Blackman. Charles Betts, Eli S. 
Barnum. Aaron C. Buck, James Cuddeback, Peter Cuddeback, Jacob 
Cumpton, Town Clark, David Frary, Rufus Judson, Francis Keys, 
Stephen Meeker, Joseph Parsons. Solomon Pai-sons, Horatio Perry. 
Almond Ruggles, Isaac Ransom, Martin Ci. Shelhouse. Loramie Shel- 
house, Lambert Shafer, Ezra Sprague. Barlow Sturges. John Sharets. 
George Sharets, Enoch Smith, Isaac Tillotson. Josiah Weston. 




The earliest indication of a divisioa of Huron 
county, that might have been discovered by the far 
seeing, was the springing up of a spirit of jealous 
rivalry between Sandusky and Norwalk. This feeling 
was developed at an early day and increased steadily 
up to and beyond the time when Erie county. was set 
off from Huron, though the main cause of its foster- 
ing was removed when Sandusky became the county 
seat of Erie. There were other and more potent 
forces in operation, however, which tended toward 
the division of the territory. There was a desire for 
the formation of new counties in several localities, 
notably in tiie southern part of Huron and the 
northern part of Richland, where a strong movement 
was on foot' for the erection of a new county from the 
territory of the tAvo named, to be known as Plymouth. 
Tliis scheme was urged with considerable energy by 
the people of New Haven (then a thriving village), 
and of Paris (now Plymouth), Ijetween which places, 
had a new county been set off. there would have been 
a warm competition for the "honors and emolu- 
ments " of the county seat location. Had not Erie 
been set off from the northern part of Huron, some 
of the territory of the southern part would, in all 
probability, have been set off for the erection of the 
proposed county of Plymouth. 

The act for the ejection of Erie county was intro- 
duced in the Ohio legislature in the session of 183S, 
and was the subject of mucli argument pro and con, 
in the public prints of the territory more or less in- 
terested, and through memorials. 

Petitions and remonstrances, the usual recourse of 
the public, were submitted to the legislature, showing 
the rea.sons for and against the erection of the county. 
The report of the standing committee of the senate 
— session of 1838 — on new counties, comments at 
length upon these expressions of the people's will. A 
brief synopsis of this report gives an exhibit of the 
causes that led to the formation of Erie county. The 
petitions praying for the erection of the county were 
signed by twelve hundred and fifty persons, all of 
whom were said to reside in the boundaries of Huron 
and Sandusky counties and within the boundaries 
proposed for the county of which the act under 
consideration contemplated the erection. In addition 
to these there was another petition containing the 
mimes of forty-six persons, who expressed a prefer- 
ence for Erie over Ottawa county. These jietitions 
represented that the counties of Huron and Sandusky- 
were larger than necessary; that they had an unusu- 
ally good soil; were capaljle of sustaining an unusually 
den.«e population; contained many flourishing towns 
and villages, and were being rapidly settled by an 
industrious and enterprising class of people. It was 
also represented that the judicial business of Huron 
county required annually three terms of the court of 

common pleas, of from three to five weeks duration, 
and that there was every prospect of an increase in 
the same. The consequent delay and inconvenience 
arising to suitors, and the great distance of those re- 
siding on the peninsula and the islands from the seat 
of justice, and the fact that a large amount of the 
legal business of Huron county originated near the 
lake, were among the strongest reasons urged in favor 
of erecting the new county. 

The remonstrances were signed by fifteen hundred 
persons, '•'excluding the names that were found ap- 
pended more than once." Of these, one thousand 
and fifty were represented as residing in Sandusky 
county, and four hundred and fifty in the county of 
Huron. More than four hundred and fifty of those 
from Sandusky lived within the territory which it 
was proposed in the bill to attach to the new county. 
The reasons urged against the erection of Erie were 
various, and differed according to the location of the 
remonstrants. From Sandusky it would take several 
of the most fertile and densely settled townships, by 
which the taxes of the people residing in other parts 
of the county would be greatly increased; the seat of 
justice would be thrown near the southeast corner of 
the county, and before many years .would require to 
be moved from its present location, causing difficul- 
ties and embarrassments to the people. It was further 
represented that the inhabitants of the peninsula 
were compelled to cross the ))ay when required to 
visit the (then) present seat of justice, and that by 
the erection of Erie county, as proposed, they would, 
though being nearer the seat of justice, still be com- 
pelled to the inconvenience of crossing the liay, which 
was sometimes both difficult and dangerous. Most 
of the remonstrances were circulated after the bill 
had passed the senate, the remonstrants alleging 
that its passage caused their first knowledge of the 

The committee closed its report with the recom- 
mendation, that as it was by no means certain that 
the spirit of the act was in accordance with tiie 
wishes of a majority of the people interested in the 
erection of the new county, no action should lie taken 
until there had l)een further consideration of the 

The act, after having been sent baclc and forth 
from the house t<j various committees, and being 
variously reported upon, was finally iiassed, March 
15, 1838. 

As this act fully describes the county as it was 
originally constituted, we print the full te.xt. It 
reads as follows : 

To erect the County o( Erie. 
Section 1. Be it enacted by the Oeneral Assemblij of the State of Ohio' 
That such parts of the counties of Huron and Samlusky. as are em- 
braced in the tioundaries hereinafter described, be and the same are 
hereby erected into a separate and distinct county, which shall be known 
Ijy the name of the county of Erie, and the seat of justice in and for said 
county, shall be, and is hereby fixed and established at Sandusky City, 
to wit; Beginning at a point on the east line of Oxford township, in the 
county of Huron, one mile north of the southeast corner thereof ; thence 
northerly on the said east line, and In the same direction, to the Canada 


line; thence westerly along said Canada line, to a point therein directly 
opposite the west line of the township of Portage, in Sandusljy county; 
theiK-r southerly, parallel with the east line of said Sandusky county to 
the north Wfst corner of the township of Townsentl, in Sandusky eounry; 
tlience east, to the west boundary of Huron county; thence south, on 
said west boundary of Huron county, to a point one tnile north of the 
south line of the township of Groton, in said Hiu'on county; and from 
thence to the place of beginning: Provided, ami il is hereby declared, 
That if the east line of said county of Erie, as above described, will not 
include the whole of Cunningham's Island, in Lake Erie, then, and in 
that case, said line shall be so far varied from the south shore of said 
lake to the said Canada line, that it will embrace the whole of said Cun- 
ningham's Island. 

Sec. 3. That the said county of Erie be, and remain attached to the 
counties from which it is detached, until the same shall be organized by 
the legislature. 


Speaker of the House of Representatives. 


March 1.5th, ISM. Speaker of the Senate. 

The act for the orgauizatiou of Erie county was 
passed March 16, 1838. It provided for the liolding 
of ail election on the following May, and that all 
justices of the peace and constables, residing within 
the territory taken from the counties of Huron and 
Sandusky and embraced within the limits of Erie 
county, should continue fo discharge their duties until 
their terms shonld e.xpire, and that suits begun in 
court before the taking effect of the act should proceed 
and be prosecuted as though the act had not been 
been passed. The county was by the power of this 
act attached for judicial purposes to the second judi- 
cial circuit. 

It was not until 1840, that Erie county was consti- 
tuted, territorially, as it now e.xists. By an act 
passed March 6th of the year above designated, the 
township of Danbury (the peninsula) and the islands, 
which previous to that time had been within the 
boundaries of Erie county, were transferred to Ottawa 
county, and Erie county was enlarged so as to embrace 
all of the Fire-lands north of the north line of Lyme, 
Ridgefield, Norwalk, Town.<eiul and Wakenian, (ex- 
cei)t the peninsula.) 



David Abbott was a presidential elector in 1812, 
but is marked as "not present." Other citizens of 
the county who have e.xercised the trusts of this office 
are: Ebeiiezer Merry, in 1854; H. D. Cooke, in 1856, 
and Jo.'sejih M. Root, elector at large. 

The following have served as members of State 
conventions to revise the constitution of the State of 
Oiiio: Convention of 18.51, Joseph M. Farr, of*Hu- 
ron, and James W. Taylor, of Erie; convention of 
187.3, Cooper K. \V;it<on, of Huron, and Joseph M. 
Root, of Erie. 

Ebenezer Lane, of Huron, and Walter F. Stone. 
of Erie, have lieen judges of \hc siijireim' I'ourr of 
the State 

The list of congressmen does not extend further 
back than 1823. Previous to this the iiiiinher of 
representatives was small, and eacli district covered 
a large territory. The census of IS-.'d, however. 

changed this. In the i)eriod between 1810 and 1820, 
more especially after the war of 1S12, the growth of 
Ohio was rapid, almost beyond precedent, and almost 
at a bound it took that prominent position in the 
Union that it has ever since maintained. The Fire- 
lands have often been represented in the halls of Con- 
gress by men of distinguished ability and wide repu- 
tation. Mordecai Bartley, of Mansfield, afterwards 
Governor; Joseph M. Root, then of Xorwalk, now 
living in the retirement of old age at Sandusky; 
John Sherman, of Mansfield, senator, and now sec- 
retary of the treasury in the cabinet of President 
Hayes, and James Monroe, of Oberlin — these are all 
men who have left the impress of their influence on 
the politics of their time, and some of them have 
been and are still among the leading minds and mov- 
ing spirits in American politics. 


18th Congress. 18'J323.— 14th District, Mordecai Bartley, Richland. 
19th Congress, 18-J5-3T.— 14th District. Mordecai Bartley, Richland, 
aoth Congress, 1837-29.— 14th District, Mordecai Bartley. Richland. 
21st Congress, 1829-31.— 14th District, Mordecai Bartley, Richland. 
22d Congress, 18.31-.33.— 14th District, Eleutheros Cooke. Huron. 
2.3d Congress, 1833-35.— 14th District, William Patterson, Richland 
34th Congress, 18-35-37.- 14th District, William Patterson, Richland. 
25th Congress, 1837-39.— 14th District. William H. Hunter, Huron. 
Stlth Congress, 1839-41.— 14th District, George Sweney, Crawford. 
27th Congress, I84H3.— 14th District, George Sweney, Crawford. 
2Sth Congress, 184-3-45.- 31st District. Henry R. BrinkerhoiT. Huron. Ed. 

ward S. Hamlin, Lorain (elected to fill vacancy caused by death of 

29th Congress, 1845-47.— 21st District, Joseph M. Root. Huron. 
30th Congress, 1847-49 —21st District, Joseph M. R ot. Huron. 
31st Congress, 1849-51.— 21st District, Joseph M. Root, Erie. 
32d Congress, 1851-53.— 3Ist District, Norton S. Townshend, Lorain. 
33d Congress, 1853-55— 13th District, William D. Lindsley, Erie. 
34th Congress, 1855-57.— 1.3th District. John Sherman. Richland. 
35th Congress, 1857-59.— 13th Disfriot. John Sherman. Richland. 
36th Congress, 1859-61.— 13th District. .lohii Sherman. Richland. 
.37ih Congress. 1861-63.- 1.3th District. John Sherman. Richland. Elected 

Senator, and succeeded by Samuel T. Worcester. Huron. 
3Sth Congress, 1863-65.— 9th District, Warren P. Noble. Seneca. 
39th Congress, 1865-67.— 9th District. Ralph P. Buckland, Sandusky. 
40th Congress. 1867-69.— 9th District, Ralph P. Buckland. Sandusky. 
41st Congress, 1869-71 —9th District, Edward F. Dickinson, Sandusky. 
42d Congress, 1871-73 —9th District, Charles Foster, Seneca. 
43d Congress. l.t73-75.— 10th District, Charles Foster. Seneca. 
44th Congress, 1875-77.— 10th District, Charles Foster, Seneca. 
45th Congress, 1877-79 - 10th District, Charles Foster. Seneca. 
46th Congress, 1879-81.— 17th District, James Monroe, Lorain. 

During the early jiart of the present century, a 
menibei' of the State legislature i-epresented a far larger 
area of territory than is now the case. Among those 
who served the Fire-lands in this capacity, were not 
only such men as David Abbott, Almon Ruggles. Elie- 
nezer Merry and Eleutheros Cooke — names which have 
a familiar sound to every old resident of the Fire- 
lands — but such others as Ephraim Quinby. of War- 
ren; Peter Hitchcock, of Geauga, a jurist of reputa- 
tion: .\lfred Kelly, often styled the father of the Ohio 
canals: and Reuben Wood, afterward.- g.)vernor. The 
list lierc oiven liegins at ISHi. which is about the time 
when llni'on coiintv began to have a rc:il existence. 


1st— Senate, Samuel Htmtington. Trumlnill. House, E. Quinby, Ai 

Wheeler, Trumbull. 
3d— Senate, Benj. Tappan. House, David .\bbott. Epm. Quinby. 
.'id— Senate, George Tod. House, Amos Spofford, Homer Hine. 
4th— Senate, George Tod. House, Homer Hine, James Kingsbury. 


55 _1806-r. Senate, Calvin Cone. House. J. P. Bissell, James Kingsbui-y 
Bth— 180r-8 Senate, Calvin Cone. House, John \V. Seeley. James 


7th— 1808-9. Senate, David Abbott. House, ? 

8th— 1809-10. Senate, David Abbott. House, ? 

Otli— 1810-11 . Senate, David Abbott. House, Peter Hitchcock. 

lOth— 1811-12. Senate, David Abbott. House. 

nth— 1812-13. Senate, Peter Hitchcock. House, 

12th-181.3-U. Senate, Peter Hitchcoclc. House. , 

13th— ISll-l"). Senate. Pfter Hitchcocli. House, . 

nth— 181.")-li'. senate. Peter Hi-chcoclc. House, . 

l-Sth— ISlii-lT Sfnate. Varon Wheeler, .\lm(jn Ruggles. House, Alfred 

Kelly, Williau) Kerr. 
lOth— lsir-1^. Senatei,Alraon Rugbies, .\arun Wheeler. Hou^ie, Lewis 



Wheeler, John Campbell. Ho 



irth-lSlS-19 Senate. Aar 

Merry. Lewis Dille. 
ISth— lsni-30. Senate, John Campbell, Almon Ruggles. House, 

Kelly, E. Merry. 
I9th— 1820-21. Senate, Almon Ruggles. House. Lyman Farwell. 
20th— 1821-22. Senate, Alfred Kelly. House, David Abbott, Lyme 

21st— 1823-23. Senate, Alfred Kelly. House, Eleutheros Cooke. 
22d— lo23-24. Senate, J.abez Wright. House, Eleutheros Cooke. 
23d— 1824-23. Senate, J. Wright. House, .\lmon Ruggles. 
24th— 1823-26. Senate, Reuben Wood. House, Eleutheros Cooke. 
25th— 1823-27. Senate, Reuben Wood. House, David Campbell. 
26th— 1827-28. Senate, Reub?n Wood. House, David Campbell, 
arth— 1S2S-29. Senate, David Campbell. House, Daniel Tilden. 
2^th— 1829-30 Senate. David Campbell. House. :vioses C. Saunders. 
29th— 1830-31. Senate, S. -M. Lockwood. House, George C4. Baker. 
30th--18Jl-32. Senate. S. M. Lockwood. House. Charles Lindsay. 
31st— 1832-33. Senate, Dan. Tilden. House, Ebenezer Merry. 
32d— 1833-34. Senate. Daniel Tilden. House, Charles Lindsay. 
33d— 1884-3). Senate, Joseph Howard. House, Philo Clark. 
34th— l8r>-36. Senate, Joseph Howard. House, Cyrus Butler. 
35th— 188J-3~. Senate, .lohn K. Cirapbell. House, Philo Clark. 
Slith— 183;-38 Senate, John K Campbell. Hoise, Philo Clark. 
37th— 1S3S-.39 Senate, Josiah Tracy. House, Walter Branch, John G- 

38th— 1839-10. Senate, Josiah Tracy. House, Ebenez-r Warner. 

39th— 1840-41- Senate, Joseph M. Root. House, Eleutheros Cooke. 

40th— 1841-42. Senate, Joseph JL Root. House, Eleutheros Cooke. 

41st— 1842-13. Senate, John Fuller. House, Samuel Atherton. 

42nd— 1843-44. Senate, John Fuller. House, Samuel Atherton. 

43rd— 1844-45. Senate, John R. Osborn. House, Benjamin Summers. 

44th— 1845-10. Senate, J. R, Osborn. 

45th— 1846-47. Senate, vacancy. House, Joseph C. Curtis. 

46th— 1847-48. Senate, Thomas Hamilton. House, Samuel Atherton. 

47th— 1848-49. Senate, Samuel T. Worcester. House, George Reber. 

48th— 1849-50. Senate, Samuel T. Worcester. House, Harvey Chase. 

49th— 1850-51. Senate, Earl Bill. House, De Morris Pratt. 

.50th— 1851-52. Senate, Elihu P. Hill. House, Hiram McMillen. 

olBt— 18,54. Senate, Albert G. Sutton. House, Harvey Fowler, Erie; 

Alpia R. Segar, Huron. 
.52nd— 1850. Senate, Ralph P. Buckland. House, C. L. Burton, Erie-: 

Thomas M. Cook, Huron. 
.53rd— 1S5S. Senate, Ralph P. Buckland. House, Thomas C. Furnold, 

Erie; Charles B. Simmons, Huron. 
54th— 1860.— Senate, F. D. Parish. House, C. B. Choate, Erie; Alexan- 
der McPherson. Robert McCune, Huron. 
55th— 1802,— Senate, John Kelly. House, J. W. Pierce, Erie; Ezra Stew 

art, Huron. 
.5Uth— 1804. Senate, Frederick Wickham. 
Erie; John C. Thompson, Huron. 
5Tth— 1806. Senate, E. B. Sadler. House, A. T. Wilco.v. Zalnuma Phil- 
lips, Erie; Frank Sawyer, Huron. 
.58th— 1808. Senate, Homer Everett. House, Benj. L Hill, Erie; W. 0. 

Parker, Huron. 
.59th-1870. Senate, Homer Everett, J M. Root. House, Benj. L. Hill, 

Erie; W. O. Parker, E. Bogardus, Huron. 
COth— 1872. Sennte, Welcome 0. Parker. House, David C Richmond, 

Erie; Henry C. Breckenridge, Huron. 
6Ist— 1874. Senate, John H.Hudson. House, D. C. Richmond, Erie; 

Edgar Martin, Huron. 
02nd— 1870. Senate, John H. Hudson. House, James Douglas, Erie; E. 

Borgardus, Huron. 
03rd— 1878. Senate, C. S. Parker. House, James Douglas, Erie; John 
A. Williamson, Huron. 



in— ..AsaSanfuTd. 1841 . .Daniel A. Baker. 

18J2. Mnses Kimball, 1851 . .Gideon T. Stewart. 

)h::i ,l;ii,i.'-i Williams 1K.57. . William Case. 

is:;; ( y: IK Bitler. 1803. David H. Pease. 

is:;:. ,l,.liii Kfiiiian. 1869,. John Barnes. 

l,s;s Wilcoxson, H. H. 1875.. Henry W. Owen. 

Johnson, acting. 

D. Lindsley, 



\bgah Comstotk 

j 1844 

.Henry H.Brown. 


David \bb .tt 


Daniels. Pond. 

1 19 

I lial IMushall 

'1 '.hall 
n t,hani 


E. E. Husted. 
lan..-sS. Felton,^. A.Preston, 


1 1 lenburgh. 

,1, X Watrous. 

i\i 11, ,11 taswell 

EdwiuH. Brown. 

John Kennan 

.E. W. Gilson. 


John M Latmiei 


.0. W. Williams 

Henn Buekmgham 



.Almon Ruggles, 

1 1848 

.D. M. Barmun 


.Xathan Strong. 
.Ichabod :Marshall 


.James Brown 



.John F. Randolph, Jr 


Paul G. Smith. 


.E. G. Boughton 


.Woodward Todd. 



LOfBce established by Constitu 

ion of 1S51]. 


.C. B. Stiokney. 


George Q. Adams 
.DanielH. Fox 


.Frederick Sears. 



LERKS (IF CorifT. 


-David .\bbott. 


.JosephC. Curtiss, Jr. 


James Williams 


.W. C, AUea. 

1867..AlvinB. Gr 
1870.. B. P. Smith. 
1876 .S.^muel T. Vansciever. 

1850 , , David Johnson , 
1.S.54 ,H, L, .Moore. 
1S.5S ,G. 51. Cleveland. 
180-.> Jos. F. B.adger, idied 

while in oftice.) 
1804., (L. D. Allen, coroner. 

sheriff e.'c-offlcio). 
1863.. Irving Cole. 
1869.. Edward C. Culp. 
18:3. John M. Latimer. 
]877..Parlee C. Breckenridge. 

For many years this office was not elective, but was appointed by the 
court, and held office at its pleasure. The following is a list of incum- 
bents for the past thirty years. 

1847.. J. R. Osborn, 
1851.. Frank S'Wyer. 
18.53.. G. H. Saffnrd. 
18.55 . . Moses R. Brailey , 
18.57 ,R, c. Powers, 
1861 , Philip N, .Schuyler, 

Charles E. Pennewell. 

.Chai-les P, Wickham, 
,Ge..ri;e W Kiiarip 



1813.. Nathan Cummins, Frederick Falley, Bildad .\dams. 
1810.. Frederick Falley, Bildad Adams, Ebenezer Merry, 
1817.. Bildad .\dams, John S. Reed, Joseph Strong. 

1819. Bildad Adams. .Joseph Strong, Lyman Farwell. 

1820. .Bildad Adams, Joseph Strong, Eli S. Barnum. 

1821. Eh S. Barnum, Roberts. Southgate, Amos Woodward. 

1822 and 182:5. .Same as in 1821. 

1824.. Eli S. Barnum, .^mos Woodwanl, Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 

1823. Eli S. Barnum, Schuyler Van Rensselaer, George W. Choate. 

1820.. Schuyler Van Renssi-laer. GfTge W, Choate, Frederick Forsyth. 

1827 George W, Choate, Frederick Forsyth, Bradford Sturtevant. 

lS28..Same as in 1827. 

1S2H.. George W. Choate, Bradford Sturtevant. M. JlcKelvey. 


1831.,Bradford Sturtevant. M. McKelvey, George Hollister. 

18:J2.. Bradford Sturtevant, George Hollister, George W. Choate. 

18:)3.. George Hollister, George W. f;hoate, Sara. B. Carpenter. 

18:)4. George W. Choate, Sara. B, Carpenter, W. C. Spalding. 

18:»..Sam. B. Caipenter, W. C. Spalding, John Bounce. 

18.36 W. C. Spalding, John Dounce, Benjamin Cogswell. 

is.i7. W. C. Spalding, Benjamm Cogswell, John Miller. 

18:j8. Benjamin Cogswell, John Miller, John Fuller. 

18.39. John Fuller, Henrj- Terry, Lemuel Morse. 

lS10..John Fuller. Lemuel Morse, John B. Wiibor. 

1841.. Lemuel Morse, Samuel Atherton, Nathan W. Spears. 

1842. .Samuel Atherton, Joseph C. Curtiss, Stephen Russell. 

1843.. Joseph C. Curtiss, Stephen Russell, Rouse Bly. 


1845. Joseph C. Curtiss, Rouse Bly, James Smith. 

1S16. Rouse Bly, James Smith, Benjamin Benson. 


184T.. James Smitb, Benjamin Benson, Justus Brown. 

1&48.. Benjamin Benson, Justus Brown, Samuel W. Boalt. 

1849. Justus Brown, S. W. Boalt, Smith Btarr. 

1850.. S. W. Boalt, Smith Starr, D. E. Merrill. 

1851 . .Smith Starr. D. E. Merrill, Dean Clapp. 

18V2. .D. E. Merrill, Dean Clapp. James Wilson. 

185;j. .Dean Clapp. James Wilson, James Hamilton, Jr. 

1851. .James Wilson. James Hamilton, Jr., Barnett Roe. 

1855. James Hamilton, Jr.. Barnett Roe, S. W. Edwards 

1850..Baruett Roe. S. W. Edwards. S. H Gibson. 

18.5-.. S. W. Edwards. S. H. Gibson, D. H. Manville. 

1858. .S. H. Gibso.n. D. H. ManriUe, J. H. Niles. 

1859, 1800. ]8t;i..Same as in IfoS. 

1863.. D. H. Manville. J. H. Kiles. George Silliman. 
186-3.. J. H. Niles, George Silliman, E. Bogardus. 
1864.. George Silliman, E. Bogardus, C. C. Canfleld 
1865. 1866. 1S67. Same as in 1864. 
186.S..E. Bogardus, C. C. Canfleld. J. H. Beelman 
1869. C. C. Canfleld. J. H. Beelman, James W. Martin. 
18:o..J. H. Beelman, A. Brightman. Halsey Hubbard. 
I'^ri. I'^r,', 1-r:!, Same as in ISTO. 

1-74 .\ B.iu'litiuan. Halsey Hubbard, A. C. Williams. 
1-:- H.i:»ty Hubbard, A. C. Williams, A. D. Stotts. 
]-:'■ A C. Williams. A. D. Stotts. W. W. Stiles, 
isrr, isr.s.saraeasinisro. 


1855.. Horaces. Bill 
1861.. .John J. Peufield 
1863.. George N. Penfleld. 

18:j-<..H. W. Conklin. 
1840..Wm. Xeill. 
1841 . . Orlando McKnight . 
184B..Geo. W.Smith. 

1850.. F.M. Follett. 

18.5-i.. Charles H. Botsford. 

1864.-George O.Selkirk 
lsr0..O. C. McLough. 
I'iTB ..Wm. Affleck, who is the 
present iucumbent . 

1856.. F. M. Follett. 
I860-.. Geo. W. Smith 
1867..Ebenezer Merry, 


1!<43.. Samuel 
1844.. Earl Bill 
1848.. John B. Wilbor 
1850.. John W. Sprague. 
l8.53..Thos.S. Fuller. 
18M.. Holly Skinner. 

1870... James S. Chandler. 
1872.. Jas. D. Chamberlain. 
1877.. R. Turner, the present 


ISS^.John F. Campbell. 
1840.. Francis D. Parish. 
1.S43.. Morris Homan 
184:)..$. F.Taylor. 
Hi-i.A. W. Hendr>-- 
1H.VJ . , John Macke.T 

WJH.. Harvey Long. 
1840. .Zalmuna Phillips. 
1843. .Ebenczer Warner. 
1846.. Isaac Fowler 

1840..C.B. Squire 
l'^4.E. Merry. 
1850. Charles Wilbor. 

I>:i8. .S. H Smith. 

1840. W. H.Smith. 

1841. J. B. Darling. 
1845. Alvin Brooks. 
1847. J. B. Darling 

1858. .Fred. F. Smith. 
1860..D. S. Worthington. 
1864 Jesse S. Davis. 
1866.. D. S. Worthington. 
1870..CharlesH. Botsford. 
S. Worthington 

M. L. Starr. 


1853..Jas. W.Cook. 
1863.. John W. Reed. 

1875. .A. W. Judson 

1876 .. George Morton . 

1879. .A. W. Judson, the present 

^tniuel B. Carpenter, Nelson Taylor, Zara Patch. Wm. B. Craighill 
Jiio B. Fuller, Wm. Gill, Isaac Fowler, Philo Adams, Harvey Long, 
B. D. Turner, Ara Sprague, Boiirdett Wood. Harvey Fowler, Elihu 
P Hill, Harry Sprague, Myron Se.\ton, Joseph Otis, Jno. P. Dego, 
John Summers, C. Beardsley, Rice Harper, Isaac McKtsson, Robt. 
Bennett, G. M. Darling, Calvin Caswell, D. G Taylor, Wm H. 
Crane, E. White. W. S. Webb, Louis Wells, Stark Adams, W. W. 
Miller, Oustavus Graliain. 



In a republican stronghold like Huron county the 
attempts to make Kansas a slave State were viewed 
with the deepest interest and alarm. In common 
with those of other communities in the free North, 
many of her young men emigrated thither, prepared 
to fight, if necessary,' to prevent such attempts from 
being successful. A Kansas Aid Socifety was formed 
with committees for each township, and a central one 
for the county, the object being to aid the free State 
cause by sending thither men armed with Sharpe's 
rifles. As early as April 2-2, 18.56, G. T. Stewart 
reports that the township committees had paid over 
to him three hundred and eighteen dollars and ninety- 
oue cents for the cause. Later in the season, about 
one hundred of the citizens of the county contributed 
to the fund, in sums of five dollars and upwards, and 
the published statement shows contributions amount- 
ing in all to one thousand and forty-six dollars and 
eighty-nine cents up to October 21. 1856. 

The following is the vote of Huron county for 
president of the United States frem the year 1832, 
wheh Andrew Jackson was elected president, up to 
and including the last presidential election: 

1833— Henry Clay, whig .'. . . 1,646 

Andrew Jackson, democrat 1,035 

William Wirt, ami-masonic 11 

18:36-Wm. H. Harrison, whig 2,798 

Martin Van Buren, democrat 2,143 

1840— Wm. H. Harrison , whig 2,291 

Martin Van Buren, democrat 1,531 

Jas. G. Bimey, abolition 34 

(The reduced vote of 1840 compared with that o£ 18-36. is explained 

by the fact of the formation of Erie county in 1838). 

1844— Henry Clay, whig 2,564 

James K. Polk, democrat. ' 2.136 

James 6. Bimey, abolition 138 

1848— Zachary Taylor, whig, 1,950 

Lewis Cass, democrat 1,769 

Martin Van Buren. free soil 876 

1852— Winfield Scott whig a.-U2 

Franklin Pierce, democrat 1,819 

John P. Hale, free soil Sm 

1856— John C. Fremont, republican 3,468 

James Buchanan, democrat, 1.709 

Millard Fillmore. American ... , 54 

Republican plurality 1,759 

1860— Abraham Lincoln, republican 4.107 

Stephen A. Douglas, democrat a,nS3 

John Bell, union 37 

Lincoln over Douglas 2,027 

1364— Abraham Lincoln, republican 4.441 

George B. MeClellau, democrat 2.U90 

Lincoln's majority 2,351 

1868— nysses S. Grant, republican 4,019 

Horatio Seymour, democrat 3,24;j 

Granfs majority 1.T76 

1872— Ulysses S. Grant, republican 3.813 

Horace Greeley, democrat and liberal 3,18.' 

Jeremiah S. Black .W 

Charles O'Connor 19 

Grant over Greeley 1.6.30 

1S76— Rutherford B. Hayes, republican, 4,.">04 

Samuel J. Tilden. democrat, 3.014 

Peter Cooper, greenback 1 

Green Clay Smith, prohibition . . 67 

Hayes over Tilden 1,490 

The votes cast for each candidate at the several 
presidential elections held since the organiziitum of 
Erie county, have been as follows: 


1K40— William Henry Han-isou, wliig l.i-U 

Martin Van Bureu, democrat 1,042 

James G . Birney , abolition g 

im4— Henry Clay, whig r I,4i8 

James K. Polk, democrat 1,261 

James G. Birney, abolition 65 

1S48— Zachary Taylor whig 1,409 

Lewis Cass, democrat 999 

Martin Van Buren, free soil 681 

1S.W— Winfield Scott, whig 1,589 

Franklin Pierce, democrat 1,404 

John P. Hale tree soil 275 

1S56— John C. Fremont, republican 2 258 

James Buchanan, democrat 1.377 

Millard Fillmore, American 75 

Fremont over Buchanan 881 

ISCO-Abraham Lincoln, republican 2,886 

Stephen A. Douglas, democrat 1,538 

John Bell, unionist 28 

Lincoln over Douglas 1,348 

1.SG4— Abraham Lincoln, repub lean 3,032 

George B. McClellan, democrat 1,829 

Lincoln's majority 1,203 

IStiS— Ulysses S. Grant, rep.iblican .1.130 

Horatio Seymour, democrat 1,884 

Grant's majority 1,216 

1872— Ulysses S. Grant, repub ican 2,905 

Horace Greeley, democrat and liberal 2,287 

Scattering 19 

Grant over Greeley 618 

1S7H— Rutherford B. Hayes, republ can 3.158 

Samuel J. Tilden, democrat 3,112 

Peter Cooper, greenback 115 

Green Clay Smith, prohibition 8 

Hayes over Tilden . 46 

The following shows the strength of each party in 
each township of the two counties at the last presi- 
dential election: 












3 a 








rS 1 


31 S 












First Ward... 







Second Ward 


Kelley s Island 



Third Ward . 







Fourth Ward 



Margaretta .... 



Fifth Ward.. 









115 i 


Norwich 1.55 

Peru 93 

Plymouth 83 

Richmond 1 28 

Ridgefleld 270 

Ripley 204 

Sherman 31 

Townsend 262 

Wakeman 210 

Bronson 173 90 

Clarksfleld 221 51 

Fairfield 264 89 

Fitchville 180 34 

Greenfield 142 92 

Greenwich. ... 203 82 

Hartland 202 42 

Lyme 119 134 

New London... 350 104 

New Haven... 156 213 .. .. — — 

Norwalk 91 644 1 20 Totals 4501 3 014 ^ 1 67 


In the following table of votes cast for governor, 
the names of the whig or republican candidate is 
given first, and the democratic candidate second. 
From 184-4 to 18.5.3, the third party is the abolition or 
free-soil. In 1855, one hundred and thirty-four votes 
were cast for the ticket of the native American, anti- 
Catholic, or know-nothing party, as it was called: 

1816— Thomas Worthington, whig 40 

E. A. Brown, democrat 42 

1818— James Dunlap, whig 71 

E. A. Brown, democrat 332 

1820— VV. H. Harrison, whig 4S 

E. A. Brown, democrat 449 

1822— Jeremiah Morrow, whig 96 

Allen Trimble, democrat 490 

Irvin , 312 

1824— Jeremiah Morrow, whig 165 

Allen Trimbif, democrat 629 

1826- Alexander Campbell, whig 433 

Allen Trimble, democrat 0.52 

1828— John W. Campbell, whig 446 

Allen Trimble, democrat 973 

1830— Duncan McArthur, whig 1,013 

Robert Lucas, democrat 431 

1832— Dariu? Lyman, whig 

Robert Lucas, democrat 

1834— James Findlay, whig 1.583 

Robert Lucas, democrat 1.117 

1836— Joseph Vance, whig • 

Eli Baldwin, democrat 

1838-Joseph Vance, whig 2,5i)6 

Wilson Shannon, democrat 2,.366 

1840— Thomas Corwin, whig 2.205 

Wilson Shannon, democi'at ... 1,6.50 

1843— Thomas Corwin, whig 1.975 

Wilson Shannon, democrat 1.796 

1844 — Mordecai Bartley , whig 2 445 

David Tod. democrat 2,149 

L. King, abolition 181 

1846— William Bebb. whig 1.960 

David Tod, democrat 1,517 

Samuel Lewis, abolition 367 

1848— Seabury Ford, whig -2,135 

John B. W^eller, democrat 1,682 

1850— Wm. Johnston, whig 2,120 

Reuben Wood, democrat 1,718 

Edward Smith, abolition 349 

1851— S. F. Vinton, whig 1,704 

Reuben Wood, democrat l.e'03 

Lewis, abolition 470 

18.53— Nelson Barrere. whig l,]03 

William Medill. democrat 1,705 

Lewis, abolition 1,277 

18.5.5— Salmon P. Chase, republican 1,295 

William Medill, democrat 1,277 

Know nothing 134 

18.57— Salmon P. Chase, republican 2,9.53 

H. B Payne, democrat 1,568 

1859— Wm. Dennison, republican 2,934 

R. P. Ranney, democrat 1.568 

1861— David Tod, republican 3,158 

Hugh J. Jewett. democrat ],2]r 

186.3— John Brough, republican 4,453 

C. L. Vallandigham. democrat 1,775 

1865— Jacob D. Cos. republican 3,203 

George W. Jlorgan, democrat 1,944 

1.867— R. B. Hayes, republican 3,683 

Allen G. Thurman, democrat 2,273 

1869-R. B. Hayes, republican 3.393 

George H. Pendleton, democrat 2.112 

1871— Edward F. Noyes, republican '. 3.S29 

George W. McCoot, democrat 2,070 

Gideon T. Stewart, prohibitionist 140 

1873— Edw«rd F. Noyes, republican 2.633 

W'illiam .\llen, democrat 1,829 

Gideon T. Stewart, prohibition 332 

Isaac Collins, liberal 28 

1875— R. B. Hayes, republican 3.873 

William .\llen, democrat 2,687 

Jay Odell. prohibition . . 128 

1877- Wm. H. West, republican 3.734 

Richard M. Bishop, democrat 2,454 

H. A. Thompson, pi ohibition 138 

Stephen Johns, grtenback 239 


1840— Thomas C 01 win whig 

Wilson Shannon democrat 
1842— Thomas Corn in w hig 

Wilson Shannon, democrat 

L. King, 'al olition 
1S14— Mordecai Bartlev whig 

David Tod democrat 

L. King, abolition 
1H16— William Bebb whig 

David Tod democrat 

Lewis, abolition 


1»48— Seaburs- Ford, whig 1,392 

John B. Weller, democrat 1,118 

1830-WiUiam Johnston, whig 1,192 

Reuben Wood, democrat 1,196 

Edward Smith, abolition 107 

1851— S. F. Vinton, whig 1,149 

Reuben Wood, democrat 1,304 

Lewis, abolition ITO 

1833— Nelson Barrere, whig 873 

William Medill, democrat 1,197 

■ Lewis, abolition 408 

1.S55— Salmon P. Chase, republican 1,564 

William MedUI, democrat 1,123 

American 68 

1857— Salmon P. Chase, republican 1.916 

H. B. Payne, democrat 1,4-39 

1859— William Dennison, republican 1,983 

■ R. P. Ranney, democrat. 1,535 

1861— David Tod. republican 2,164 

Hugh J. Jewett, democrat 836 

1863— John Brough, republican 3,412 

C L Vallandigham. democrat 1403 

lKfi5-J. D Cox. republican 2,143 

George W . Morgan, democrat 1,651 

1867— R. B Hayes, republican 2,480 

A . G. Thurman. democrat 1,989 

1869— R. B. Hayes, republican 8,311 

George H Pendleton, democrat 1,848 

1871— Edward F. Noyes, republican 2.231 

George W McCook, democrat 1,555 

G. T Stewart, prohibition 38 

1873— E. F. Noyes, republican ' 1,988 

William Allen, democrat 1,588 

G. T. Stewart, prohibiten 75 

Isaac Collins, liberal 77 

1S7.5— R B Hayes, republican 2,891 

William Allen, democrat 2,657 

Jay Odell, prohibition 13 

1S77— William H West, republican 2,424 

R M Bishop, democrat 2,486 

Greenback 377 

Prohibition 23 



Ix the year 1S03 uu euiinieratiou was taken of the 
white males iu Ohio, the number reported being 
twelve thousand and eighty-eight, of which one thou- 
sand one hundred and eleven, representing about four 
thousand inhabitants, were returned from Trumbull 
county. The census of 1820 shows the population of 
Huron county to be six thousand six hundred and 
seventy-five, and a census taken in 1827, presumably 
the work of the township assessors, and published in 
the Xorwalk Rejwrter of June 9, 1827, gives the 
population of each township, — the total for the county 
being nine thousand one hundred and sixteen. The 
census of 1830 gives a population of thirteen thousand 
three hundred and forty-one. 

The maximum population of the county seems to 
have been reached in 1860, and is an illustration of a 
fact often dwelt upon by statisticians, — that the 
popular belief that the older a country is the more 
thickly populated it becomes, is not always well 
founded. For the past thirty years the increase of 
population lias been almost wholly in the towns and 
villages. Indeed, most of the townships have lost, 
many of them actually having les.f inliabitants than 
in 1840. 

It is not the purpose of a work like this to point 
out the causes of this depopulation of the farming 

districts, but it is worth while to remark that the 
work of clearing the woods, in a heavily timbered 
country, requires many strong hands. Every farm 
had to be literally chopped out of the woods: houses, 
barns, fences, and roads had to be built; hence 
there was employment for a large surplus pojjulation, 
who, when their services were no longer required, 
were forced to seek new locations. Another explana- 
tion may be found in the fact that some people when 
they get the "western fever" are never satisfied. 
First they remove to Ohio, and try their fortune here 
awhile, but not finding any easy way to get rich, pull 
up stakes and go to Indiana; there they find the chills 
and the water to be very bad, and they go to Illinois 
or Iowa, where something else is not to their liking, 
and they move on t^ Kansas and perhaps are soon 
en route for some other locality; and so they journey 
on, in their nomadic wanderings, until starvation and 
death overtake them. A third reason is the extensive 
use of labor-saving machinery. A fourth is the 
substitution of cattle and sheep raising and dairying 
in place of raising corn, grain and potatoes: while 
the diminution of population by reason of the war 
is still another reason. 






Gr enwich 



Bellevue Village, that part situated 

ated in Lyme 

New Haven 

New London 

New London Village 


Norwalk Village 





Monroeville Village 






1850 1860 1870 

1 2-30 1,246 


I 616 as, 532 

The population of Erie county was. 

18.568 1870. 

Of the Huron county population, census l.sTii, 
k'ere born in 

NeWiork 3,1 

Germany 1,1 

England and Wales f 

Of the Erie coimty pi 
were born in 



New York 

Virginia and West Vnginia 

British Ar 
Scotland . 

Colored . 


England and Wales 

Britii'h America ... . 



Colored . 




At the meeting of the State Board of Equali- 
zation in 1826, the fourteenth district, including 
Cuyahoga, Medina, Eichland, Huron, Sandusky and 
Lorain counties, were represented by James Hedges. 
The average value of land per acre was fixed at two 
dollars and eight cents. Total value of lands, one 
million forty-seven thousand five hundred and sixty- 
one dollars; value of town lots, etc., seventy-five 
thousand one hundred and fifteen dollars. At the 
meeting in 1835, the value of houses, mills, etc., was 
returned at sixty-five thousand three hundred and 
eighty-one dollars; average value of land per acre 
fixed at three dollars and twenty -five cents; value t)f 
town lots, buildings, etc., as returned, tAvo hundred 
and twenty-six thousand eight hundred and three 
dollars. Total value of real property fixed at one mil- 
lion nine hundred and eighty-two thousand and fifty- 
four dollars; personal jiroperty, two hundred and 
seventy-one thousand seven iiundred and nine dollars. 

In 1841, Huron county was represented by Ebrenger 
Warren. Value of town lots, etc., as returned, ninety- 
one thousand one hundred and sixty-one dollars; 
average value of land per acre fixed at three dollars 
and twenty-four cents; total value of real property, 
one million one hundred and seventy-six thousand 
and three dollars. 

In 1846, Huron county was represented by Charles 
Standart, of Erie county. Average value of land per 
acrefixed at twelve dollars and twenty-four cents; value 
of towns, three hundred and one thousand six hund- 
red and fifty-two dollars; total value of real property, 
four million one hundred and thirty-two tliousand 
six hundred and twenty-three dollars. 

In 1853, the thirtieth senatorial district, composed 
of Huron, Erie. Sandusky and Ottawa counties, was 
represented in the State Board, by John B. Wilbor, 
of Huron, Erie county. The following are the 
equalized valuations: Land per acre, twenty-one 
dollars and twenty-two cents; value of towns, six 
hundred and eight thousand six hundred and eight 
dollars; total value, seven million two hundred and 
sixty thousand six hundred and forty dollars. The 
highest valuation per acre was for Bidgefield town- 
ship, thirty-one dollars and three cents; valuation of 
Bcllevue, buildings and lots, one hundred and one 
thousand six hundred and seventy dollars; Monroe- 
ville, ninety-three thousand nine hundred and ninety 
dollars; Xew Loudon, twenty-two thousand three 
hundred and fifty dollars; Norwalk, three hundred 
and forty-two thousand and ninety dollars. 


The first State Board of Equalization, after the 
organization of Erie county, was held at Columbus 
in 1841. Valuation of town lots, etc., as returned, 
one hundred and twenty-six thousand six hundred 
and twenty-two dollars; value of laud ])er acre fixed 
at three dollars and ninety-nine cents; total valuation 

of real property, seven hundred and eighty-one 
•thousand nine hundred and thirty eight dollars. 

In 1846, Erie comity was represented by Charles 
Standart. Value of land per acre fixed at thirteen 
dollars and thirty-six cents, being more than three 
times the amount at which it was fixed only five 
years before; value of towns, nine hundred and thirty- 
six thousand seven hundred and twenty dollars; total 
value of real property, three million forty-eight thou- 
sand one hundi'ed and two dollars. 

In 1853, the thirtieth senatorial district, composed 
of Huron, Erie, Sandusky and Ottawa counties, was 
represented in the State Board, by John B. Wilbor, 
of Huron, Erie county. The following are among 
the equalized valuations: Average value of land per 
acre, twenty-four dollars and eighty-nine cents; total 
value of land, three million eight hundred and eighty- 
nine thousand five hundred and thirty-six dollars; 
Sandusky City, one million seven hundred and thirty- 
two thousand five hundred and fifty-eight dollars; 
other towns, three hundred and seventy-two thousand 
six hundred and ninety-four dollars. 


Among the noteworthy crops raised in Huron 
county, the following are taken from the State Agri- 
cultural Eeport of a few years since, and illustrate 
the fact that the soil of this portion of Ohio is rarely 
surpassed in fertility and productiveness. The crops 
given were those upon which premiums were awarded 
by either the State or county agricultural societies, 
and were, it is understood, based on sworn and veri- 
fied statements and measurements. In the year 1850, 
Lemuel Morse raised four acres of wheat; average 
yield fifty-two bushels per acre. . In 1852, William 
Bacon raised four acres of wheat; average yield per 
acre forty-five bushels. The yield of other crops has, 
on several occasions, been equally remarkable accord- 
ing to the same authority. In 1850, D. A. Baker 
raised on seven and a half acres — one hundred and 
thirty-five bushels of oats per acre. In 1852, B. B. 
Jackson comes to the front for that year, and reports 
one hundred and three bushels of oats raised on one 
acre; two years previously the same gentleman raised 
one-half acre of potatoes which yielded at the rate of 
four hundred and thirty-three bushels per acre. 


Year. Acres. Bushels. Year. Acres. Bushels. 

1850 21,832 411,604 1S6.5 lo.OSi :T7,366 

1852 17,981 2:j-2,581 1866 14,566 133,2.33 

1854 11,153 18.036 1867 14,299 180,701 

1855 6,07- 66,817 1868 17,963 247,372 

1856 6,593 80,150 1869 21,740 524,520 

1859 20,478 219.059 1870 20,455 221,790 

1860 19,630 265,865 1871 17,083 313,264 

1861 21,095 238,286 1873 20,575 298,071 

1882 25,53:} 413,030 1874 33,952 421,062 

1863 21,800 300.577 1875 24,7« 332,1.^)3 

1864 17,847 152..T03 1876 21,197 324.291 


Year. Acres. Bushels. Year. Acres. Bushels, 

1850 22.806 878,143 1865 21,524 762,342 

1855 3:,.312 1,074,448 1870 27.419 1.131,891 

1860 28,075 96.3,876 ' 1875 28,904 1,002,220 


In 1853, the yield of corn was only three hundred 
and thirty-two thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
nine bushels. The average yield for fifteen years — 
1850 to 1864 — was seven hundred and eighty-one 
thousand one hundred and ninety bushels. Tlie 
amount raised in 186.3 was five hundred and thirty- 
five thousand bushels, and in 1865, seven hundred 
and sixty-two thousand three hundi-ed and forty-two. 












... 13 5T8. 



.... 8,!i:347.. 

.... 8.5,653 


.. 9,789. 

162 814 


.... 7,344... 

.... 75 567 


... 6,698. 



.... 7 795... 

.... 113.185 


... .3,740. 



.... 9,814... 

.... 136,371 


... 3 990. 


1869. . . . 

.... 9,844... 

... 203,436 


... 10 513. 

.. .. 175,312 


9 655... 

.... 160,459 

... W 105. 



.... 9.784... 

... 170 038 


... 14 478. 

2.36 842 


.... 13,765 .. 

.... 234 478 


... 16.966. 



16 638... 

.... .329 661 


... 15.899. 



... 16 035... 

.... 295 611 


... 11,961. 



.... 14 184. . 

... 316,846 












... 14,569. 


1865.. . 

.... 14.748... 

... 501 333 


... 31, .396. 



19,185.. . 

.... 713,529 


... 32.236. 



.... 10 3a8... 

.... 780,121 

The crop of 1853 amounted to only four hundred 
and thirty-nine thousand four hundred and seventy- 
nine bushels. The average for fifteen years, 1850 — 
1864, was sixteen thousand seven hundred and 
twenty-four acres, with a product of five hundred 
and fifty-six thousand three hundred and fifty 


The total amount of taxes in Huron county in 1821, 
on personal and village property, was as follows: 


New Jerusalem, (town plat) 



I J, 

41 83 


36 90 

City of San 


70 101^ 

9 39 


Macksville . 

1 90 


.33 80 

Clarksfteld . 

11 70 

Black River 

33 50 


33 85 

18 10 


Norwalk, (town niati . 

63 48 

New Haven 

New Haven 

(town plat 1 

. 13 50^ 



14 6S 

31 .35 

1,0.56 36H 

New London 


East half of Venice 

Total amount 

ftl.ll78 no 

Amount of deductions as per return of Ezra Sprague 304 .52 

Amount to be paid to the treasurer 773 48 

Total land tax of Huron county, in 1821, was 7,831 68 

Grand total tax for 1831 88,605 10 

Huron county, in 1821, embraced a large i)art of 
the present county of Lorain, in addition to the whole 
of the Fire-lands. 


During the war various jilans of taxation were 
resorted to, in order to help defray its immense cost. 
The amount of money realized in this way from Huron 
county, was veuy large. From July 1, to December 
31, 1865, the internal revenue receipts from Huron 
county were two hundred and fifty-eight thousand 
and ninety-three dollars, while the receipts from Erie 
county for the same period were ninety-six thousand 
six hundred and ninety-five dollars. By far the 
largest amount of this was collected from the dis- 
tilleries located at Monroeville and Bellevue. The 
tax collected from them for the month of May, 1864, 
was one hundred and fifty-eight thousand one hund- 
red and sixty dollars and thirty-six cents, of which S. 
V. Harkness paid sixty-nine thousand one hundred 
and thirty-two dollars; Woodward & Littlefiekl, thirty- 
eight thousand five hundred and fifty-five dollars, 
and D. M. Harkness & Co., twenty-eight thousand 
one hundred and fourteen dollars. 

The amount paid by S. V. Harkness for excise on 
licjuors manufactured from February 21, 1863, to 
December 31, 1864, was three hundred and twenty- 
one thousand one hundred and eighty-one dollars and 
eighty-nine cents, and for a period of over four 
months — fi'om August 11 to December 20, 1864, 
the distillery was not running. Of the two hundred 
arid fifty-eight thousand and ninety-three dollars 
internal revenue for Huron county in the six months 
ending December 31, 1865, the various distillers 
paid one hundred and eighty-one thousand four 
hundred and fifty-seven dollars, the amount paid by 
each being as follows: S. V. Harkness, fifty-nine 
thousand five hundred and fifty-seven dollars; H. JI. 
Sinclair & Co., forty-four thousand one hundred and 
fourteen dollars; A. Woodward, thirty-five thousand 
seven hundred and forty-nine dollars; Clary & Co., 
twenty-two thousand si_x hundred and thirty-three 
dollars; LaBarre & Packard, thirteen thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-one dollars; C. P. Prentiss, six 
thou.-:and five luindred and fifty-one dollars, 


The Huron county School statistics for 187T, are 
as follows: 

Total amount of school moneys received during the year §148,789 33 

Number of unmarried youth between the ages of six and 

twenty-one: boys, 5.513; girls, 5,083; colored youth, 72; 

total 10,097 

Number between sixteen and twenty-one 3,788 

Number of school houses erected during the year, 6 

Cost $9,02600 

W'hole number of school houses 169 

Value of school property $344,7.50 00 

Number of teachers employed: males, 189: females, 323; 


Average wages o£ teachers, per month: township primary: 



Separate districts, males 

8 36 00 
S 33 00 
$53 00 
S 35 00 

Average number of weeks schools were in session: 

Township primary 

Separate districts, primary 

Total number of different pupils enrolled 

Average daily attendance 

Number of pupils in different branches o£ study: 

Alphabet 813 , Natural Philosophy . 

Reading 0,".) German 

SpelUng 6,760 Algebra 

Writing 5,:3.54 Gt-omt-trv -. 

Arithmetic; 5,9iiJ 

Geography " "" ' 



Composition 1,530 

Drawing ^3» 

Vocal Music l,o'J>i 

U. S. History 369 


The amounts given below are in excess of the si.x 
hundred dollars exempted by law, also exclusive of 
all taxes, dividends on bank, railroad stock, etc. 
Those less than one thousand are omitted. First 
district embracing Xorwalk, Ridgefield, Lyme, Sher- 
man. Peru, Bronson, Hurtland, Townsend, and 




. 5.414 

. 1,901 
. l.:«7 

. a,aio 

. 1,411 

. l,oon 

■ M-'' 
. urn 

. 1.000 
. 21,000 
. 21,000 
. 1.500 

: \:^ 

. 1,000 
. 1200 
. 1,185 
. 1,510 
. 8,000 

; l-Tr 


N— JO 

. $1 801 
. 2 00O 
. 1 SVO 
. 1,000 
. 1 :399 
. 1,117 
. 1,981 
. 1,001 
. 2 4.S1 

■ ' ^•■: 

'. I'.IIS'.I 

S. C.Perkins 

J. A. Pattison 

D. R.Patrick 

C. E. Pennewell 

A. W.Prentiss 


D.H. Pease.. 
Isaac Powell , . 
W. D. Roberts 
R B. Russell . 

Ru'ei Roby ".'.'.-'.'' 

^TiZ^: :....:.. 


T. R. Strong 

Walter Bates 




W. A Bishop 

Henry Baker 


Nathaniel Chapman 


. . . 4,01X1 

.... s 

H. Clary 

Wm. Case 


J. F. Dewev 

J. C. R. Eastman 

. 4.7.>1 





F. A. Gilbert 

W Head 



L G Harkness 

L. A. Shepard 

Isaac Underhill 

I>. Wheaton 

F. Wickham 

S. T. W..r..<ester 


Amos Woodward .... 
Edward Williams.... 

H M Wooster 

3 044 

D. M. Harkness 

Wra Humphrey 

M. JI. Hester 

N G Havward 




3 500 

D. S. Humi.hrey 

S. V. Harkness. 

G. JaL-..l.s..n 


W. R, Little 

H Lrieb 






1 856 


C. E. Xewmau 

D Packard 

;.::;:; 3;^ 



Total amount of tax. 



j.B Bisseii.;:;;::::::;;;: 

H C. Breckenridge 

Moses Bilstine 

John O. Berrr 

R Knowlton 

L D. King 


Aranson Sutton 

Alanson Sutton 

D. W. Slocum 




R. Bevier. " 

A. Barrett 

.1 Breniaiiiau 



1 168 

■.•;.•;■.■ 1095 


Mrs Cubertson 


S Hau.'ihurst 

riiiiii) ri.|. 



1 012 

Ahni Yeaman." . . ; ; 

■KKS, 18T0. 

Erie Co. 




Huron Co. 


Water wheels . 



AU hands 



five thousand seven hundred and thirty-tive in 18G.5, 
and six thousand two hundred and seventeen in 18G2. 
Usually the number has not varied more than a hund- 
red from six thousand head for many years. 

The number of horses in Huron county has not, 
in many years, greatly varied from ten thousand, the 
number in 1862 being ten thousand four hundred and 
eighty-one, and a few years after being reduced to 
about nine thousand six hundred. 



The number of horses in Erie county for about 
twenty years jiast lias ranged from two extremes, 

Newspapers, more properly than actors, are "the 
abstract and brief chronicles of the times." They 
not only narrate for the people of a cotemporary age 
the passing events, but embalm the facts of the pres- 
ent for the information of future generations. They 
put on record the present in detail, and as printing is 
"the art preservative of all arts," so are the newspa- 
pers the preservers and perpetuators of current iiis- 
tory. They are a reflex, as a rule, of the thought and 
action of their time; store-houses of facts and fancy; 
treasuries of information in regard to the morals 
and the men of the time in which they are edited; 
unfailing indexes of public opinion, and transcripts 
of the minds that make them. 

While the editor of a newspaper shows to his read- 
ers the various happenings in the world, and com- 
ments upon them, he, unconsciously, perhaps, but 
nevertheless surely, exhibits his mental and moral 
nature, and so it happens that in turning over the 
yellow leaves of the old newspapers of the Fire.-lands 
we know something of the men who were then mana- 
gers, and "read lietween the lines" the records of 
their lives and the peculiar traits of their character. 
A great work was accomplished by the pioneer jour- 
nalists of the Western Reserve, for they, laboring 
against almost every conceivable disadvantage, aided 
the development of the country, and each in some 
degree bettered the condition of its people by ad- 
vancing their thought, and by keeping them abreast 
of the world in knowledge of public affairs, politics 
and principles. The history of a newspaper can- 
not be written. We give only the dry facts of 
a course of existence which in some cases has been 
long, and in some brief, but, we can truly say, in 
(dl, beneficial. The press in Huron and Erie coun- 
ties has been in the hands of men worthy of their 
high office, and it stands the test of comparison with 
that of any similar section of country. Its record 
has been one of steady development. It has kept 
ahead and led the march of improvement. How 
great the growth from its pioneer days, the date of 
the "Rainage" press, and scanty news facilities, to 
the present era of enlarged scope! 

We present, in the following, a brief compilatinu of 
facts in regard to the various papers of the p;ist and 
present in tiie Fire-lands: 



The i>ioiieer iiewsjjaper of the Fire-lands was first 
issued upon tlie Sith of April, 1822. David Camp- 
bell, who arrived from the east about 1820, associated 
himself with Adouijah Chamjilin, his brother-in-law, 
who, however, never became a partner, and December 
15, 1821, issued proposals and a prospectus for the 
publication of the Ohio Illuminator. The proposi- 
tion met with favor from the very start. The business 
men and tlie citizens generally, of Huron county, took 
hold of the matter with spirit, and subsequently, lists 
were zealously circulated throughout the village and 
county in which it was reasonable to believe a constit- 
uency could be secured. The project was so warmly 
espoused by the people, that ]\[r. Campbell immedi- 
ately began preparations for the publication of the 
paper in March, as he had in his prospectus promised 
to do. He had his types and press on hand by the 
loth, but as the subscription lists had not been re- 
turned, and being a very cautious kind of man, Mr. 
Campbell delayed the publication until he could be 
assured of ami>le support, and consequently the paper 
was not issued until the date above giveji. In the 
time intervening, between the inception of the idea 
and its realization, the pioneer editor had met with 
some discouraging experiences. His partner, Mr. 
Champlin, who had gone east, was prevented by 
sickness from returning, and a certain class of the 
people, who, then as now, have no doubt of their entire 
competency to conduct a newspaper better than the 
editor, made objection to the name, Ohio Illuminator, 
as improper; and perhaps with better reason than 
ordinarily possesses fault finders, for the proprietor 
seem.s to have been convinced by them, and in confor- 
mity to their wishes adopted the name Sandusky 
Clarion. The initial number of the Clarion was, of. 
course, a folio, in size twency-four by thirty-eight 
inches. It was printed upon heavy, coarse paper, in 
the manner of typography then common, all of the 
type in both reading matter and advertisements being 
from the same font. It was printed in a small story 
and a half building which stood upon the corner of 
Columbus avenue and Water street, which was used 
also as a dwelling by Mr. Campbell. Subsequently 
the office was removed to the " Old AVhite store," and 
from thence to the " Old Portland House " on Water 
street, which was burned some years after. 

In stating the aim of his journalistic endeavors, 
Mr. Campbell spoke particularly of the deep interest 
that eastern people felt in the progress and develop- 
ment of the "Sandusky country." and said that he 
should "spare no pains in giving such information 
in regard to it as might be interesting to emigrants,"' 
adding that it would " be an agreeable task, if experi- 
ence shall warrant it, to correct the unfavorable 
reports so prevalent in the western part of New York 
and Pennsylvania relative to the unhealthfulness of 
the climate." concluding by asking information in 

regard to the matter. The salutatoi-y closed with the 
I following paragraph, indicative of the course of the 
Clarion, viz: "I am more anxious to form a charac- 
ter for the Clarion, by the manner of conducting it, 
than by gratuitous promises; these general i-emarks 
may suffice, until time has developed the opinions of 
the editors and established the reputation of the 

For a quarter of a century the pioneer paper of the 
Fire-lands was conducted upon the plan here fore- 
shadowed, and with a degree of success that was 
creditable to the sagacity and probity of its proprie- 
tor. He was untiring in his •efforts to establish for 
his paper a reputation for candor and straight- 
forwardness, and made it much more of a neivs paper 
than were most of its contemporary journals, even in 
older and better fields. It was the third on the 
Western Reserve — the Cleveland Herald, and the 
Western Reserve Chronicle, at Warren, Trumbull 
county, then existing. Mr. Campbell was for many 
years sole proprietor of the Clarion, but was from the 
beginning assisted in the office by his nephew, .John 
K. Campbell. The latter finally became jiartner. 
After a few years the nephew retired and was suc- 
ceeded by George W., the eldest sou of David. As 
the other two sons, Benjamin F. and Henry C, be- 
came of age, tliey were received into the concern, 
when the firm name was " D. Campbell & Sons." 
The paper was several times enlarged, and was con- 
tinued, under the control of its original proprietor 
and his partners for twenty-nine years. Benjamin F. 
and Henry C. died many years ago. George W. is 
now, and has been, for many years past, a resident of 
Delaware, Ohio. The father deceased several years 
since (July 28, 1801). 

Mr. Campbell was pre-eminently a man of lionest, 
modest worth in private life, and in professional 
capacity and the combination of admirable traits 
made up a character which very naturally won and 
held the respect of the people with whom about forty 
years of his life were passed. He died at his residence 
in Sandusky, July 28, 18(11, at the age of sixty-eight 

The paper that lie founded in 1822, and which was 
for five years the only one in the Fire-lands, was con- 
ducted under the name of the Clarion, until it had 
attained the age of twenty-five years, when it was 
made a daily paper, and its name was changed to the 
Daily Sanduskian. In tlie year 1851, Mr. Campbell 
sold the paper and printing office to Earl Bill, now 
clerk of the United States district court for the 
northern district of Ohio, and Clark Waggoner, after- 
wards editor of the Toledo Commerrial. Tliey pub- 
lished daily, tri-weekly and weekly editions under tlie 
name of tlie Commerrial Bvf/isfer. 

In 1852, the files of the Clarion were consumed by 
fire. In 1852, Henry D. Cooke became interested in 
the paper and for twelve years it was published by the 
firm of Henry D. Cooke & Co. In 1855, Orville J. Vic- 
tor entered the firm, taking charge particularly of the 


local and literary departments of the paper. In 1850 
Messrs. Bill and Waggoner retired, and in the fall of 
the same year Mr. Victor also left the concern, leaving 
Mr. Cooke sole proprietor foi- a time, but in the fol- 
lowing year Mr. C. C. Bill became a partner. Mr. 
Cooke retired from the firm to become editor of the 
State journal, and Mr. 'Waggoner to take charge of 
the Toledo Blade. In May, I860, the whole estab- 
lishment was sold to H. C. Johnson and A. H. Agard. 
In 18G1, Mr. Bill accepted the position of United 
States marshal. They sold ont in 1865 to General 
Nettleton and Judge Waterbury, who published the 
paper until March, 1869, when the interest of the 
former was transferred to I. F. Mack, who in com 
pany with Judge Waterbury conducted the Journal 
until the fall of 1870, under the name of the Register 
Printing Company. Judge Waterbury retired on the 
1st of November, 1870, and from that date until 
.1874, when Mr. John F. Mack became associated 
with his brother as partner. These gentlemen con- 
tinue the publication of the Register under the firm 
name of I. F. Mack & Bro., and issue three editions 
of the Register — daily, tri-weekly and weekly. The 
jjaper is republican in politics, thoroughly edited, 
enterprising in its news departments, of good tone 
and high repute. 


was established in 1832 by E. & .1. H. Brown, but 
had not a remarkably long lease of life. It was de- 
scribed by the Reflector as being of a super-roj^al size; 
its appearance, decent: its political character, JefEer- 


was i.ssued for the first time in April, 18-12, by M. 
H. Snyder & Co. It was discontinued in the fall. 


was started in December, 1842, by William S. Mills 
and Sylvester Ross, the same type being used that 
had been purchased for the Commercial Advertiser. 
In 1847, John Mackey pui-chased an interest in this 
paper, and the firm of Mills, Ross & Mackey con- 
tinued the publication until May, 1849, when J. W. 
Taylor took the place of Mr. Mackey. In 185.3 the 
Mirror establishment was sold to Joseph and Field- 
ing Cable, and the name of the paper was changed to 
The Bay Citg Mirror. After a short time the 
Cables sold out to Asa Dimmock who, after a few 
months, sold to Ray Haddock, Esq. The daily edi- 
tion was discontinued at this time. In ^lay, 1856, 
Charles H. Ortou, formerly of the Xorivalk Experi- 
ment, purchased the paper, and two years later sold 
it to his son, T. S. Orton. The publication of the 
paper was suspended about a year after. 


In the fall of 1865, Messrs. A. D. Kinney and 
F. B. Culver opened a job printing office, and tiie 

next year J. C. and A. D. Kinney began the publica- 
tion of a weekly paper called the Sandusky Journal. 
It was started as independent in politics, but in the 
Greeley movement it advocated Greeley's election, 
and the local candidates of that party. It is now 
identified with the Democratic party. 


In 1851, Messrs. Augustus Riemmele and Herman 
Ruep commenced the publication of the first German 
paper in the city, and gave it the name of the Intelli- 
(jenfe Blatt. Mr. Ruep was the editor. Mr. Ruem- 
mele was accidentally killed on the Mad River & Lake 
Erie R. R., near Castalia, in September, 1857. The 
paper was continued by Ruep & Co. till 1859; Ruep 
and Frederick Kelly, editors. In the latter year, the 
concern was sold to Messrs. Jacob Neuert, H. Hamel- 
stein and Charles Bachy. J. Lippart was the editor. 
In November, of the same year, the concern was sold 
to Engle tt Co., and the paper was then edited by 
A. Thieme and Frederick Reidling. In May, 1861, 
Mr. Beidling became the sole editor and proprietor. 
The Bhltf was a democratic paper till 1854. when 
it became republican. 


In 1856, the second German paper was commenced 
by Louis Tranb, and edited by H. Ran, and was 
called the Baystadt Demoh-at. In the fall of the 
same year, it was sold to Frederick Hertel, sole pro- 
prietor and editor. It was democratic. In 1873, 
Messrs. Hertel, Senn and Ernst, who were joint 
owners and editors, changing the name to the San- 
dusky Democrat. About a year ago, Mr. Ernst sold 
out to Mr. Senn, who is now sole owner and editor. 
Several other German papers have, at different times, 
been started, but failed to be sustained. 


was started in February, ls3<i. by Warren Jenkins, 
and discontinued in April of the following year, the 
editor removing to Sandusky where he began the pub- 
lication of an anti-masonic paper. 


was published here from 1843 to 1851, by Clark Wag- 


was first issued by its present proprietor about the first 
of December, 1869, as an advertising sheet until after 
the holidays. It was issued weekly for six weeks, and 
subsequently every fortnight for three months. Until 
the first of April it was issued for free circulation, 
but at that date it was made a regular publication as 
a five-colum folio, the subscription being fixed at one 
dollar per year. It was soon after enlarged to si.x 
columns, and in June, 1875, was made a seven 
column paper, and the price was advanced to one dol- 
lar and fifty cents per year. Upon the 1st of January, 



1870, the paper was clianged to the quarto form and 
made five columns in size — just double the size at 
which it was started, and without further increase of 
price. It is now in its tenth year, and is still under 
the management of its original proprietor and editor, 
A. H. Balslcy, who is also the owner, manager and 
editor of the Fiudlay, Hancock coiuity, JefffTnonian, 
and the Attica, Seneca county, Joitrnal. 


The first newspaper published in Huron was the 
Huron Commercial Advertiser, a weekly journal is- 
sued January l?th, 1837, by H. C. Gray, now a 
resident of Painesville, Ohio. The press was de- 
stroyed by fire December 12, 1838. Another press 
was obtained, and the publication resumed March 2, 
1839, and continued till April, 1842. 


Tiie publication of another weekly journal, the 
Huron Beacon, by Mr. Haddock, was comnijenced in 
1853, and discontinued the next year. 


Huron next had the benefit of the Huron Times, 
published by James L. Sweeny, but as Huron patron- 
age was too limited to support a literary journal of 
that class, Mr. Sweeny moved to Sandusky, and com- 
menced publishing a Sunday journal. 



Here was issued, in 1827, the second paper pub- 
lished in the Fire-lands, the Norwalk Reporter. Its 
editors and publishers were John P. McArdle and 
Henry Buckingham. The former had, as early as 
1814, published a paper at Clinton, Ohio, and later at 
Mount Vernon, being one of the oldest printers in 
the State. The Reporter was published, at a later 
date, by McArdle and G. T. Buckingham, under the 
firm name of G. T. Buckingham & Co., and was dis- 
continued in 1830. This paper was printed upon a 
Ramage press, the second that crossed the AUeghanies, 
obtained in England, and first used in 1794, at Wash- 
ington, Pennsylvania. It was afterwards removed to 
Sandusky, and from thence to Tiffin. 


The Huron Reflector, now the oldest paper in the 
Fire-lands, was first issued February 2, 1830. It was 
published at Norwalk, upon a Stanbury, and with 
new type (small pica), brought by wagon from Cin- 
cinnati for the purpose. The paper was of neat ap- 
pearance and large size. Its publishers and proprie- 
tors were Samuel Preston and G. T. Buckingham, 
under the firm name of Preston & Buckingham. Mr. 
Buckingham retired upon the 1st of August, 1831, 
and the publication of the paper was continued by 

Samuel Preston & Co., until 1834, when the partner- 
ship was dissolved, and a new firm was constitued by 
Mr. Preston and his .son C. A. Preston, by whom it 
was published until the death of the former in March, 
1852. The paper was then published for two years 
by C. A. Preston and F. Wickham, when the latter 
gentleman became sole proprietor. John R. Osborne 
was connected with the paper, as editor, in 1843, and 
G. T. Stewart from 1848 to 1851, inclusive. 

F. Wickham retained the sole ownership of the 
paper until 18G5, when the proprietorship was changed 
to the firm of F. & W. S. Wickham. W. S. Wick- 
ham withdrew October 1, 1873, and his place in the 
partnership was filled by James G. Gibbs. 

The Stanbury press, of which the first editors were 
doubtless very proud, gave place, many years ago, to 
an improved power press, and this again was improved 
upon by the introduction, in 1872, of one of the Cin- 
cinnati cylinder presses, of the mammoth size. An 
engine was put in at the same time, and the first 
steam printing in Huron county wks performed dur- 
ing that rear at the Reflector office. It was also in 
1872 that the paper was changed in form from the 
old fashioned folio to a seven column quarto. The 
Reflector was originally independent in politics, but 
about 1835 espoused the cause of the whigs, and upon 
tlie formation of the republican party, became an ex- 
ponent of its principles. 


was started in June, 1833, by John Kernan and 
Myi-on H. Tilden, which, -about six months later, be- 
coming the property of the latter, was removed to 


was first tried in 1835, the first number being issued 
upon August 20th, by Samuel S. Hatch and Joseph 
M. Farr, and having a very creditable appearance. 
It was democratic in politics, and bore conspicuously 
pi-inted at the head of its columns the names of Mar- 
tin Van Buren and Richard M. Johnson, as candi- 
dates for the presidency and vice presidency of the 
United States. The paper was strongly and fearlessly 
edited. Up to August, 1843, the proprietorship of 
the paper remained unchanged, but at that time Sir. 
Hatch withdrew, and Mr. Farr continued alone until 
the fall of 1845, wlien he sold out to Charles J. Or- 
ton, Esq. Mr. Farr again became proprietor in the 
year 1846, and remained in possession until 1854. In 
this year James H. Rule and W. W. Redfield then 
became owners of the paper, and remained in jiart- 
nership until August 31, 1858, when Mr. Rule re- 
tired. Mr. Redfield renuiined in charge until August, 
1805, when he sold out the office to I. F. & J. L. 
Clark. In May, 18G9, the paper was purchased again 
by Mr. Redfield, who has since then been its exclusive 
owner, though the establishment was leased to Messrs. 
J. H. & C. H. Rule, on the 24th of May, 1875, for 
one year. At the end of that time Mr. Redfield again 
took sole control of the paper till Noveml)er, 12, 1877, 



when C. H. Rule became a partner in the office, since 
which time the publishing firm of the Experinieiit 
has been Redfield & Rule. 

The paper at a very early day in its existence out- 
grew the modest meaning of the name its founders 
chose for it, and has ever since been making advance- 
ment, so that while it is by name the Experiment, it 
is in reality a very thoroughly established enterprise. 
It is the second oldest paper in the Fire-lands. 


was started in March, 1875, by George B. Pratt and 
E. J. Hammer, and after passing through several 
ownerships, in the spring of 1878, came into the 
hands of Findley & Dodds, who have since then con- 
ducted it to the satisfaction of a large number of 
patrons. Though young, it is well established, and 
favorably known. 


tiie only Germ;in newspapsr in Huron county, was 
started in 1877, by Hammer & Barr, and the present 
proprietor, Martin Ruff, became its owner in June of 
the same year. It was started as a republican paper, 
but is now democratic. 


The newspaper, the great engine of modern pro- 
gress and enlightenment, has had a history in the 
village of Bellevue very like that of the early pioneer 
settlers — a history of adversities and failures, and of 
ultimate success. To-day there are two newspapers 
in Bellevue, generously supported by as enlightened 
and thrifty people as this country can boast. 

The first venture was made by G. W. Hopkins, in 
the fall of 1851. He opened an office in the old 
Howard house — now defunct — on Jlonroe street, and 


with the still more pretentious title of Huron, 
Seneca, Erie, and Sandusky Advertiser, having a 
spread eagle at its mast-head, bearing a scroll 
with "oijen to all" emblazoned upon it. The 
paper was a five-column folio, in coarse type, de- 
voted to current news and the ventilation of such 
ideas as contributors were' ambitious to furnish. 
C. C. Cook, at present chief of the village fire de- 
partment, served in the capacity of "devil," thus 
being the first "printer's devil." His most vivid 
remembrance is that of his duty to ink the forms on 
an old wooden Franklin press — a duty with little 
sentiment and no poetry to allure him on to contin- 
ued service. The people felt disposed to give the 
paper a fair support, but its editor was a victim to 
that human bane — strong drink; so, after a brilliant 
but brief career of six months, the fledgeling per- 

♦ By H. F. Baker. 

In April of 1861, Mr. 0. B. Chapman opened a 
printing office in Squire's block, corner of Mam and 
Sanduskv streets, and issued 



a seven-column folio, devoted to general and local 
news. This was the first year of the great rebel- 
lion, and it would seem that the stirring events of 
those times should furnish the necessary pabulum to 
make it a success. But it continued only a short 
time, and then perished for reasons not now apparent. 
We now come to consider the first successful pajier 
established in the village — one to which the town is 
largely indebted for many of its most valued im- 
provements, being always intensely devoted to the 
Avelfare of the place and the advocacy of such public 
works and measures as would secure its greatest pros- 
perity. We therefore think its editor worthy of more 
than a passing notice. Mr. E. P. Brown says of him- 
self chat he was born at Oxford, Ohio, March 5, 184-"2, 
of distressingly poor but outrageously honest parents, 
and clai\iis that the laws of hereditary transmission 
have not, therefoi-e, allowed him a fair chance. His 
early life was one of toil, with little advantage in the 
way of education, an old darkey preacher being his 
best tutor, but was successful in obtaining a " sheep- 
skin" in a public school and valedictory honors. He 
learned the trade of printer in the office of the Oxford 
Citizen at the age of fourteen, when he obtained em- 
ployment in a Cincinnati Job office. He enlisted in 
the Thirteenth Ohio volunteer infantry at Urbana, 
Ohio, in 1861, and fought the enemies of his country 
for two years, lacking a week — serving in all the en- 
gagements of that regiment until the battle of Shiloh. 
when a rebel bullet between the eyes placed him hors 
du combat. He was left for dead, and was thus 
reported, and had the pleasure of reading his own 
obituary, containing much of a laudatory nature, a 
privilege seldom accorded the human family; but 
subsequent events show him to -be an exceedingly 
lively corpse. His wound gave him an honorable 
discharge from the Thirteenth, but he finally re- 
entered the army in the one hundred day service as 
substitute for a Dutchman, in the One Hundred and 
Sixty-Seventli regiment, receiving three hundred 
dollars therefor. After the close of the war, Mr. 
Brown casually made the acquaintance of William 
L. Meyers, of the Tiffin Tribune, who proved a 
fast, firm friend, and proposed that, since Bellevue 
was an excellent place to establish a paper, they 
embark together in the enterprise. They did so, 
but, at the end of the first six weeks, Mr. Jleyers be- 
came discouraged and sold his interest to his partner 
for four humlred and fifty dollars, on a year's time. 
Mr. Brown himself hail had.but two years' experience 
in editorial work, and never managed an office on 
his own responsibility, hence he entered upon it 
with fear aud trembling, almost certain he would 
fail inside the first six months. The outfit of type 
was purchased of the Franklin foundry, amount- 



ing to eight hundred and twenty-three doUar.s. A 
six-column Washington hand i)ress and a half-medium 
Wells" jobber was purchased second hand of other 
parties for two hundred and thirty-seven dollars. 
This comprised the outfit. On Saturday, .August 10, 
1867, the first number of 


Saw the liglit. The interest taken by the business 
men in the success of the paper, is shown by the ma- 
terial aid they accorded it. 0. A. Willard, a leading 
business man, solicited all the subscriptions. Busi- 
ness men pledged one thousand two hundred dollars, 
deposited in Sinclair's bank, to be paid at the first 
issue,and taken in advertising during the first year, 
which was conscientiously done, and made the capital 
used by the energetic, intelligent and careful manage- 
ment of Mr. Brown, insuring success. 

At the time the first number was printed, an all- 
absorbing interest gathered around the press. In- 
deed, the room was full, and as the clean, handsome 
twenty-four-column sheet was taken off the press, 
Mr. Will.ird's rhapsody was beyond expression. Peter 
Brady, present village mayor, was present, and as 
deeply interested as any until, in looking over the 
church notices, the blunder was discovered of dub- 
bing him Rev. Peter Brady, pastor of the Catholic 
church. This was too much, and any idea the editor 
may have had that Mr. Brady was a member of the 
clerical profession, was immediately dispelled then 
and there. Proper correction being made, tiie print- 
ing of the edition proceeded. 

Under Mr. Brown's careful management and the 
fulfilment of every anticipation the citizens may have 
had as to the benefits the village would derive from 
the paper, it proved an unbounded success, and all 
fears on his part of a failure were dispelled like clouds 
before the morning sun. In the course of the next 
three years Mr. Brown purchased a Hoe cylinder rail- 
road press at a bargain, one which originally belonged 
to Dan Rice, and was used to print his show bills. 
This enabled him to branch out in the business. He, 
therefore, engaged in furnishing i-eady prints for other 
offices, and introduced steam. Business increased on 
his hands until Mr. Aiken, the originator of the 
ready print method of publishing newspapers, made 
him a very advantageous offer to accept the manage- 
ment of a new^ establishment in Cincinnati, which he 
did, and ultimately became as he is now the sole pro- 
prietor—only another example of what pluck, energy 
and good management will do. 

Mr. E. J. Hammer bought the (ifnj'ttc when Mr. 
Brown went to Cincinnati, entering upon its manage- 
ment July 1, 1874. Mr. Hammer was not a large 
man, but had large idejw aspiring to greater things 
than the conduct of a one-horse country paper. 
Although that was very well done, yet his more 
ambitious views led him to unite with A. B. Pratt 
to start the Norwalk ('hronirh whicli being a county 
paper, was a step, at least, in the direction of E.\- 

celsior. He finally turned the Gazelle over to his 
father. Rev. George Hammer, of Van Wert, Ohio. 
The old gentleman, though very kindly disposed, had 
little or no practical skill in the publishing business, 
hence found it an elephant on liis hands. In tlie 
spring of 1877, lie sold it to Messrs. C. D. Stoner 
and S. C. Thompson, the present pioprietors, under 
whose care the i)aper thrives, finding a cordial, 
generous support among the people of the community, 
whose attacliment for an old friend was proof against 
mismanagement of the former proprietors, as w^ell as 
the machinations of enemies. 

At the time. Mr. E. J. Hammer had started the 
ClironicJe, and tlierefore contemjilated the sale of the 
Gazelle, as well as removal to Xorwalk, H. F. Baker, 
son of Hiram Baker, one of the early pioneer settlers 
in Lyme township, proposed to buy it, l^ut unable to 
agree upon the price, he decided to purchase new ma- 
terial and start another paper. He had really no ex- 
perience in the printing business, but his son, H. L. 
Baker, had mastered some of the intricacies of the 
trade in the Gazelle ofttce. and having a natural tact 
for it, they together hoped to make their venture a 
success. This determination was acted upon: an 
office was opened in the new Union block, and on 
Thursday, October 21, 1S75, tlie first number of 


was issued. The pajjer flourished from the start. 
Being managed with full average aljility, and by those 

n I 5 5 SI! 

broughi :., .:. :... .. ui.n. .,..., ^. . \,l!1 \Li>cd in all its 
lore, it represents the local interests of the town with 
greater intensity than any other lias been able to do. 
In April, 1878, Mr. Baker purchased the old Burling- 
ton stone building, contiguous to the new city hall, 
and tearing down the old front, rebuilt of brick in 
the same style of the city hall, which together make 
as fine a block among the many fine business houses, 
as the town can boast. The jiroprietors put steam 
presses and an engine into their new ([uurteis, and 
are now conducting a floiirisliiug businc«s. 




was founded October 6, 1853, by James Robinson 
and D. R. Locke (Nasby. ) Two years later it was dis- 
posed of to A. H. Balsley, of St. Clairsville, 0., who 
continued in its management till January 30, 1869, 
when he disposed of it to Mr. J. M. Beelman, of 
Plymouth. Up to that time it was a seven column 
folio and the only paper in that part of Richland 
and Huron counties. In August, 1872, J. Frank 
Beelman was admitted as a partner in the business, 
and in December, 1876, he purchased the remaining 
interest in the paper and is now both editor and pro- 
prietor. The Advertiser has ever been a republican 


was first issued October, 1870, by J. F. Clough, 
as a seven column folio, and was enlarged to an eight 
column soon after. It was subsequently made a six 
column quarto. The paper was purchased by L. M. 
Wilkinson September 7, 1876, and he assigned the 
management to W. H. Wilkinson, who is at present 
in charge. 


was established October 16, 1878, by C. W. Clough 
as a seven column folio, and was afterwards changed 
to a five column quarto. The publication was sus- 
pended in 1879. Both of these pajiers were neutral 
in politics. 


The first paper in New London was the Agitator, 
published for a short time by Mr. Brewster. 


was started by Charles E. Manchester, just before 
the close of the war. The paper eked out an exis- 
tence for two years and died for want of support. 
The material was purchased by a number of New 
London merchants and about a year after Manches- 
ter's failure Mr. E. L. Atkinson, of West Salem, 
began the publication of the Times. He was com- 
pelled to suspend iu less than a year. 


was started in 1870 by F. A. Whitmore. In 1872 
he left town and George W. Runyan, the present 
owner, then an employe in the office, purchased the 
material and began issuing the paper as his own. 
Soon after the entire office was destroyed by fire, but 
upon January 1, 1873,. he began again with new mate- 
rial, and succeeded so well that a year later he was 
obliged to enlarge his paper to the size of an eight 
column quarto. 


was a short-lived paper, started in 18.57 by the Rev. 
Robert McCune and J. R. Robinson. It was suc- 
cessively but not successfully owned by Robinson & 
Lee and by 0. B. Chapman. During its short career 
the pajierwas well edited and readable. 



was a small paper, started in 1873 by Melvin Lewis. 
It was enlarged from a four column quarto to a six 
column, and in 1875 was removed to North Amherst, 
Lorain county. September 18th, 1875, 

was established by G. H. Mains. The office was 
sold out ill March, 1877, to A. E. Mains, G. H. 
i\Iains acting as manager. 

In this county pajjers have also been published 
recently at Chicago Junction and Collins. The 
former was known as the Herald, and its proprietor 
was 0. J. Powell, formerly of Wapakonetta. The 
pajjer was so short-lived as to be hardly worthy of 
mention. The Collins paper was the property of 
Frank Miles. It was issued as a monthly until it 
reached its sixth or seventh number, and was then 
absorbed by the Wakeman Independent Press. 



The initial movement toward the organization of 
the Fire-lands Historical Society was made, when, 
upon May, 20, 1857, a few prominent pioneers as- 
sembled informally at the court house, actuated with 
the laudable desire of making an effort to preserve 
from oblivion the early history of the settlement of 
the "sufferers" land — a land bought with the ashes 
of happy ruined homes. There were but a few per- 
sons present — Piatt Benedict, Rev. Alfred Betts, 
Philo Wells, Philo Adams, Seth A. Adams, Horace 
Hall, P. N. Schuyler, and Harvey Fowler., After 
some consultation upon the fcasibibility of effecting 
an organization, the meeting was adjourned to June, 
17th. But little was accomplished beside the ap- 
pointment, upon motion, of the Rev. Alfred Betts, 
of a committee of two persons, in each township, 
whose duty it .should be to collect and reduce to 
writing, all facts and statistics, in relation to the 
early settlement of their respective townships, and 
report the same to the secretary. Tlie committees 
were constituted as follows: 

\'erinillion, Wm. H. Crane, John Morgan: Flor- 
ence, T. S. Fuller, D. Chandler; Wakeman, J. Sher- 
man, C. Manvel; New London, J. Miller, Thomas 


Smith; Ruggles, B. Sturtevant, H. Sackett; Green- 
wich, J. Barnes, S. H. Gibson; Fitchville, J. C. Cur- 
tiss, R. Palmer; Hartland, Elijah Bills, D. Minor; 
Townsend, D. H. Manville, B. Benson; Berlin, I. 
Fowler, Z. Phillips: Huron, Rev. S. Marks, Rev. H. 

C. Taylor; Milan, A. Minnse, C. B. Choate; Nor- 
walk, Piatt Benedict, Dolen Read; Bronson, M. Kel- 
logg, D. Warren; Fairfield, Dr. J. N. Campbell, A. 
Benson; Ripley, Gen. D. G. Barker, Wm. Bacon; 
New Haven, R. Bly, A. Brewbaker; Greenfield, S. C. 
Parker, H. Spencer; Peru, S! Atherton, R. Eaton; 
Ridgefield, Rev. E. Eaton, John Sowers; Oxford, 
Wm. Parish, A. W. Pront; Perkins, J. House, Gen. 
W. D. Lindsley; Portland, Hon. E. Cooke, F. D. 
Parish; Margaretta, H. Fowler, Rev. C. Smith; Gro- 
ton, E. Bemiss, S. Rash; Lyme, L. G. Harkuess, J. 
K. Campbell; Sherman, J. Manley, C. Bloomer; 
Norwich, G. H. Woodruff, J. H. Niles; Richmond, 

D. Sweetland, J. Geesy; Danbury, William Kelley, 
Frank Dwelly; Kelley's Island, Datus Kelley; Clarks- 
field, S. Husted, E. M. Barnum. 

The above committees were afterwards somewhat 
changed. Z. Phillips was appointed for the township 
of Berlin, m place of S. Fowler; Charles B. Sim- 
mons, for Greenfield, in place of J. C. Parker; Robert 
Carpenter, for New London, in place of Thomas 
Smith; James Cudderback, of Vermillion, in place of 
William Morgan; A. G. Stewart, of New Haven, in 
place of Rouse Bly; Levi R. Sutton was added to the 
committee for Peru, and William W. Pollock, to the 
Ridegfield committee. A number of other changes 
were made before the work assigned to the commit- 
tees was completed, but they remained substantially 
the same. 

A grand reunion of the pioneers was held at 
Norwalk on the Fourth of July, 1857, which created 
much enthusiasm, and brought many of the early 
settlers to a fuller realization of the importance of 
gathering the early history of the settlement and de- 
velopment of the country. An address was delivered 
by the Hon. Eleutheros Cooke, of Sandusky. 

June 17, 1857, another meeting was held, at which 
the following officers were elected: Piatt Benedict, 
president; William Parish, Elentheros Cooke, Z. 
Phillips, Seth C. Parker, John H. Niles, vice presi- 
dents; Charles A. Preston, treasurer; Philip N. 
Schuyler, recording secretary; F. D. Parish, G. T. 
Stewart, corresponding secretaries. 

Piatt Benedict held the office of president until his 
death on the -ibth of October, 1866. At the annual 
meeting in 1867, Judge Zalmunna Phillips was chosen 
to the office. He held it until 1875, when P. N. 
Schuyler was elected president. 

The objects of the Fire-lands Historical Society 
as declared in the constitution, are to collect and pre- 
serve in proper form tlie facts constituting the full 
history of the Fire-lands; also, to obtain and preserve 
an authentic and genenil statement of their resources 
and productions of all kinds. 

In pursuance of this object, the society held annual 

and quarterly meetings, which were addressed upon 
topics of historical interest, by the prominent pio- 
neers; established a valuable cabinet of curiosities, 
and began the publication of The Fire-Lauds Pioneer. 
This publication was first issued in the form of a neat 
pamphlet, from the press of the Sandusky Register, 
in 1858. Thirteen volumes have been issued, — the 
last bearing the date July, 1878 — containing sketches 
of the townships, personal memoirs, dissertations 
upon various appropriate subjects, obituaries of de- 
ceased pioneers, and miscellaneous selections of in- 
teresting matter. 

The society has performed a work which can only 
with difficulty be appreciated by those who have had 
no practical knowledge, through experience, of the 
arduousness of the task. The meetings have been 
held with regularity, and have been prolific in good 
results, among which the chief is, perhaps, the fur- 
therance of social well being, the creation of new and 
the strengthening of old friendships, the awakening 
of sympathetic feeling, and the revival of happy 
memories of the olden time. The work of securing 
from oblivion the facts of the early settlement of 
the country, and the memoirs of the sturdy, brave 
souls who developed it, is one which will be more 
fully and widely appreciated as the years roll on, and 
the last of the honored pioneers of the Fire-lands has 
passed over to the great majority. 


In pursuance of a notice published in the Huron 
Reflector in 1833, a meeting was held at the Court 
House in Norwalk, on the last Friday of June, and 
then and there was effected the organization of the 
Huron County Agricultural Society, the first of the 
kind in the Fire-lands. The following officers were 
elected : President, Amos Woodward; Vice Presi- 
dent, Timothy Baker; Directors, Lemuel Morse, Levi 
Barnum, Lester Cone, John Millen, John Falton, 
Aaron Corbit, Arunah Eaton, Wm. P Mason, Daniel 
Beach, Charles B. Simmons; Treasurer, Eben Boalt: 
Secretary, John V. Vredenburgh. 

The first fair was held in the fall of 1833. An 
address was delivered by T. B. Sturges, Esq. The 
premium for the best acre of corn was awarded to 
George Powers, who had a yield of sixty-three 
bushels: best half acre of potatoes, John Daune, one 
hundred bushels; best half acre beets, John \. 
Vredenburgh. The only article in the line of "house- 
hold utensils" on exhibition was "an improved cook- 
ing stove," upon which William Gallup took a 

After tlie division of Huron county, tlie society 
was reorganized, and had for several years an exist- 
ence under the name of the Huron and Erie Counties" 
Agricultural Society. In 1852, the directors adopted 
a series of resolutions, in which they expressed them- 
selves as believing that the general interests of agri- 


culture would be best subserved by the existence of 
separate societies in each of the counties of Huron 
and Erie. The resolutions were only adopted after a 
warm debate. In accordance with a resolution that 
a committee of three from each county be appointed, 
to close up and adjust the funds belonging to the 
society, C. E. Newman, D. A. Baker and Giles Boalt 
were appointed from Huron, and J. F. Reynolds, 
H. Chase and L. S. Stowe from Erie. This com- 
mittee held a meeting at Milan, and reported that 
they had found in the treasury 8511.10, of which 
amount they gave Huron county 6S299.0G and 
Erie S213.04. 

The year following the dissolution (1855) was 
formed the 


A meeting was held at Huron in February, at 
which a constitution was adopted and the following 
officers elected : President, J. T. Reynolds; Vice 
President, Harvey Chase; Secretary, F. D. Parish; 
Treasurer, Charles N. Ryan; Directors, R. H. Rogers, 
Margaretta ; John Thompson, Berlin ; A. W. 
Prout, Sr., Oxford; Elijah Bemis, Groton; Elam 
Ward, Milan. 

The tlrst annual fair of this society was held at San- 
dusky, in the month of October, 1855. The commit- 
tee of arrangements consisted of the following gentle- 
men: J. F. Reynolds, F. D. Parish, F. T. Barney, 
P. Gregg and H. B. Lane. The fair was a great suc- 
cess, and the prosperity of the society, in that its first 
essay in the systematic encouragement of agriculture, 
was the first in a now long series of successful exhi- 
bitions. The society has fine grounds in Sandusky, 
is generally regarded as one of the strongest local 
organizations of the kind in the State, and its activity 
and prosperity is constantly upon the increase. 


Pursuant to a call published in the county papers, 
a large number of citizens interested in agriculture 
met in Everett's Hall, in Fairfield, January 17, 1855, 
for the purpose of eifecting the formation of a county 
agricultural society. The society then and there 
organized was the Huron County Agricultural Society. 
G. T. Stewart, Samuel Atherton 2d, Union White, 
B. T. Hunt and A. McPherson were appointed a com- 
mittee to draw up a constitution, which they did to 
the satisfaction of the convention, as it was immedi- 
ately adopted. Fifty-two members united with the 
society and signed the constitution. The following 
officers were elected: Union White, president; D. A. 
Baker, Benj. H. Hinkley, vice presidents; W. Mana- 
han, treasurer; J. C. Curtiss, Jr., secretary. 

The society held three fairs at Olena and one at 
Fairfield, after which the place of exhibition was 
changed to Norwalk, where it has ever since been. 
Until 1872, the society had the use of grounds which 
were insufficient and unsuitable for their purpose, but 
in that year the present grounds were purchased of 

John Gardiner, and were, sometime subsequently, 
fitted up by the erection of buildings, stalls and vari- 
ous improvements, at a cost amounting to eight 
thousand dollars, five thousand of which was a sub- 
scription fund. 

In 1875, the society was still in debt over six thou- 
sand three hundred dollars; and, in accordance with 
an act of the legislature, and the question being sub- 
mitted to the people by a popular vote, the township of 
Norwalk paid to John Gardiner, from an unexpended 
fund raised by taxation for railroad jiurposes, but 
declared unconstitutional, the sum of six thousand 
three hundred and fifty dollars, receiving from him a 
warranty deed of the thirty acres of laud included in 
the fair ground. The township then, through its 
trustees, leased the grounds to the Huron County 
Agricultural Society for a term of twenty-five years, 
to expire in the year 1900, for a consideration of only 
twenty-five dollars per year, the agricultural society 
being bound, under forfeiture of its lease, to keep in 
good condition the grounds, trees and shrubbery, to 
maintain its organization, and to hold upon these 
grounds annual fairs. 

The first fair held upon the new grounds was in 
1873, and was very successful. The committee of 
improvements consisted of Giles Boalt, 0. W. Haws, 
J. W. Bostwick and John Gardiner. 


an auxiliary of the American Bible Society, is the 
oldest organization existing in the territory, at pres- 
ent, included in Huron and Erie counties. It was 
organized in 1825. Upon March 15th of that year, 
a meeting was held in Norwalk of " sundry inhabit- 
ants of Huron count}', (a number of citizens from 
various and distant parts of the county.)" Piatt 
Benedict was called to the chair, and Zachariah 
Marvin appointed clerk. After adopting a constitu- 
tion, the meeting was adjourned. On June 6th, 
another meeting was held, at which the first officers 
^ho served the society, were elected. They were the 
following: President, Ichabod Marshall; Vice Presi- 
dents, Robert S. Southgate, of Brouson; George G. 
Baker, of Florence; Jabez Wright, of Huron; 
Timothy Baker, of Norwalk; Amos Woodward, of 
Lyme: John B. Johnson, of New London; Moor Far- 
well, of Sandusky, and Ephraim Munger, of Milan; 
Corresponding Secretary, Ralph Lockwood; Recording 
Secretary, Zachariah Marvin; Treasurer, Milton Jen- 
nings; Directors, William Kelley, of Perkins; Richard 
Fally, of j\Iargaretta; Francis Strong, of Lyme; 
Andrew Hanford, of Sherman: Elisha Steward, of 
New Haven; Eli Holaday, of Greenfield; Harry 0. 
Sheldon, of Peru: Zebediah Morse, of Ridgefield; 
James Strong, of Oxford: Philo Adams, ef Huron; 
Jasper Miles and Bildad Adams, of Milan; Piatt 
Benedict, of Norwalk; Nathan Tanner, of Bronson; 
Joseph Crawford, of Fairfield: Samuel Brown, of 
Greenwich; Rundle Palmer, of Fitchville; Obadiah 
Jenney, of Clarksfield; Eli S. Barnum. of Florence; 



Clark, of Vermillion; Benjamin Bailey, of 

Townsend: John Fuller, of Eldridge; Justus Miner, 
of Wakeman; Azel Miner, of New London; Bi-adford 
Sturtevant, of Ruggles; Joseph Ramsdell, of Dan- 
bury, and Gayus Munger, of York, Sandusky county. 
This society celebrated in 1878, its fifty-third anni- 
versary. Its life has been, as might be supposed 
from its strong organization, a vigorous one, and its 
work extensive and valuable. 


Dr. Moses C. Sanders was the president of the first 
medical society that had an existence in the Fire-lands. 
This is a fact shown by the appearance of his name 
signed to a call for a meeting of the society, June 4, 
1822, and published in May of the same year, in the 
Sandusky Clarion. Nothing further appears in re- 
gard to this medical society, in the files of old news- 
papers, and the records, if there ever were any, are 
now undiscoverable. It is probable that the organiza- 
tion had but a short life, for 


was organized in 1824, and as it was a large, and for 
a number of years a very prosperous society, it in all 
likelihood crowded the smaller one out of existence. 
Following is the first newspaper mention of this or- 

Medical Notice. — Pursuant to an act to incorporate medical 
for the purpose of re uJating the practice of physic and surgery in this 
State, I hereby notify the medical gentlemen, resident in the counties of 
Richland, Huron, Lorain, Sandusky and Seneca that a meeting will be 
holden at Norwalk, the last Tuesday of May next, at ten o'clock, . , for 
the purpose of organizing a medical society agreeable to said act. It is 
expected that there will be a general attendance of physicians of this 
district, as the eleventh section of the act provides that no person, other 
than members of one of the medical societies in this State shall be per- 
mitted to practice physic or surgery after the 1st of July nest. 

NoRWALK, April 10, 1S34. " Daniel Tilden . 

The above and the following are from the Sandusky 
Clarion, the latter being in the issue of June 2, 1824. 

Communication.— Agreeable to the act, on the 25th instant, came on at 
Norwalk the first meeting of the Fourteenth Medical Society in this 
State. The meeting was full, and upon the whole, we were much 
pleased with the respectable display of parchment . At three o'clock 
the gentlmen present proceeded to organize by choosing— 

Dr. Tilden, of Norwalk, president: Dr Anderson, of Sandusky, vice 
president: Dr. Mantor, of Elyria, secretary: Dr Fay. of Milan, treas- 
urer; Dr. Lucas, of L'niontown: Dr. G C Miller, of Mansfield: Dr 
Baker, of Florence; Dr. Sanders, of Peru; Dr Strong, of Blooming- 
■ville. censors. 

The annual meeting of 182.5 was also held at 
Norwalk, a number of new members were received 
and the following officers elected: Nathan H. 
Mantor, president; John B. Johnson, vice i)resident; 
Amos B. Harris, secretary; Lyman Fay, treasurer; 
George G. Baker, Moses C. Sanders, Daniel Tilden, 
Eli Dresback and Charles E. Ford, censors. 

The third annual meeting was held May .30, 1826, 
and the following officers elected: Moses C. Sanders, 
president; George Anderson, vice president; Amos B. 
Harris, secretary; Lyman Fay, treasurer; George G. 
Baker, Daniel Tilden, Nathan H Mautur, Daniel 
Braiuard, Jr., and Joel Luther, censors. 

The fourth meeting was held at Norwalk on the 
29th of May, 1827, and the oflficers elected were as 
follows: Allen G. Miller, president; George G. 
Baker, vice president; A. B. Harris, secretary; 
Lyman Fay, treasurer; George G. Baker, William 

F. Kittredge, Moses C. Sanders, Daniel Tilden, and 
Eli Dresback, censors. 

It was shown that there were at that time the fol- 
lowing regularly licensed practicing physicians and 
surgeons in Huron county: George G. Baker, Daniel 
Tilden, M. C. Sanders, George Anderson, Lyman 
Fay, William F. Kittredge, William W. Nugent, C. 
B. Harris, H. M. Clark, Joseph Pearce, Andrew 
McMillan, Richard P. Christophers, Samuel Stephens, 
Charles Smith, Samuel B. Carpenter, W. Merriman, 
Lemuel Powers, and A. H. Brown, eighteen in all. 
The other counties of the district together had but 

The following are the officers for 1838 and 1829: 
1828 — President, George G. Baker; Vice President, 
Moses C. Sanders, Secretary, Amos B. Harris; Treas- 
urer, Lyman Fay; Censors, W'm. F. Kittredge, Allen 

G. Miller, Eber W. Hubbard, Moses C. Sanders, 
Daniel Tilden. 

1829 — President, Moses C. Sanders; Vice President, 
Daniel Tilden; Secretary, Amos B. Harris; Treasurer, 
Lyman Fay; Censors, George G. Baker, Nathan H. 
Manter, Wm. F. Kittredge, \Vm. W. Nugent. Heurv 

At the meeting in 18.30, a resolution was passed 
approving the efforts then making for the suppres- 
sion of intemperance. Geo. Anderson was elected 
President. No mention of the society can be found 
later than the above years, and it is probable that the 
organization was not sustained much later than the 
above date — the last one given. 


is the next m order. It was organized at a meeting 
of the medical profession of Norwalk and the neigh- 
boring towns, held at the office of Drs. Reid and 
Ford, November 18th, 1858. Drs. A. N. Reid, 
Thomas M. Cook, and L. Galpin were appointed to 
draw up a constitution, which, at a later session on 
the same day, was adopted. The constitution opened 
with a preamble expressing the fittingness of men of 
congenial minds and similar pursuits associating 
themselves together for the promotion of kind feeling 
and the free interchange of opinions, and in addition 
to this general statement of the objects of the organi- 
zation, prescribed certain rules for self-government, 
and further exhibited its aim in tlie fifth and sixth 
clauses by expressions in favor of adopting the code 
of ethics of the American Medical Association, and 
of constituting itself a court, before which should be 
heard all complaints of breach of etiquette and all 
questions of ethics. The charter members of the 
association were Drs. Charles Smith, of Lyme; L. 
Galpin and W. F. Dean, of Milan; Thomas M. Cook, 
of Monroeville; Wm. W. Stillson and J. W. Goodson, 


of Bellevne; A. 0. Eaton, of Peru; S. ilcCaVniou, 

of Greenfield; A. N. Read, J. B. Ford and Baker, 

of Norwalk. Dr. Charles Smith was elected presi- 
dent and Dr. J. B. Ford secretary. The society has, 
since its organization, held quarterly meetings in the 
various towns of Erie and Huron counties where it 
has had membei's, for the consideration of subjects 
interesting to the profession, and for the furtherance 
of social relations and well-being. Its constitution 
has been subscriijed by many others than the few 
charter members, and bears the signatures of some of 
the most prominent physicians of the past and 
present in both counties. It has now over twenty 
active members. R. A. Severance is its president, 
J. B. Ford, secretai-y, and 0. S. Kreider, treasurer. 


composed of the allopathic physicians of Sandusky 
and vicinity, was organized, in the city just named, 
in the year 18.50, its members being Drs. Daniel Til- 
den, Aaron Austin, E. S. Lane, Chas. Cochran, 

Robert R. McMeens and Landerdall. The 

first president was Dr. Tilden, and the secretary. Dr. 
Lane. The society, during the war, did not main- 
tain an active organization; but when the cause of 
distraction from civil pursuits no longer existed, it 
was resuscitated, and has ever since remained in 
active existence. Dr. H. J. Donalioe was for many 
years its president, and was succeeded by Dr. P. H. 
Clemens, the present incumbent. The vice presidents 
are Di-s. Cook and Story, and the secretary. Dr. W. 
R. Page. The society has about twenty members, 
holds monthly meetings, and has done much to pro- 
duce social good fellowship among members of the 



This organization was a direct outgrowtli of the 
very successful local organizations in Norwalk and 
other points in the county, and came into being June 
7, 1850, at which time, pursuant to call, a meeting 
was held in the ilethodist Episcopal Church of Nor- 
walk. A preamble and pledge were adopted, and the 
following otticers elected: Rev. S. C. Parker, president; 
(i. F. Stewart, secretary; Charles E. Newman, treas- 
urer. All of the ofticiating clergymen of the county 
who became members of the organization were made 
vice presidents. 

After this preliminary organization, the first an- 
nual meeting of the league was held at ^lonroeville, 
November 8th, of the same year above designated, and 
the following officers were elected: Rev. J. C. Bowles, 
jiresident; Charles E. Newman, secretary; Charles 
Vancise, treasurer. At the next meeting, held at 
Norwalk, December Oth, the constitution was so modi- 
fied as to allow all temperance societies in the county 
to become auxilliary to the league. .From this time 
on for several years temperance work was prosecuted 
with great diligence and to excellent effect, a strong 

public feeling being aroused and much good accom- 
plished. All of the clergymen and other public 
speakers who were willing to give their labor for the 
cause were enlisted in the work; it was decided to 
have one temperance address delivered in each town- 
ship every three months. The following gentlemen 
were enrolled as county lecturers, and made addresses 
in all parts of the county dui-ing the year 18.51 and 
the first quarter of 1852: Rev. C. W. C'lapp. Rev. S. 
B. Page, Rev. E. S. Grumley, Rev. M'. W. Fairfield. 
Rev. E. P. Salmon, Rev. F. P. Hall, Rev. R. S. 
Lockwood, Rev. Mr. Boardman, Rev. Alfred Newton, 
Rev. S. H. Waldo, Rev. Ira Smith, Rev. .John Kelley, 
John R. Osborne, S. T. Worcester, G. T. Stewart. 
Charles Kent, E. W. Tucker, DeMorris Pratt, D. H. 
Beck with, Timothy Baker, Jr., C. F. Woodruff, B. 
T. Hunt, B. F. Roberts. It was arranged that quar- 
terly meetings should be held in various places in the 
county, and that on the Fourth of July of each year 
should be held the annual temperance celebration, 
which should also be a patriotic reunion of all who had 
the cause of temperance at heart. The speeches de- 
livered in the summer of 18.51, preceding the State 
election, on the adoption of the new constitution, with 
a separate vote on the section prohibitmg license for 
the sale of intoxicating liquors, had a great influence 
in throwing the vote of Huron county upon the anti- 
license side. The vote of the townships upon this 
question stood as follows: 



Bronson "116 73 Norwich 05 67 

ClarksHeld 30 _ 153 i Peru 65 62 

Fitchville 33 111 Richmond... 7 38 

Fairfield 48 167 i RidgeHeld ... 109 89 

Greenfield 8J 99 j Riplej- 47 S8 

Grfenwica 76 38 I Sherman.... 56 m 

Hartland 68 47 I Tovvnsend ... 108 6] 

Lyme 102 57 Wakeman . . 34 6H 

Norwalk ,325 223 

New Haven 149 50 Total.. 1,4S0 l,t535 

New London 73 113 

The officers elected at the second annual meeting, 
held at Norwalk, July 4, 1851, were as follows: Gen. 
Jeremiah Cole, president; Charles E. Newman, sec- 
retary; Edward E. Husted, treasurer. 

During the excitement of the presidential cam- 
paign of 1852, the meetings were mostly suspended, 
but they were resumed in 1853. The following offi- 
cers were elected that year, the meeting being held 
July 4th, at Norwalk: James Green, president; 
Charles E. Newman, secretary; Edward E. Husted, 
treasurer. Following are the officers elected in later 
years: 1854, Frederick Sears, president; Frederick 
A. Wildman, secretary; Erastus Gray, treasurer. 
1856, Charles B. Simmons, president; Charles W. 
Manahan, seei-etary; Erastus Gray, treasurer. The 
league was disbanded in 1857, because of the slavery 
agitation, the disruption of old political parties, the 
formation of new ones, and the prevalence of various 
absorbing and exciting problems in the nation. No 
attempt was made to revive it until 18T0. A meet- 
ing was held upon the 8th of January of that year, 
and the following officers were chosen: Charles W. 
Manahan, president; Henry J. Baldwin, secretary; 
Levi Kilburn, treasurer. 



This organized league did not long continue in ex- 
istence. Something was accomi)iished, but not much. 
The interest died out, and the league was a second 
time disbanded. After the wide-spread and intense 
excitement of the crusade, in 1873, had roused the 
people to an intensity of action before unknown, the 
Huron county temperance league, at present in ex- 
istence, was organized ujjon a strong basis, and in- 
cluding all other temperance societies, both township 
organizations, and those having a county breadth. 
The first officers of the new league were elected at a 
meeting held May 22, 1874, at the Methodist Episco- 
pal church in Norwalk. They were as follows: N. 
S. C. Perkins, of Noi-walk, president; ilrs. E. Sum- 
ner, Bellevue; Mrs. S. T. Guard, Monroeville; Mrs. 
R. C. Powers, New London; Mrs. Danforth, Peru; 
Mrs. L. S. Johnson, Peru, vice presidents; Mrs. H. 
Brown, Norwalk, secretary; Mrs. T. H. Drake^ Mon- 
roeville, treasurer. The present officers of the league 
are: Rev. C. C. Creegan, president; Mrs. H. E. Farr, 
secretary; Mrs. M. A. Corwin, treasurer. The league 
has constantly kept up its organization, has been one 
of the most active in the State, and is, at the present 
writing, in a thoroughly prosperous condition. 

THE farmers' exporting COMPANY OF HURON 


was one of the earliest organizations effected in the 
county, and was, for a short time, of considerable 
importance. No records of the organization exist, 
and only a little light is thrown upon the nature and 
object of the society, by the brief notices that are to 
be found in the files of the Sandusky Clarion. It 
appears that the Farmers' Exporting Company was 
organized some time prior to 1822, foi» an advertise- 
ment, dated July 26th, of that year, calls a "meeting 
to be held at Captain Boalt's inn, in Norwalk, for the 
purpose of taking measures for the transportation of 
a drove of cattle to the east.' There were many 
difficulties at that early day, in getting a market for 
what little could be raised in excess of consumption, 
upon the Reserve, and this company assisted mate- 
rially, for a few years, the farmers of the company, 
who could do but little except by organized effort. 
AMien, or by whom the company was formed, does 
not fully appear. The directors were Luther Coe, 

Ebenezer Guthrie, John McMillen, Raymond, 

and Effeuctus Starr. 


The earliest Sunday school union of which there is 
any record, was organized in 1825, at a meeting held 
in Norwalk, and was known as the Huron County 
Sunday School t^nion. It remained in existence but 
a short time. The following were its officers: Rev. 
John Beach, president; Rev. Enoch Conger, David 
Gibbs, and Asahel Morse, vice-presidents; Ichabod 
Marshall, treasurer; Zachriah Marion, secretiiry: Henry 
Buckingham, depository. 

The Sunday school union of Huron county, now in 

existence, was organized July 29, 1803, at a meeting 
held in Norwalk, pursuant to call, and attended by 
a large number of the churches of the county, with- 
out regard to denomination. Judge Parker, Henry 
M. Holliday, C. E. Newman, Rev. J. D. McCord, S. 

B. French, E. Bemiss, Rev. L. Bailey, R. G. Can- 
nings, D. B. Simons, N. H. Spencer, J. L. Patton, 
and Rev. G. H. Walter were appointed a committee 
to draw up a constitution. 

" The object of the union," as stated in this con- 
stitution, "shall be to unite all evangelical christians 
in the county in efforts to promote the cause of Sun- 
day schools, establishing new schools where they are 
needed, and awakening an increased interest and 
efficiency in such as are already in operation." 

The first officers of the union were as follows: N. 
S. C. Perkins, president; C. E. Newman, correspond- 
ing secretary; Rev. J. D. McCord, recording secre- 
tary; Joel Smith, treasurer; C. E. Pennewell, Rev. 

C. F. Lewis, and Rev. L. Bailey, central committee; 
Rev. A. Newton, Norwalk; Mrs. Johnson, Bronson; 
Rev. C. Moors, Fairfield; C. A. Willard, Lyme; Rev. 
J. E. Weed, Ridgefield; John Saunders, Peru; John 
Sherman, Wakeman; D. B. Simmons, Townsend; Rev. 
J. H. Walter, Milan; D. Laughlin, Hartland; J. L. 
Patton, Clarksfield; Judge Parker Greenfield; A. 
Morrifield, New London; J. H. Niles, Norwich; Rev. 
J. C. Thompson, Fitchville; Rev. F. C. Paine, Ripley; 
Reuben Linden, New Haven; E. Bemiss, Groton; 
Samuel Dodd, Greenwich, vice-j^residents. The Sun- 
day school union, now after an active and useful ex- 
istence of sixteen years, is better than ever able to 
further the ends for which it was organized. 


This company, for the purpose of insurance against 
fire, upon the mutual plan, was organized August 13, 

1877, at Sandusky, with the following charter mem- 
bers: Henry Miliner, Calvin Caswell, J. B. Witter, 
B. H. Rogers, T. B. Taylor, M. B. Rice, I. G. Tay- 
lor, T. B. Eddy, R. F. Fowler, E. A. Beebe, Orlando 
Ransom, E. W. Hughes, H. C. Norton, C. W. Liv- 
ingood, W. G. Benschooten, Andrew Smith, Peter 
Mainzer, C. H. Rockwell, D. H. Benschooten, J. F. 
Greene, George Taylor, 0. C. Tillinghast, Reuben 
Turner. The organization was perfected by the elec- 
tion of the following officers: Calvin Caswell, pres- 
ident; Gardner Benschooten, vice-president; Andrew 
Smith, Orlando Ransom, D. H. Benschooten, direc- 
tors; T. B. Taylor, secretary; Reuben Turner, treas- 


is the outgrowth of a movement that began in Ripley 
township, and its organization was effected March 11, 

1878, the following gentlemen being the charter 
members: A. D. Stotts, R. C. Johnson, James R. 
Knight, A. W. Barker, A. Robinson, J. A. Fmst, W. 
W. Martin, S. E. Peck, D. S. Washburne, Lorenzo 

D. Keller. On the 14th of March the following offi- 


cers were elected: A. D. Stotts, president; R. C. 
Johnson, vice-president; R. C. Johnson, secretary; 
James R. Knight, treasurer; S. E. Peck, J. A. Frost, 
^Y. W. Martin, directors. The object of the company 
is to insure its members at the lowest possible rates 
consistent with sound business principles. ' During 
the first year of its existence, the company has as- 
sumed risks of over three hundred thousand dollars. 



This regiment was originally organized as a 
"three months' regiment," under the first call of 
the president, most of the companies having been 
enlisted between the 16th and iM days of April, 1861, 
and all of them arriving at Camp Taylor as eai'ly as 
April 39th. On the 3d of May, all the companies hav- 
ing been mustered into the service, the regiment was 
ordered to Camp Dennison, whei-e it arrived on the 3d, 
during a drenching rain, and many of the men, for the 
first time in their lives, slept in the open air, with only 
a soldier's blanket for floor, roof, walls and bed-clothes. 
The regimental organization was here completed by 
the appointment of the field and staff officers. In- 
structions in the "drill" now commenced, and vig- 
orous efforts were pat forth to fit the regiment for 
service; but it soon became evident that the troops 
at this camp would not be sent to the field as three 
months' men, and an effort was made to re-enlist the 
regiment for three years. To this every company 
responded except Company I. and the regiment of 
nine companies was mustered into the service for 
three years, on the 32d, 25th and 26th of June. 

In the following September Company I joined the 
regiment at Grafton, Virginia. 

On the 9th day of July, 1861, the regiment left 
Camp Dennison for Grafton, Virginia, and ou the 
12th arrived at West Union, Preston county, Vir- 
ginia, on the summit of the Alleghany mountains 
where they are crossed by the great western turnpike, 
and along which Garnett's rebel army was then being 
rapidly driven by McClellan's troops. For some 
weeks after this, the regiment was stationed at various 
l)laces among the mountains and along the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad, during which time it suffered 
severely from typhoid fever. At one time over three 
hundred were in the hospital, and some thirty-four 
deaths resulted from the fever in a short time. 

On the 21:th of September the regiment partici- 
pated in an attack on Ronmey. At the " Hanging 
Rock " it was exposed to a severe fire, and lost several 
men in killed and a number wounded. The regiment 
again participated in an attack on Romney, October 
2-lth. which, being evacuated by the enemy, was occu- 
pied by the troops under General Kelly until January 

12, 1862. The next fight wm at Blue's Gap. In 
January tlife troops were reaioved to Patterson's 
creek, and the following month to Paw-Paw tunnel. 

On February 14th the Eighth participated in a brisk 
fight at Bloomey Gap, in which Colonel Baldwin, 
with his staff and a part of his command were cap- 
tured. General Lander died March 2d, and shortly 
after the division was sent to the Shenandoah valley, 
where General Shields took command. 

On March 22d the outposts at Winchester were 
attacked by Ashby, and General Shields severely 
wounded. The next day the battle of Winchester 
was fought. But few of the troops had ever been 
undor fire, and none of them, as then organized, in 
any serious engagements. Cjlonel Kimball com- 
manded, a:id made" the arrangements to whip 
" Stonewall " Jackson, who had arrived during the 
night. The battle was one of the most severe of the 
war. Jackson, toward evening, attempted to turn 
our right flank, but was met by Tyler's brigade in 
front, when Colonel Kimball threw several regiments 
on his right flauk, and, after a desperate fight, 
which, in some instancas, was hand to hand, the 
enemy was routed and driven from the field. [This 
was "hot" work; the writer was there, and knows 
whereof he speaks.] The regimeut followed the 
enemy up the valley, skirmishing at Woodstock, 
Mount Jackson, Edinburgh and New Market; thence 
it joined .McDowell at Fredericksburg. Here it 
remained a few days, and was ordered back to the 
valley again. In the meantime Banks had executed 
one of those retrograde movements for which he 
became e)iiinentlij coii'tpicuous ere the close of the 

In August following the Eig'ith was united to 
the SecDnd Corps, then commanded by Sumner, and 
with thiscDi-ps it continued to a:-t during the remain- 
der of its service. 

After much marching, skirmishing and a few 
light engiigements, the Potomac was crossed at 
chain bridge, and the march through Maryland 
commenced which ended in the battle of South 
Mountain and Antietam, near Reedyville. The 
whole army was massed by the morning of Sep- 
tember 16th, and a furious artillery duel commenced. 
One of the first of the enemy's shots killed W. W. 
Farmer, a color-sergeant of the Eighth. The cm- 
nonade lasted all day. The next day the battle of 
Antietam was fought. The Second Corps crossed 
the river and occupied the center of the line. It did 
effective work that day. In this battle the regiment 
lost one hundred and sixty-two in killed and 
wounded. Among the killed were Lieutenants De- 
lany and Lantry, of Company B, Lieutenant H. H. 
Bill, Company E. and Lieutenant C. W. Barnes, 
Company D. 

In the terrible battle of Fredericksburg, on Decem- 
ber 13th, the Eighth formed the right wing of the for- 
lorn hope. Among the killed in tiiis battle was Cap- 
tain Allen, Company I. At the battle of Chancel- 



lorsville, beginning April 28, 1803. the Eighth was 
almost constantly under fire for four days, and j-et 
its loss was only two killed and eleven wounded. 
The brigade was at this time and subseijueutly com- 
manded l)v General Carroll, and the Eighth Regiment 
by Colonel Franklin Sawyer. 

No further active service wa< hal until the Gettj-s- 
burg cMmp.ugn. In that battle the regiment bore a 
conspicuous part, capturing three stands of colors, 
and losing in killed and wounded one hundred and 
four officers and men. After the escapa of Lee's 
army across the Potomac, the Eighth marched with 
the army to the Rapidau. But we have not space to 
record all the fighting done by this regiment. Suffice 
it to sav, that, from this date until June 25, 1864, 
when, its term of service having expired, and the 
little squad, numbering but« seventy-two officers and 
men fit for duty, were taken from the trenches before 
Petersburg and returned to Ohio for muster out, 
they were almost constantly in active service of the 
severest character. The regiment was formally mus- 
tered out on July 1.3. 1864. at Cleveland. Oiiio, by 
Captain Douglass. United States army. 


This was one of the first organi/iations raised in 
the State on the basis of three years' service. Its 
rendezvous was Camp Hartley near Mansfield, but. 
before completion it was transferred to Camp Denni- 
sou where it was completed, organized, equipped and 
sent to the field, under the auspices of Colonel Thos. 
H. Ford, formerly Lieutenant-Governor of Ohio. 

On the fifteenth of September, 1861, the regiment 
left Camp Dennison for West Virginia. xVs was the 
case with most, if not all, of the first regiments from 
Ohio, it was poorly equipped and armed with the al- 
most useless, old, smooth-bore muskets of a by-gone 
age. The regiment was moved by railroad, and ar- 
rived at Grafton September 18th, and marched the 
next day for Beverly, West Virginia, where it an-ived 
on the 22d. It was here assigned to tiie command 
then stationed on Cheat Mountain summit. 

The Thirty-secoud had been hurried to the field 
without discipline of any kind — in fact, it was hardly 
organized. Here, upon the rugged heights of Cheat 
Mountain, amid the wild scenery of the Alleghanies, 
the regiment received its first lesson in the art of war. 
On the 3rd of October, 1861, the Thirty-second led 
the advance of the army against Greenbrier, Virginia, 
through the mountains and pines of that region by 
midnight. It remained at Greenbrier during the fall 
of 1861. 

On December 13th, it engaged in the advance on 
Camp Alleghany. In his report General Milroy com- 
plimented the regiment very highly on its gallantry 
and good conduct in its charge into the camp of the 
enemy. The loss of the regiment in this affair was 
four killed and fouiteen wounded, — some severely. 

On its return from this expedition, it was ordered 
to Beverly wheie it remained the remainder of the 

winter. In May it was at the engagements in the 
Bull Pasture valley. In the pursuit of Jackson uj) 
the Shenandoah Valley, the regiment participated in 
the battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic, on 
the 8th and 9th of June, 186-2. Returning to Win- 
chester, it did garrison duty until September 1st, 
when the place was evacuated by General White. 
The regiment then moved to Harper's Ferry, and 
assisted in its defence. After making a hard fight 
and losing one hundred and fifty of its uumber, the 
regiment with the whole command, was surrendered 
by the commanding officer of the post to the enemy 
as prisoners of war. The history of this unaccount- 
able affair is yet to be written. The Thirty-Second 
was paroled, and finally transferred to Chicago, Il- 
linois. December- 1, 1SG2, it was transferred to 
Camp Taylor, Cleveland. Ohio. January 12, 1863, 
it was declared exchanged, and on the eighteenth, 
received orders to report to Major-General U. S. 
Grant at Memphis, Tennessee. It reached that 
point on the 2.5th of January, and was assigned 
to the Seventeenth Army Corps. At the battle 
of Champion Hills the Thirty-Second made a bayonet 
charge, and captured the First Mississippi Rebel 
Battery — men, guns and horses, with a loss of twenty- 
four men. For this gallant achievement the captured 
battery was turned over to the regiment, and manned 
by Company F, during the entire sieze of Vicksburg. 
The total loss loss of the regiment, during the 
campaign and siege of Vicksburg, was two hundred 
and twenty-five, rank and file. It participated in 
the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson and 
Champion Hills; and was in the extreme front of 
Logan's Division when Vicksburg surrendered. It 
was identified with its corps in Sherman's advance 
against Atlanta: participated in the assault on Rene- 
saw Mountain, June 27, 1864, and Nicojack Creek. 
July 10th. Also, in the battles of July 20th, 21st, 
22d an 2Sth, before Atlanta, and lost more than half 
its number in killed and wounded. After the fall of 
Atlanta the Thirty-Second moved with the army in 
pursuit of Hood, after which it rejoined General 
Sherman and accompanied him on his "March to the 
Sea." It participated in the grand review at Wash- 
ington, and remained in camp near that city until 
June 8, 186.5, when it took the cars for Louisville, 
Kentucky. It lay there until July 20th, when it was 
mustered out of the service, and proceeded toColum- 
but, Ohio, at which place the men received their final 
discharge, July 26, 186-5. 

The Thirty-Second entered the field September 1.5, 
1861. nine hundred and fifty sti-ong, and during the 
war, received more than sixteen hundred recruits. 
Only five hundred and sixty-five remained at its 
muster-out. It is believeil that the regiment lost and 
recruited more men than anv other from Ohio. 


Immediately after tlic battle <if Hull Rui 
of the citizens of Clevolaiul. Ohio, set alu 



a regiment, and the result of their labors was the 
Forty-First Ohio Volunteers, of which Capt. William 
B. Hazen, Eighth U. S. Infantry, was appointed 
colonel. The camp of rendezvous was established 
near Cleveland. By the 1st of September a large 
number of men were in camp, and the work of in- 
struction had commenced. The regiment was mus- 
tered as complete, October 31, 1861. November 6th, 
the regiment moved by rail to camp Dennison, where 
arms were supplied. Tliese consisted of the '-'Green- 
wood Rifles," a weapon nearly as dangerous as the 
scythes and ])itchforks of our revolutionary ancestry. 
From this point the regiment went to Gallipolis, and 
thence to Louisville. It remained during the winter 
at Camp Wicklifife, Kentucky, and was assigned to 
Nelson's Division. Februaj-yl4, lg62, the active ser- 
vice began. First came the battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing. Here the Forty-First did noble work. Of the 
three hundred and seventy-three men who entered the 
engagement, one hundred and forty-oue were either 
killed or wounded in half an hour. It was next en- 
gaged in the seige of Corinth ; then at Perryville, 
Murfreesboro', (where one hundred and twelve were 
killed or wounded, out of four hundred and ten.) 
January 10, 1863, encamped at Readyville, where it 
remained until June 24th. August 15th tents were 
struck and the regiment moved against Chattanooga. 
September 19th the regiment was actively engaged in 
the battle of Chickamauga, during the entire fight, 
and soon after retired to Chattanooga. At three 
o'clock in the morning of October 27th, fifty-two pon- 
toons, bearing the Forty-First and its brigade, pushed 
out silently from Chattanooga, and floated down the 
river. In half an hour the leading pontoons were 
passing in front of the enemy's pickets on the bank, 
liuudred feet above. The conversation of the rebels 
could be distinctly heard, but their attention was not 
once directed to the twelve hundred silent enemies 
floating past within pistol-shot. Just as the first 
pontoon arrived opposite its landing, it was discovered; 
but the landing was effected, the pickets driven in, 
and the hill gained. When the morning haze cleared 
away the rebels on Lookout mountain saw the hills 
beneath them, commanding two roads to Bridgeport, 
covered with blue-coats, in a position from which 
they could not be driven, with a pontoon bridge to 
connect them with Chattanooga almost completed. 
The engagement which followed was the most severe 
in which the Forty-First was ever engaged, and it was 
personally thanked by General Thomas for its gallant 
conduct on the occasion. At Mission Ridge the reo'i- 
meut lost one hundred and fifteen in killed and 
wounded. At Clinch mountain the regiment re-en- 
listed, and was furloughed home for thirty days, 
reaching Cleveland, Ohio, on the 2d of February, 
1864. Returning to the front, they were at Rocky 
• Face Ridge, Resaca, Piney Top mountain, Peach Tree 
creek, and numerous smaller encounters. July 28th 
the regiment was in front of Atlanta, and was en- 
gaged more or less during the seige, and lost one 

hundred and fifty men in battle and eighty by disease. 
The regiment was with General Thomas in his move- 
ment against Hood, and had "hot work" oji Overton 
knob. It finally rested at Huntsville, Alabama. In 
June, 1865, the corps embarked at Nashville for 
Texas. Near Cairo the steamer collided with a gun- 
boat and sunk immediately. Fortunately no lives 
were lost. In Texas the regiment was stationed near 
San Antonio until November, when it was ordered to 
be mustered out. It was discharged at Columbus, 
Ohio, November 26, 1865, after four years and one 
month's service. 


This regiment went into camp at Norwalk, Ohio, 
on the 17th of October, 1861. Companies A, C, D, 
and I, were recruited from the counties of Huron 
and Erie, as was also the field and staff. 

On the 25th of January, 1862. the regiment left 
Norwalk for Grafton, West Virginia, and after a 
short stay here, it moved to New Creek. From this 
point it made two severe marches, one to Romuey, 
and the other to Moorefield; at the latter place it 
participated in a slight skirmish. Tiie regiment re- 
turned to Grafton on the 19 th day of February. 
Here it suffered greatly from measles and other dis- 
eases, by which more than twenty men lost their lives, 
and many more were rendered unfit for field service. 
At one time over four hundred men in the regiment 
were unfit for duty. On March 31st, the regiment 
was ready for service again. It moved by rail to 
Green Spring river, and marched from thence to 
Romney, where it joined General Sehenck's brigade, 
moved to Moorefield, and went into camp, some four 
miles north of the town. 

In the latter part of April, seven companies of the 
Fiftj'-Fifth moved with the brigade to Petersburg, 
and to McDowell, leaving companies D, E, and G, at 
Moorefield. In the battle of McDowell, or Blue Pas- 
ture mountain, the regiment constituted the reserve, 
and after the battle fell back to Franklin. On this 
march, and during the stay at Franklin, the regiment 
suffered severely on account of the scarcity of rations. 
On the 26th of May, the army broke camp at Frank- 
lin, and moved rapidly to Strasburg, a distance of 
ninety miles, a large portion of which had been passed 
over before Stonewall Jackson knew tliat the army 
had left Franklin. The regiment was present at 
Cross Keys, but was not engaged. July 7tii, the 
regiment marched to Sperryville. Here it remained 
until August 8th, when it moved in tlie direction of 
Culpepper C. H., and at three o'clock, a. m., on 
the 10th, arrived on the battle-field of Slaughter 
mountain. Ou the morning of the 19th, the army 
commenced a retrograde movement northward, cross- 
ing the Rappahannock at White Sulphur Springs. 
On the 25th, the regiment was under severe artillery 
fire from Jackson's troops, and at night fell back to 
Centerville. Here it remained until November 2d, 
when it proceeded to Hopewell, via Manassas June- 



tion. It remained here until November 20th, when 
it moved to the neigliborhood of Chantilly. On the 
10th of December, the regiment broke camp, and 
after a series of severe marches, arrived at Stafford 
C. H., on the 17th. On the 20th of January, 1863, 
General Burnside moved his army with the intention 
of attacking the enemy at Fredericksburg, and the 
regiment, with the division, was sent to Belle Plain 
landing, to defend that point. Heavy rains and bad 
roads arrested the movement of the army, and the 
regiment went into winter (juarters at Biooks' sta- 
tion. On the 27th of April, the army moved upon 
Fredericksburg. The Eleventh Corps, to which the 
Fifty-Fifth was attached, marched up the Rappahan- 
nock, arriving at Chancellorsville on the 30th. The 
next day the army went into position. The Eleventh 
Corps occupied the extreme right, and the Fifty-Fifth 
was in the second brigade from the right. On the 
2d of May the battle opened, and the result is too 
well known to be repeated here. In this engagement 
the Fifty-Fifth lost one hundred and fifty-three men, 
killed, wounded and missing. On the 5th, the army 
retreated, and the regiment went into its old camp, 
near Brooks' station. About the middle of May the 
regiment was transferred to the Second Brigade of 
the Second Division, and it remained in this brigade 
during the remainder of its term of service. The 
regiment marched into Pennsylvania with the army, 
and was present at the battle of Gettysburg. The 
battle-line of the regiment was not engaged, but the 
skirmish line was subject, most of the time, to a 
severe fire. The Fifty-Fifth lost in this battle about 
fifty men. The regiment followed the retreating 
enemy, and went into camp on the 25th of July, in 
the vicinity of the 0. & A. R. R. Here it performed 
heavy picket duty. On the 34th of September, the 
Eleventh and Twelfth Corps took cars at Manassas 
Junction, and moved to Bridgeport, Alabama, arriv- 
ing on the 30th. On the 25th of October, the troops 
moved for Lookout valley, and encamped in fullsight 
of Lookout mountain. The enemy attacked the 
troops in the valley. The Fifty-Fifth was not in the 
early part of the engagement, having been on ]iicket. 
The regiment moved to Chattanooga, on the 22d of 
November. In the battle of Mission Ridge the corps 
formed line to the left and front of Fort Hood, and 
moving forward rapidly, drove the rebel skirmish line 
beyond the East Tennessee railroad. On the after- 
noon of the 25th, the regiment was posted on the ex- 
treme left, and guarded the flank duriitg the remain- 
der of the battle. Immediately after this the regiment 
entered on the Knoxville campaign, and returned 
again to Lookout valley, December 17th. This cam- 
paign was made in extremely cold weather, without 
tents or blankets. On the 1st of January, 1864, three 
hundred and nineteen men in the Fiftv-Fifth re- 
enlisted, and were furloughed home. Returning, it 
again encamped, on March 4th, in Lookout valley. 
About this time the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were 
consolidated, and denominated the Twentieth, and 

the regiment formed a part of the Third Brigade of 
the Third Division. 

The regiment started on the Atlanta campaign on 
the 3d of May, and participated in all the battles in 
which the Twentieth Corps was engaged. At the 
battle of Resaca, on May loth, it suffered severely, los- 
ing upward of ninety men. It was engaged also at 
Cassville, Dallas, New Hope church. Marietta, and. 
Kenesaw. On the 20th of July the regiment took 
position on the right of the Fourth Corps. During 
the seige of Atlanta the Fifty-Fifth occupied its place 
in the lines, assisting in the gradual but sure advance- 
ment of the parallels toward the city. On the 3d of 
September the troops entered the city. The Fifty- 
Fifth lost over two hundred men in this campaign. 
The regiment left Atlanta November 15, <ind moved 
toward the sea-coast. On the 31st of December it 
entered Savannah and camped near the city. Here it 
remained until early in January, 1865, when it was 
thrown across the Savannah river. On the 39th of 
January the regiment started on the campaign of the 
Carolinas. No incident worthy of mention occurred 
until March 16, when, at the battle of Smith's Farm 
the Fifty-Fifth lost thirty-six men killed and wounded; 
and again, on the 19th, it was engaged and lost two 
men killed, one officer and twenty-three men wounded, 
and seven men missing. On March 34th, the regiment 
reached Goldsboro' and was reviewed by General Sher- 
man. On the 30th it commenced the march to Wash- 
ington. On May 34th it crossed Long Bridge and par- 
ticipated in the grand review, after which it went 
into camp near Washington. On the 10th of June 
It proceeded to Louisville, Kentucky, where, on the 
11th of July, the Fifty-Fifth was mn5tered out of the 
service. The regimsnt was transported to Cleveland. 
Ohio, where it was paid and discharged on the 19th 
of July, 1865. 

During its term of service the regiment enrolled 
about one thousand three bunded and fifty men, and 
of these about seven hundred and fifty were either 
killed or wounded in battle. Ten officers were 
wounded once or more, and eight officers either died 
of wounds or were killed in battle. 

JayKling, M. D., now of Monroeville, surgeon of 
the regiment, was mustered out after three years ser- 
vice. Embarking for home a few days subsequent, 
he was captured by the rebels and although paroled, 
yet he was obliged to remain with them many months 
before being allowed to pass through the union lines 
to freedom and home. 


This regiment was one of those included in the 
brigade raised at Mansfield, Ohio. It was organized 
at Camp Buckingham, on the 3d of October, 1861, 
and was mustered into service on the 1st of December. 

The regiment left Mansfield for active duty Decem- 
ber 18th, and moved to Lomisville, iventucky, where 
it remained for a week, and then marched to Camp 
Morton, four miles east of Bardstowu, arriving on th„ 



30th of December. Here it was brigaded with the 
Sixty-Fourth Dhio, the Fifty-First Indiana, and Ninth 
Kentucky. It was assigned to General Woods' di- 

On the I3th of January, 1862, the regiment moved 
to Hall's Gap. Here it was engaged in building cor- 
duroy roads until February 7th, when it marched to 
Lebanon, and on the 12th embarked on cars for Green 
river. It arrived at Mumfordsville, on the 13th, and 
remained there until the 23d, then marched for Nash- 
ville, where it arrived on March 13th. On tliis march 
the troops were forced, at times, to transport the con- 
tents of the baggage wagons on their backs over steep 

On March 29th, the regiment, with General Gar- 
field in command of the brigade, marched to Savan- 
nah, where it arrived on April 6th, and the next 
morning moved on steamer to Pittsburg Landing. 
At four o'clock p. m. it was on the battle field, but 
was not actively engaged. It lost two men wounded. 
The regiment next participated in the movements 
against Coriuth, and during the seige was under fire 
almost hourly. After the evacuation it moved to 
Bridgeport, where it did guard duty until the 29th 
of August, when it marched northward in pursuit of 
Bragg's army, arriving at Louisville September 2-ith. 
After resting a week it moved to near Perryville, and 
from there marched to Nashville. On December 26th 
the brigade moved on the Nashville pike, fighting its 
way to La Vergne and Stone river. On the night of 
the 29th, the brigade crossed Stone river, the men 
wading in the water to their armpits, in the face of a 
murderous fire. The opposite bank was gained, and 
a line formed, but supports failing to come up the 
brigade was forced to retire. This it did in good or- 
der. It lay on its arms all that night, and during 
the whole of the next day; it was waiting for McCook 
to move on the right. Early in the morning of the 
31st, McCook's corps was driven back, and Harkness' 
brigade, in which was the Sixty-Fifth, was ordered 
to its support. The brigade met a storm of bullets, 
and a solid column, of exultant rebels. For eight 
hours the brigade was heavily engaged, and at last 
succeeded in checking the rebel army. In this en- 
gagement the Sixty-dfth lost two officers killed and 
eight wounded, (one mortally), and thirty-eight men 
killed, one hundred and six wounded, nineteen miss- 
ing, and three deserted in the face of the enemy. 
The regiment was under fire throughout the entire 
engagement. The regiment remained at Mui-frees- 
boro' until June 7, 1863, when it moved to near 
Chattanooga, and on the 7th of September skirmished 
with the enemy, losing one man. 

During the first day of the battle of Chickamauga, 
the regiment was in reserve until five o'clock in the 
afternoon, when it became briskly engaged. It moved 
to the left center, and lay on its arms all night. The 
next day fighting was continued, with alternate suc- 
cess and reverse. On the night of the 20th, the entix'e 
army fell back finally to Chattanooga. The regiment 

participated in the battle of Mission Ridge, with a 
loss of fifteen killed and wounded. In the Atlanta 
campaign the Sixty-Fifth was under fire almost con- 
stantly. At Lookout Mountain it lost four men; at 
Resaca it lost twenty -eight men killed and wounded ; 
at Dallas it lost six killed and wounded; at Marietta 
it lost twelve in killed and wounded. It was in a 
fight at Peachtree creek, at Atlanta, July 22d, and in 
the movement at Jonesboro'. After the evacuation 
of Atlanta, it went into camp there. After some 
three weeks there, it went in pursuit of Hood. On 
November 29th, it participated in the battle of Spring- 
field, losing forty-one men killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. November 30th, in the battle of Franklin, it lost 
forty-four killed, wounded and missing. The non- 
veterans were discharged October 3, 1864. The regi- 
ment was engaged in the battle of Nashville, and in 
pursuit of the rebel army across the Tennessee, after 
which it returned to Nashville, and went into camp. 
In June, 186.5, the regiment embarked on transports 
for New Orleans, where it remained several weeks, 
and was ordered to Texas. At San Antonio it did 
garrison duty until December, 1865, when it was 
ordered to Camp Chase, Columbus, Ohio, where it 
was mustered out, paid and discharged on January 
2, 1866. 


This regiment was organized at Fremont, Ohio, 
during the months of October, November and Decem- 
ber, 1861. It was recruited from the counties of 
Sandusky, Erie, Medina and Wood. 

On the 24th day of January, 1862, the regiment, 
numbering about nine hundred 'men, left Fremont 
for Camp Chase. Here it was fully equipped, and, 
in February, reported to General Sherman, at Padu- 
cah. Early in March, 1862, Sherman's Division pro- 
ceeded up the Tennessee to Fort Henry, where the 
main army was concentrated. The Seventv-Second 
was on the steamer Baltic. From here the main 
army proceeded to Savannah; Sherman's Division, 
however, was ordered up to Eastjiort, Mississippi, 
intending to cut the Slemphis and Charleston rail- 
road. Heavy rains and[uent high water de- 
feated this plan, and the men returned to Pittsburg 
Landing, encamping near Shiloh Church. 

On the morning of April 6th, Buckland's Brigade, 
in which was the Seventy-Second Regiment, met the 
enemy and withstood the onset of three successive 
rebel lines; and held the position two hours, and was 
ordered to retire. At eleven o'clock it was again in 
position on the right of the national line. It was at 
the front constantly, and, on the 7th, participated in 
the final charge which swept the enemy from the 
field. The regiment lost in this affair one hundred 
and thirty-four, killed, wounded and missing. 

In the siege of Corinth the Seventy-Second bore a 
conspicuous part. During the siege General J. W. 
Denver assumed command of the brigade. July 21st, 
the regiment entered Memphis, No clothing had 



been driiwti since the battle of Pittsburg Landing, 
and the men were covered witli rags. January 9, 
180;3. it was ordered to Corinth. The Seventy-Second 
reached White's Station, nine miles-east of Memphis, 
on January 31st. 

On the 13th of Marcli, the regiment moved to 
Memphis, embarked on steamer, and proceeded down 
the river. April -^d, it encamped near Young's Point. 
The regiment commenced the march for Vicksburg 
on May 2d. It participated in the battle of Jackson on 
the l-4th, and the next day continued the march to 
Vicksburg, where it arrived on the 18th. It partici- 
pated in the assault on the rebel works on the 19th 
and 32d of May, and then came the labor of the siege. 
It occupied a position on the right. 

On the -ZM of June, the regiment formed a part of 
the force ordered to Big Black river to intercept 
General Joe Johnson, who was attempting the relief 
of Vicksburg. The Seventy- Second was thrown out 
on the advance picket-line, and continued to hold 
that position until the surrender of Vicksburg. The 
regiment then moved against Johnson at Jackson, 
and, after the battle, pursued the rebels to Brandon, 
where it had an engagement After destroying a por- 
tion of the railroad, it returned to Big Black to rest 
and refit. Alwut the middle of November the division 
was ordered to Memphis. January 2, 1864, the regi- 
ment re-enlisted, and. on February 33d, received its 
veteran furlough; returning to Fremont it was heartily 
■welcomed. Returning to the front, it moved, on the 
8th of April, by rail to Cairo, and from there to Padu- 
cah, Kentucky, to assist in the defense of that place 
against Forrest. Nothing of importance transpired 
here, and, on the 22d, the regiment embarked for 
Memphis, where it arrived the next day. 

On the 1st of June, the regiment formed part of 
an expedition against Forrest; the result of which, 
through the incompetency of the commanding officer, 
was a total panic — the baggage trains were captured, 
as were a large portion of the men. The above re- 
ferred officer in command, at an early stage of the 
affray, surrounded himself with cavalry and started 
for Memphis, leaving the infantry, as he expressively 
and feelingly (?) remarked, "to go to the devil;" and 
it was only by the most arduous effort on their part 
that they did not all go where he designated, or to an 
infinifelfi more barbarous localiti/, a rebel prison. We 
are unable to give the name of this unfeeling brute, 
very much to our regret. 

Incredible as it may seem, nine officers and one 
hundred and forty men of the Seventy-Second reached 
Germ iiitown, one hundred miles, in forty-one hours 
after the battle, and this, too. without a morsel of 
food. Eleven officers and two hundred and thirty- 
seven men of the regiment were killed, wounded, or 
captured; the greater portion were of the latter class, 
and but few ever returned to the I'egiment. June 22d, 
the Sixteenth Corps, to which the Seventy-Second Reg- 
iment was now attached, started on an expedition in 

the direction of Tupelo, Miss. Tn this movement Mc- 
Millan's Brigade, barely nine hundred strong, was in 
the rear of the infantry column, and just in advance of 
the wagon train. When two miles west of Tupelo, 
Bell's Brigade of N. B. Forrests' command, which was 
in ambush, attacked the column. This fell mainly on 
the Seventy-Second. The Regiment at once charged 
the enemy. The remainder of the Brigade was 
brought into action, and within twenty minutes the 
rebels driven from the field, utterly routed. On the 
return march McMillan's Brigade again marched in 
rear of the infanti-y column; and just as it was going 
into bivouac for the night, Bell's Brigade fell upon 
the Cavalry rear-guard and drove it into camp. Mc- 
Millan's Brigade formed rapidly and advanced. A 
volley checked the enemy, and a charge drove him 
from the field. On the 1st of September the division 
started on a wild-goose chase into Arkansas and Mis- 
souri, resnlting in nothing except an immense amount 
of marching and hardship. It finally I'eached St. 
Louis on November 16th. Its rest was brief. The 
division was ordered up the Cumberland, and on the 
30th of November it joined the forces under General 
Thomas, at Nashville, and was posted on the right of 
line. On the 7th of December the Seventy-Second 
was on a reconnoisance, and became warmly engaged, 
losing eleven men killed and wounded. During the 
first day of the battle of Nashville, the regiment par- 
ticipated in a charge, in which three hundred and 
fifty prisoners and six pieces of artillery were cap. 
tured. It also took part in the fight on the IGth, and 
was engaged in the charge on Walnut Hills. In this 
battle McMillan's Brigade, numbering less than twelve 
hundred men, captured two thousand prisoners and 
thirteen pieces of artillery, while its total loss was 
only one hundred and sixty. The division moved to 
Eastport, Mississippi, and went into camp. Supplies 
were scarce, and the troops subsisted for some days 
on parched corn. 

In February, 1865, it moved to New Orleans and 
camped on the old battle-ground. On February 28th 
it embarked on the ocean steamer Empire State, and on 
March 3d, landed at Fort Gaines, on Dauphin Island. 
On the 19th it moved up Fish river, landing some 
thirty miles east of Spanish Fort. On the 27th the 
fort was invested. The siege lasted until April 8th, 
when the fort was evacuated. In these operations the 
the Seventy-Second lost one man killed and three 
wounded. On the 19th of April the regiment moved 
against Fort Blakely, which was captured the same 
day. The brigade was finally ordered to Meridian. 
Mississippi, where it remained, doing garrison duty 
until June, when it was placed along the line of the 
railroad west of Meridian. About this time the men 
whose term of service would expire before October 1, 
1865, were mustered out. In September, the regiment 
moved to Coi-inth, but it was soon ordered to Vicks- 
burg-, where it was muscered out on the 11th of Sep- 
tember, 1865. It at once embarked for Ohio, and 
was paid and discharged at Camp Chase. 



This regiment was organized in tlie latter part of 
July, 1862, its nnclens being four companies, called 
the "First Battalion of G-overnor's Guards, Ohio 
Volunteer Infantr\-." It was mustered into the ser- 
vice by Captain A. E. Drake, United States army, Oc- 
tober 37, 1863, and was at once placed on duty at 
Camp Chase, near Columbus, then filled with rebel 
prisonex's. The duty here was very arduous. The 
prisoners were confined in three separate tenements, 
and it required the whole strength of the regiment to 
fill the details. In a few months the service became 
exceedingly monotonous to both officers and men, and 
all were clamorous to go into the field. The regi- 
ment was recruited to the maximum number July 39th. 
George W. Neil, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second 
Kentucky Infantry, who had but recently been re- 
leased from a thirteen-months' imprisonment in rebel 
prisons, was appointed its Colonel. He at once placed 
the regiment under the strictest discipline, and soon 
had it drilled to the highest point of efficiency; and 
the hope was cherished by the officers and men that 
they would be afforded a chance to display their ac- 
quirements at "the front." This hope was soon dis- 
sipated, o)-ders having been received for the regiment 
to remain on duty at Camp Chase. A small detach- 
ment only was permitted to visit West Virginia and 
Maryland. This was soon brough-t back to aid in the 
captui'e of the freebooter John Morgan and his thiev- 
ing horde. During this raid the Eighty-Eighth did 
effective service. In October, 1863, the regiment re- 
lieved the One Hundred and Fifteenth Ohio at Cin- 
cinnati. They did provost duty in that city until 
the latter part of December, when it became neces- 
sary for the regiment to resume their duties over the 
"grey-backs" at Camp Chase, and it remained on 
the same duty until July 3, 18G5, when it was form- 
ally mustered out of the service. 

The Eightj'-Eighth Ohio was a complete and well- 
drilled regiment, and, if given a chance, would have 
undoubtedly performed good service in the field. 


This regiment was one of that series of patriotic 
organizations raised in the dark days of 1803, when 
the national cause seemed to be drifting into final de- 
feat. It was recruited from the counties of Huron, 
Erie, Seneca, Crawford, and Wyandot, and organ- 
ized and mustered into the service at Monroeville, 
Ohio, on the 30th day of August, 1862. Companies 
A, B, D, and G were recruited from the counties of 
Huron and Erie. 

On the -ith of Septemljer. altliough not (juite ready 
for field service, the regiment was hui-ried by rail to 
Cincinnati, and thence across the river to Covington, 
Kentucky, to assist in repelling a threatened raid by 
Kirby Smith. After lying in camji near Covington 
until September 34th, it was taken by rail to Louis- 
ville. Kentucky, and incorporated with Buell's army. 


It was assigned to Carlin's Brigade, Mitchell's Divis- 
ion. On October 1st the regiment marched in pur- 
suit of Bragg, and on the 8th, was engaged in the 
battle of Perryville. In this, the first encounter with 
the enemy, the regiment bore itself well and bravely, 
and received the praise of its brigade and division 
commanders. It lost several men. Following in 
pursuit of the rebels, it had a pretty severe skirmish 
witli their rear guard at Lancaster. The march was 
continued to Nashville, Tennessee. Here Jeff. C. 
Davis took command of the division, and on Decem- 
ber 36th it marched with the Army of the Cumber- 
land. On the afternoon of the same day, the enemy 
was met, and a line of battle formed. The Second 
Brigade, in which was the One Hundred and First 
Regiment, soon engaged the enemy with spirit, sus- 
taining fire until it was dislodged. Following 
the enemy some two miles, another sharp engagement 
took place. This resulted in driving the enemy from 
the field, and capturing several guns. 

On December 30th, this brigade was the first to 
reach the battlefield of Stone River. It at once en- 
gaged the enemy's outposts, drove them back, and 
just at night became busily engaged. The regiment 
lay on its arms all night, and was fully prepared to 
receive the shock of battle that came with daylight on 
the 31st of December. The brigade stood firm, re- 
pulsing every attempt to break ic, until Johnson's 
Division and Post's Brigade, of the First Division, on 
the I'ight, being driven from their positions, the enemy 
appeared on the right flank and rear of the brigade, 
when it fell back and took a new position, and held 
the enemy in check. Tlie regiment continued in the 
hottest of the fight, taking up six different positions, 
and stubbornly maintaining them during the day. 
Colonel Stem and Lieutenant-Colonel Wooster were 
both killed on the front line, on the right of the 
arm}'. Both of these officers died while leading their 
men to deeds of daring. The regiment was held on 
the front line, on the right, until January 3d, when dis- 
aster was threatening the left. It was one of the many 
regiments that were transferred to the left, and with 
the bayonet helped to turn the tide of battle. It re- 
mained thei-e until the close of the battle, losing seven 
officers and two hundred and twelve men killed and 

During the remainder of the winter tlie One 
Hundred and First was engaged constantly on expedi- 
tions through the country surrounding Murfrees- 
boro', suffering very much from fatigue and exposure. 
It was no uncommon thing to see as many as fifty 
men of the regiment marching withouf shoes or their 
feet, and so ragged as to excite both the sympathies 
and the risibilities of their companions. This march- 
ing up and down the country — the purposes or utility 
of which were, oftentimes, wholly unknown — lasted 
until April, 1SG3, when the regiment was allowed to 
go into camp at Murfreesboro' for rest. 

On the 2-lth of June, the TuUahoma cam- 
paign was inaugurated. The One Hundred and 



First moved in the directiou of Liberty Gap, and was 
engaged for two days at that point, with Cleburne's 
rebel division. It followed tiie fortunes of the army, 
up to Chattanooga, and at tlie close of that campaign 
was with Davis' division at Winchester, Tennessee. 
August 17th, it marched on the Chattanooga campa- 
ign going over Lookout Mountain to Alpine, Georgia. 
From here it countermarched over the mountain to 
the field of Chickamauga, where it participated in 
that battle on the nineteenth and twentieth of August, 
displaying great coolness and gallantry. During the 
heat of battle on the second day, the One Hundred 
and First retook a National battery from the enemy, 
fighting over the guns with clubbed muskets. Re- 
tiring to Chattanooga, it became a part of the First 
Brigade, Fourth Division, Fourth Army Corps, 
and on October 28th, marched to Bridgeport, 

Here it remained until January 16, 1864. On May 3, 
1864, it marched on the Atlanta campaign, meeting 
the enemy's outposts at Catoosa Springs. The regi- 
ment was thrown forward as skirmishers, and drove 
the enemy steadily up to Tunnel Hill. At Buzzard's 
Roost it advanced to within thirty or forty yards of 
the enemy's main line of works, but the fire was so 
murderous that the men were obliged to seek shelter 
under the overhanging rocks, and remain until the 
darkness at night gave them an opportunity to retire. 
As the campaign progressed, the regiment was almost 
constantly engaged in the fighting of that arduous 
march, and from Atlanta moved to Nashville. 

At the battle of Franklin, just at night fall, the 
One Hundred and First was ordered to retake an 
angle of the works held by tlie enemy, which it did 
with the bayonet, and held the position until ten 
o'clock p. m., notwithstanding the rebels were almost 
within bayonet reach during all that time. 

The One Hundred and First was engaged in the 
battle of Nashville, December loth and 16th, and 
participated in the assault on the enemy's center on 
the 15th. After the battle it followed in pursuit 
of Hood to Lexington, Alabama, and marched thence 
to Huntsville, where it went into camp. It lay at 
Huntsville until June 12, 1865, when, with other 
regiments it was mustered out of service. It was then 
sent home by rail to Ohio, placed m Camp Taylor 
near Cleveland, paid off, and discharged. 


This regiment was composed almost wholly of 
Germans. It was organized August 25, 1862, at 
Camp Taylor, near Cleveland. It lay in camp at this 
place, preparing for the field, until the latter part 
of September, when it moved to Covington, Ken- 
tucky. It lay there a sliort time, was taken by rail 
to Washington, and for a month was engaged in con- 
structing fortifications. In the early part of Novem- 
ber, the regiment marched to Fairfa.K C. H., Virginia, 
and thence to Stafford C. H. Here it was assigned 

to the Second Brigade, First Division, Eleventh 
Army Corps. 

After considerable marching it went into winter 
quarters at Brook's Station. On the 29th of April, 
1863, the One Hundred and Seventh, with its 
brigade and Division, moved to Chancellorsville, 
where, on May 2d and 3d. it took part in the battle 
of that name. In this disastrous affair the regiment 
suffered terribly, losing two hundred and twenty 
officers and men — killed, wounded, and prisoners. 
Returning to its former camp, it remained until June 
12th, when it marched to Gettysburg. It reached 
there on the morning of July 1st, and was at once 
engaged with the enemy. In the first day's fight 
the regiment and entire Eleventh Corps were com- 
pelled to fall back through Gettysburg to Cemetery 
hill, where a new line was formed and held during 
the remainder of the battle. In falling back the 
regiment lost in killed, wounded and prisoners, two 
hundred and fifty officers and men. In the second 
day's fight, a charge was made, just at night, in 
which it again lost heavily. In this affair the regi- 
ment captured a rebel flag from the Eighth Louisiana 
Tigers. Its loss in the battle of Gettysburg — killed, 
wounded and prisoners — was over four hundred out 
of five hundred and fifty, rank and file, with which 
it entered. Captain Fisher, of Company F, was shot 
through the breast and arm; and Captain Vignus, of 
Company H, had his right arm shot off. 

With one hundred and eleven guns, all that was 
left of the regiment, it joined in the pursuit of the 
rebel army. August 1st, the regiment sailed to Folly 
Island, S. C, where it performed picket duty until 
January, 1864. In that month it was taken in boats 
to Kiowah Island, and from there waded over to 
Seabrook Island, and drove the enemy from that 
point. On February 23d, the regiment was taken to 
Jacksonville, Florida. Here it had a few skirmishes 
witli the enemy. December 29th, it was taken to 
Devos Neck, S. C. While here it had several skir- 
mishes with the enemy, and lost five men killed and 
fifteen wounded. March 23d, it marched to Suniter- 
ville, met the enemy, defeated him, and captured 
three peices of artillery, six horses, and fifteen 
prisoners. In this affair the regiment lost four men 
wounded. Marching to Singleton plantation, it met 
and skirmished with the enemy, losing two men 
wounded. A few days later, near the same place, it 
captured a train of cars, which was destroyed, with 
thirteen locomotives and a large amount of provi- 
sions and ammunition. 

On April 16, 1865, news was received of the 
surrender of Lee's and Johnston's armies: and. amid 
great rejoicings over the auspicious event, tlie regi- 
ment marched back to Georgetown. S. C. Three 
weeks thereafter it was taken by steamer to Charles- 
ton, where it remained on provost duty until July 
10th, when it was mustered out of the service and 
sent home to Cleveland, wliere it was jxiid off and 




This regiment was organized at Camp Monroeville, 
Huron county. Companies B, C, E, G., and a por- 
tion of H, I and K were recruited from Huron and 
Erie counties. Seven companies were mustered into 
the service on the S-ith of September, 1862, two on 
the 39th, and one on the 16th of October. The regi- 
ment moved on the last-named day to Zanesville, 
Ohio, whence it was taken down the Muskingum 
river to Marietta; thence by rail to Belpre, and across 
the river to Parkersburg, Virginia; thence by rail to 
Clarksburg, reaching that jilace October 30th. On the 
27th of October the regiment made its first march to 
Buckhannon, making twelve miles the first day, ar- 
riving there on the 30th. This was considered good 
marching, and almost exhausted the men, under the 
enormous loads then permitted to be carried on their 
persons and in their knapsacks. The regiment re- 
sumed the march on November 3d, first to Beverly, 
then to Hnttonsville, and finally to Webster. On 
November 18th, it left this point and moved by rail to 
New Greek, where it remained in camjJ until Decem- 
ber 12th. "While lyijig in this camp. Captain Horace 
Kellogg, of Company B, was sent to St. George C. 
H, with orders to assess the rebel citizens of that 
place and vicinity for outrages committed on Union 
citizens by Imboden's guerillas. Five thousand dol- 
lars were collected under this order and paid over to 
the Union sufferers. From this point the regiment 
marched to Petersburg, West Virginia, arriving De- 
cember 18th. On January 3, 1863, it was ordered to 
Moorefield to relieve the One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Ohio, which was surrounded by rebel cavalry, and in 
imminent danger of capture. The rebels were driven 
off and the regiment rescued. January 10th, the regi- 
ment left Moorefield for Romney. It arrived on the 
12th and remained some six weeks, doing scouting 
duty. On the 1st of March the regiment moved to 
Winchester, and while there made several raids up the 
Shenandoah valley. Nothing further of interest oc- 
curred until June 13th, at which time Lee's whole rebel 
army surrounded Winchester. On the afternoon of 
the isth, the One mindred and Twenty-Third, with 
its brigade, had an engagement with General Early's 
corps, in which it lost, in killed and wounded, nearly 
one hundred men. On the 14th the national forces 
were driven into their fortifications and hardly pressed 
by the overwhelming numbers of the rebel army. 
That afternoon they were under a heavy artillery fire 
for two hours. The outworks being carried by the 
rebels, it was decided to evacuate the place. The 
troops marched out of the works in silence at two 
o'clock in the morning, leaving the artillery in posi- 
tion, but spiked. At a point about four miles on the 
Martinsburg road, at four o'clock in the morning, the 
rebels were found in position along the road, and fur- 
ther retreat was cut off. In attempting to cut their 
way through, the regiment lost, in killed and 
wounded, about fifty men. In this affair the One 

Hundred and Twenty-Third made three distinct 
charges, but to little purpose. While it was forming 
for a fourth charge. Colonel Ely, of the Eighteenth 
Connecticut, temporarily in command of the brigade, 
surrendered to the enemy, and the whole brigade, 
except Company D of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
Third, were made prisoners of war. They were taken 
to Richmond, where the officers remained in Libby 
prison about eleven months. Two officers made their 
escape, and two were exchanged and sent home. The 
remainder of the officers were, after eleven months' 
confinement, removed to Macon, Georgia, thence to 
Charleston and jjhtced under fire (southern chivalry?), 
thence to Columbia. From this point several officers 
made their escape, and made their way successfully 
into the national lines. Among these were Captains 
J. F. Randolph (Company B), 0. H. Rosenbaum 
(Company G), and Lieutenants Frank B. Colver and 
B. F. Blair. Several officers were exchanged, among 
them Lieutenants Frank A. Breckenridge and Charles 
H. Sowers. Captain Charles H. Riggs (Company G) 
died in Charleston, South Carolina, of disease con- 
tracted in prison. The privates of the regiment were 
exchanged within a few months and sent to the pa- 
roled camps at Annapolis, Maryland, and Camp 
Chase, Ohio. 

Major Horace Kellogg, who was wounded, made 
his escape from the enemy at Winchester, collected 
the stragglers of the regiment at Martinsburg, where 
the paroled men of the regiment, after exchange, 
joined him, about the first of September, 1803. At 
this place the regiment was newly armed and 
equipped. About the 1st of April, 1864, the regi- 
ment moved to Winchester. From there it marched 
to Cedar creek, and made a raid up the valley. After 
a sharp fight at New Market, (on May loth), in 
which seventy-nine men were lost (killed and wound- 
ed), in the regiment, the forces fell back to Cedar 
creek. General Hunter took command, and on the 
24th of May, started up the valley, arriving at Port 
Republic on the night of the 4th of June. On the 
next morning, at daylight, the enemy was encoun- 
tered. A brisk fight ensued, in which the rebels were 
whipped, and two thousand prisoners captured. The 
next day the command entered Staunton. On June 
11th, Lexington was reached. Here General Hunter 
destroyed the Virginia Military Institute, which had 
for years been preparing officers for the confederacy. 
From Liberty to Lynchljurg, an almost constant skir- 
mish was had with the enemy. On the morning of 
the 14th, the rebels were heavily engaged, the con- 
flict lasting all day. After this, the army made the 
memorable and disastrous retreat to the Kanawha val- 
ley. This was almost a continual fight from Lynch- 
burg to Salem. On this retreat the most intense 
suffering was endured from exhaustion and starva- 
tion. Numbers of men lay down by the roadside 
and died from one or the other of these causes. At 
length Gauley Bridge was reached, and supplies were 
distributed to the famished men. On the 2d of July, 



the regiment, with its brigade and division, moved by 
steamboat and railroad a circuitous route to Martins- 
burg, from which the One Hui.dred and Twent}'- 
Tliird had started two months and a half before, with 
seven hundred men. It now returned with two hun- 
dred and fifty. July 18th, the regiment, with the 
Army of West Virginia, was thrown across the Shen- 
andoah river. Early's rebel corps was met, and a 
brisk fight ensued. The army was driven, and in at- 
tempting to recross the river, a number of the men 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-Tliird were killed, 
including Lieutenant C. D. Williams, of Company B. 
That night the rebels retreated to Winchester, and up 
the valley. On the 22d of July, the national troops 
moved after the rebels toward Winchester, and on 
the 2.3d, came up with them, and after a sharp skir- 
mish, drove them. The next morning the rebels at- 
tacked in force, and in their turn drove the national 
troops. Soon a new era dawned upon the Shenan- 
doah valley. The command of the National troops 
■was placed in the hands of General Phil. Sheridan. 
Getting his troops well in hand, he moved them up 
the valley. 

At Berryville the rebels were met, and skirmished 
with, both sides losing a few men. Following the 
rebels to Fisher's Hill, skirmishing by the way, the 
army went into camp for several days. Anticipating 
heavy rebel re-enforcements, our army retreated to 
Harper's Ferry, and entrenched themselves. August 
26th, the army again moved up the valley to Charles- 
town. Berryville was the next point reached. Here 
the One Hundred and Twenty-Third had a sharp 
fight, losing twenty-five men, killed, wounded and 
captured. On the morning of September 19th, the 
enemy was met near Winchester, and another battle 
was fought. In this affair the regiment was engaged 
on the right, and formed part of the grand flanking 
column which changed the fortunes of the day. At 
about three o'clock in the afternoon, the regiment 
made a charge, which drove the enemy from the field, 
and decided the fortunes of the day. The routed 
rebel army was pressed by the infantry to a point two 
miles beyond Winchester, and the cavalry was then 
left to gather the fruits of the victory. At early 
dawn the infantry again took the road in pursuit. 
Reaching Strasburg, the enemy was discovered be- 
hind strong works. General Crook's command, in 
which was the One Hundred and Twenty-Third, was 
placed in the reserve. Moving his command to the 
right, he maneuvered to reach the left flank of the 
rebel army. The movement was successfully per- 
formed. Watching his chances. General Crook 
charged the rebels, and scattered them like chaff. 
In this aciiou the regiment lost six men. Crook's 
command encamped near the battle-field. The na- 
tional forces remained at Cedar creek until the 19th 
of October, engaged in building fortifications. 

Now comes disaster. On the morning of October 
19th at early dawn, the enemy, under cover of a dense 
fog, crept through a gap unfortunately left in the 

national line of pickets, and turned the left flank of 
the army, held by General Crook's corps, pushing' the 
army ])ack five or six miles, capturing the works and 
all that was in them. In this rout the Sixth Corps 
acted as a breakwater to the rebels, and held them in 
check until the national lines were re-formed. At 
this juncture General Sheridan, who had been absent 
at Winchester, appeared on the field, having made 
his famous ride of twenty miles. He at once infused 
new life into the demoralized forces. Making some 
slight changes in the order of battle, he rode down 
the lines amid the cheers of the men, and ordered an 
immediate advance of the entire line. The enemy 
were swept from the field, losing all theirown artillery 
and that which they had captured in the .morning. 
This rout of Early's forces was comidete and final. 
The Shenandoah valley was cleared almost entirely 
of opposition to the national arms. Falling back to 
near Winchester the troops went into camp; next 
moved to 0])equan creek, thence to Burmuda Hun- 
dred, and arrived at Deep Bottom, December 27. 1864. 
The regiment lay in camp in this vicinity until March 
2.5, 1865, when it moved to Chickahominy. and from 
there to Hatcher's Run. On March 30th, an advance 
was made on the rebel works, and skirmishing con- 
tinued until the morning of April 2d, when a general 
charge was made and the rebel works were carried. 
The One Hundred and Twenty-Third during this 
time was, for three days and nights, on the skirmish 
line without relief, and their rations were carried them 
by Lieutenant E. H. Brown, regimental quartermas- 
ter — a most dangerous duty. The loss of the regi- 
ment was quite severe. It captured two battle-flags 
and a number of prisoners. The rebels were followed 
toward Petersburg. On April 3d, the whole national 
army mnrched in pursuit of Lee toward Danville. 
On the 5th, the regiment was captured by Lee's rebel 
cavalry, not however until after a hot fight of three 
or four hours, with heavy loss on both sides. Captain 
J. F. Randolph (Company B) was shot through the 
right lung in this fight. The prisoners were carried 
with the rebel army to Appomattox C. H. At this 
point the rebel army surrendered to the national 
forces, and the prisoners were rescued. 

The regiment immediately thereafter left City Point. 
on transports, for Annapolis, Maryland, and thence 
to Cam]) Chase, Ohio, where it remained until the 
12th of June, and was then mustered out of the 


This regiment, although chiefly occupied in guard- 
duty within the borders of the State, was an organi- 
zation of three year's troops, enlisted and mustered 
into the United States' service, and was liable to 
service wherever required. It attained minimum 
strength on the 25th of December, 1863, and con- 
sisted of four companies, before known as '" The 
Hoffman Battalion,'" raised at different times in 1862. 



Six new companies were mustered in at Camp Taylor, 
near Cleveland, between the Sth and the 15th of Jan- 
uary, 18G4. The four old companies had been on 
duty at Johnson's Island nearly all the time since their 
muster-in, but had frequently furnished detachments 
for service elsewhere, including a short and very active 
campaign in pursuit of rebel troops in West Virginia, 
in 1862. 

The One Hundred andTwentj-'Eighth having been 
chiefly occupied at the frontier posts of Johnson's 
Island and Sandusky, its service necessarily involves 
much of the military history of these posts, and can 
be better understood by giving a brief synopsis of that 

Early in 1862, Johnson's Island became a depot ex- 
clusively for rebel officers w'ho were held as prisoners of 
war. The reports show that the average number of 
prisoners confined there, was as follows: 1862 — 788; 
1863—1,205; 1864—2,480; total, 4,473. Acartelfor 
a general exchange of prisoners of war had long been 
expected, and was finally agreed upon July 22, 1862. 
Under that cartel, exchanges went on until July, 1863, 
and a continuance was expected. This, with the lielief 
of general loyalty in the north, and the want of help 
in Canada, had their legitimate influence on prison- 
ers, and undoubtedly pi-evented efforts at outbreak 
and resistance until late in the fall of 1863. It would 
occupy too much space to give the details of efforts at 
rescue, or the attempts at escape and outbreak. The 
situation was, that at this point wei"e confined officers 
enough for an army and navy of eighty thousand men. 
They were within a short distance of the Canada 
main, and still nearer to a Canada island. The pre- 
vailing sympathy in Canada was largely in favor of 
the rebels; and there every facility and encouragement, 
short of direct participation in our war, was extended 
to the large force from the rebel army and navy main- 
tained in Canaula to effect a rescue of these rebel offi- 
cers. If, by such efforts, war should be brought on 
between the United States and England, a great point 
would be gained by the rebels. No other depot of 
prisoners of war was on a frontier, or exposed like 
this. During the season of navigation it could be 
reached in a few hours' night run, and during the 
winter season men and teams could conveniently cross 
the lake, from island to island, not over five miles of 
ice intervening in any place. During the season of 
ice the location of the depot of prisoners practically- 
ceased to be an island. The I'ebel officers confined 
there had a large range of friends in the "loyal States. " 
For them the rebel emissaries, traveling in those 
States, and the secret plotters against the national 
arms, known as the -'Knights of the Golden Circle," 
and the " Sons of Liberty," had an especial sympathy, 
and were anxious to aid them by means of escape, or 
with places of refuge and concealment. These facts, 
with the difficulty about exchanges, stimulated machi- 
nations for rescue front and rear, and kept the prison- 
ers constantly on the qui vive, ready for any desperate 
adventure until after the fall of Petersburg. 

In view of the contingencies on the frontier, and in 
order to hold these posts with a less force, the con- 
struction of three forts was bf-un in the fall of 18G4, 
one on Cedar Point, and two nu the island. Laborers 
could not be hired at the wages offered, and the colonel 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-Eighth detailed men 
from the regiment, who did the greater part of the 
work, including the mechanical. They completed the 
forts, and the magazines, and mounted the guns. 
This work was done in the most inclement seasons of 
the year, without extra pay, and at a time when the 
other details were very heavy. But in this instance, 
as in all others, officers and men applied themselves to 
the duties before them with an intelligence and zeal 
which promptly overcame difficulties, and attained 
the desired result in a very creditaljle manner. Soon 
after the surrender of the rebel armies, in the spring 
of 1865, the prisoners on the island were reduced to 
about one hundred and fifty. The One Hundred and 
Twenty-Eighth left the island on the 10th of July, 
1865, and was mustered out of service on the 17th at 
Camp Chase. 


This regiment was organized at Camp Chase, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, September 21. 1864, for one year. As 
soon as the organization was completed, the regiment 
was ordered to Nashville, Tennessee, and assigned to 
the Second Brigade, Fourth Division, Twentieth 
Army Corps. 

Soon after its arrival, it was detailed to perform 
provost guard duty at Nashville, and during the seige 
and battle of Nashville, it was in the works; but with 
the exception of a few companies, under Major Cum- 
mings, the regiment was not engaged. Quite a num- 
ber of the officers and men were veteran soldiers, and 
their knowledge and experience gave the regiment 
considerable reputation for proficiency in drill and 

The regiment was mustered out of service at Tod 
Barracks, Columbus, Oliio, on the 18th day of June, 


This regiment was organized at Camp Chase, Ohio, 
March 9, 1865, and started to the field four days 
later. It arrived at Halltown, near Harper's Ferry, 
Virginia, March 16th, and reported to Brevet Major- 
General John R. Brooke, commanding provisional 
division. On March 20th, it was assigned to the 
Second Brigade. Strong picket lines were main- 
tained, and some skirmishing occurred. On March 
31st, the division marched through Charlestown, re- 
nowned for the execution of John Brown. It was 
afterward stationed at Stevenson station, and Reed's 
hill, above Winchester. Here the care of the entire 
country, including Luray valley, deirolved upon the 
commandant of the regiment. These onerous duties 


were discliarged to general satisfactiou. The conduct 
of the men was exemplary. The regiment stood high 
in the brigade and division for drill, discipline, and 
efficiency. All the field, and a majority of the staff 
and line officers, had served in the army previous to 
entering the One Hundred and Ninety-second, and 
many in the ranks were scarred veterans, who had 
faced the enemy on many bloody fields. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at Winchester, Virginia, Sep- 
tember 1, 1865. It arrived at Columbus, Ohio, at 
midnight, September 3d, and was paid and discharged 
on the 6th of September, 1865. 


This regiment was organized at Camp Chase, Ohio, 
and mustered into the service on the 25th of March, 
1865. It immediately started for Western Virginia, 
where it was assigned to an Ohio brigade at Win- 
chester. Here it remained until July, and gained the 
reputation of being a well-drilled and well-disciplined 
organization. In July it was ordered to Baltimore, 
and assigned to duty in the fortifications around the 
city, a portion of it being sent to Fort Delaware. 
On the 11th of September it was mustered out at 
Baltimore, Maryland, being the last volunteer or- 
ganization in that department. Of the thirty-eight 
officers composing the field, staff and line, there were 
only two who had not served over two years, and the 
majority had served during the war in other organi- 
zations. More than two-thirds of the men had 
belonged to other regiments, and had been honorably 
discharged for wounds or expiration of term of service. 

The men who composed the regiment were mostly 
young men, and as an organization it was probably 
excelled by but few in appearance, discipline and 
soldierly bearing; and though the regiment was not 
entitled to inscribe on its colors the name of any 
engagement, still nearly every battle field in the 
Union was represented in its ranks. 


This was not only the last regiment which Ohio 
sent to the field, but also the last complete organiza- 
tion which the State raised for service during the 
rebellion. Of its officers all except five had seen 
active service in other commands, and nearly one-half 
of the men were experienced soldiers. The first com- 
pany was mustered in on the 28th of March, 1865, at 
Camp Chase, and the organization of the regiment 
was completed on the 12th of April. It was i-ecruited 
to a total strength of one thousand and six men, but 
by the casualties incident to barrack life its effective 
force w^is reduced to about nine hundred. On the 
25th of April it left Camp Chase by rail for Wash- 
ington City, and on its arrival received the news of 
the surrender of General Johnston's army, dispelling 
every prospect of' active service. 

The regiment was temporarily assigned to the Ninth 

Corps, and was quartered near Alexandria; from here 
it went by rail to Dover, Delaware. May 31st, it 
moved to Havre de Grace, and engaged in guard duty. 
The regiment re-assembled at Camp Bradford, near 
Baltimore, and was mustered out July 31st. It was 
paid at Tod Barracks, Columbus, Ohio, and disbanded 
on the 6th of Angust, 1865. 


There were eight companies of this intended regi- 
ment fully recruited and assembled at Camp Chase, 
all of which had been mustered into the service by 
companies, but not as an organization. Before the 
maximum was reached the ''Confederacy" collapsed, 
and the men were sent to their homes. 


This regiment was organized as the One Hundred 
and Seventeenth Ohio Infantry, at Camp Portsmouth, 
September 15, 1862, with eight companies of seven 
hundred and ninety-six men — aggregate strength. 
On October 2d, it moved into Eastern Kentucky. 
In January, it aided in dispersing a portion of Floyd's 
army. In February, it was ordered to Covington. 
During the spring it was engaged in numerous expe- 
ditions to Cynthiaua, Paris, Lexington, Mount Ster- 
ling and interior points, to meet Morgan and other 
guerrilla thieves. On the 2d of May, 1863, the regi- 
ment was ordered by the War Department to be 
changed into the First Heavy Artillery, Ohio Volun- 
teei's, and recruited to the maximum strength of that 
organization. August 12th, it was so reorganized 
with twelve companies, of five officers each, and one 
hundred and forty-seven men, and an aggregate 
strength of one thousand eight hundred and thirty- 
nine officers and men. Company M was recruited 
entirely from Erie county. During its recruitment 
it constructed the tine and extensive fortifications 
around Covington and Newport, making Cincinnati 
one of the strongest fortified cities in the Union. 
Companies H, K, L and M were stationed at Camp 
Nelson, Kentucky, under Major Matthews. In Jan- 
uary, 1864, the regiment moved to Knoxville, Ten- 
nessee, and assembling at Point Burnside, remained 
there till February 29th, when it started over the 
mountains in the heavy snow and very cold weather 
of that winter, under command of Major Matthews, 
and arrived at Knoxville, March 9th. In June, four 
companies were stationed at Loudon, and a detach- 
ment at Strawberry Plains. In August, Wheeler 
made his raid in rear of Sherman's army, and was 
driven from Sweetwater to Strawberry Plains, a dis- 
tance of one hundred and fifty miles, by the regiment. 
The regiment moved to Cleuveland, Tennessee, Octo- 
ber 7tli, and soon thereafter to Chattanooga. It 
joined in the cavalry raid against Saltville, and on 
the return of the expedition in December, as a pro- 
visional brigade, under Colonel Hawley, covered an 
extensive foraging expedition on the French, Broad 



and Cliucky rivers, in East Tennessee and North 
Carolina; during tlie winter of 1864 and 1865, occupy- 
ing Danbridge, Allen's Ford, Leadville, Greenville 
and Newport. With constant detached fighting with 
guerrillas of Vaughn's and Debrill's commands, a large 
amount of grain, beef and pork was obtained and 
floated down to Knoxville. In the spring of 1865, the 
regiment was assigned to the First Brigade, Fourth 
Division, Colonel C. G. Hawley, commanding. In con- 
nection with General Stoneman's raid and the general 
advance of troops, thebrigade moved toward Virginia 
and North Carolina, and occupied the mouth of 
Roane Creek and Taylorsville in East Tennessee, and 
State Gap, Boone, Watauga Gap and head of Yadkin, 
in North Cai-olina, shutting up all the mountain 
passes to the retreating rebels in Virginia. After the 
surrender of Lee and Johnston the brigade was sent 
down to Ashville, North Carolina, thence to Raban's 
and Saluda Gap, and at Webster, Tennessee, received 
the surrender of the hostile Indians, two thousand 
strong, under the .chief, the i-ebel Thomas. Return- 
ing to Greenville, Tennessee, the regiment remained 
in camp till July 15th, when it started homeward for 
the muster-out, and was discharged and paid at Camp 
Dennison, August 1, 1865. 


was organized at Camp Dennison, and mustered into 
the service October 8th, 1861, with an aggregate 
strength of one hundred and forty-seven men. It 
reported to Gen. George H. Thomas, at Camp Dick 
Robinson. The first experience it had in the field was 
a brisk little affair at Camp Wildcat, in which it fired 
twelve rounds and silenced one of the enemy's guns. 
November 5th, the battery moved to Fishing Creek, 
and for a montli did scouting duty. It remained 
here until January 17th, and moved to Mill Springs, 
where it was engaged in the battle, and did very 
effective service. February 10th, the battery moved 
to Louisville and embarked on transports for Nash- 
ville, where it arrived March 4th, 1862. Here it was 
assigned to Barnett's Artillery Reserve, and until 
July 10th was engaged in expeditions through middle 
Tennessee. It was at the battle of Perryville, but 
was not engaged. At the battle of Stone River it 
was involved in the disaster on the right, but suc- 
ceeded in withdrawing all its guns from the field. It 
lost seventeen men killed, wounded and missing, and 
twenty-one horses killed. June 24th, it Joined in the 
advance on TuUahoma. At the battle of Chica- 
mauga it was charged repeatedly by the rebels, and 
at last overwhelmed and compelled to leave two guns 
in the enemy's hands. It was cooped up in Chatta- 
nooga and suffered all the privations of the siege. 
October 19th, it went into quarters at Black Oak 
ridge, where it remained until the battle of Chatta- 
nooga. It then moved to Nashville. 

January 4, 1864, sixty-five of the original mem- 
bers of the battery re-enlisted as veterans and were 
furloughed home. 

Returning to Nashville, in March, it reported on 
the 16th at Bridgeport, Alabama, where it remained 
until July, 1866. It was then sent home to Colum- 
bus, and mustered out, being one of tlie last organi- 
zations to leave the service. 


This regiment was organized in September, 18G1, 
at Monroeville, Huron county. It was largely 
recruited from Huron and Erie counties. On Janu- 
ary 14, 1863, the regiment moved to Camp Dennison. 
In February following, it went to Jeffersonville, 
Indiana. It arrived at Nashville, Tennessee, j\Iaicli 
18th, and on the 29th it left for Pittsburg Landing. 
Arriving there on the 25th of April, it encamped four 
miles from the river. During this inarch jNIajor 
John H. Foster went with a detachment to Mount 
Pleasant, and captured a large quantity of l)acon 
which was turned over to the quartermaster. May 
4th, the first battalion went on a reconuoisance. At 
Monterey the enemy were met and dfiven back to 
their main body. The Third then moved to within 
ten miles of Corinth. Here Major Foster advanced 
to within sight of the enemy's lines. In falling back, 
he was followed by the rebels, and a brisk fight ensued, 
resulting in the death of twelve reljels. May 27th, 
the enemy was discovered in force on the line of the 
Memphis railroad, west of Corinth, engaged and 
routed. After much marching, the regiment went 
into camp at Winchester, July 18th. Leaving this 
camp August 14th, the regiment and division moved 
to McMinnville. Here Major Foster took his battalion 
to Dunlap, five miles from this point. The enemy's 
pickets were encountered and driven in. Foster then 
returned to his division. September 3d, the division 
marched to Nashville, thence to Gallatin and Mum- 
fordsville, where it arrived on the 21st. On the same 
day, the first battalion had a sharp engagement with 
three times its own number, and drove them into their 
works in three separate charges. • It lost twelve 
wounded and two killed. The enemy lost thirty-eight 
killed and sixty wounded. 

On the 22d of September, inarched to Louisville, 
and on October 1st, resumed the pursuit of Bragg's 
rebel army. Near Bardstown, in an attack upon the 
enemy, Major Foster was disabled. On October 20th, 
a detachment of the Third, some two hundred and 
fifty, acting as special escort, were captured by John 
Morgan's thieves. After being robbed of their valu- 
ables, and dismounted, they were paroled, sent into 
the national lines, and ordered to Camp Chase, Ohio. 

The remaining portion of the second and third 
l)attalious were next stationed on the line of the rail- 
road from Bowling Green to the vicinity of Gallatin. 
John Morgan's guerrillas lay at the last named jilace. 
Colonel Zahm sent a detachment on a reconuoisance 
to Gallatin, to ascertain Morgan's strength and posi- 
tion. The rebel pickets were captured, and the re- 
quired information obtained. At daylight, the next 
morning, the cavalry, supported by a brigade of in- 


fantry, commanded by Colonel C. G. Harker, attacked 
Morgan's camp, and succeeded in capturing his camp 
equipage and a large number of prisoners. Morgan 
retreated to Lebanon, Tennessee. Here for the first 
time during an active campaign of seven months' 
duration, the second and third battalions of the 
Third Cavalry met the first battalion under novel 
circumstances. Colonel Zahm, on approaching Gal- 
latin, was attacked by a cavalry force, which proved 
to be his own first battalion. This unfortunate mis- 
take was probably the cause of Morgan's escape at 
that time, he being apprised, by the rapid firing, of 
the approach of the national forces. 

From Gallatin the regiment moved to Hartsville, 
Tennessee, where it went into camp. A detachment, 
under command of Captain E. M. Colver, under orders, 
went up tlie Cumberland river to Carthage, to inter- 
cept a drove of mules and rebel stores, which were 
being removed by rebel quartermasters, and accom- 
panied by an escort of Morgan's guerrillas. After a 
chase of twenty-six miles, fording the Cumberland 
river four times, they succeeded in capturing the entire 
rebel train, and drove oil one hundred and forty six 
mules, routing the escort to the train, killing three, 
and capturing seventeen prisoners, among whom were 
two rebel quartermasters and a paymaster. 

During the time the regiment was in camp at 
Hartsville, it was almost daily engaged in skirmish- 
ing. In December, this portion of the Third Cavalry, 
moved to near Nashville, and here the first battalion 
joined its regiment. December 21st, a reconnoisance 
in force was made to Franklin, Tennessee. The 
rebels were driven from the place, and some prisoners 
captured. The forces then returned to Nashville. 
In this affair the notorious rebel guerrilla, thief, and 
murderer, Dick McCann, was relieved of his antici- 
pated Christmas dinner by some of the boys of the 
Third Cavalry. 

December 20th, the regiment took position on the 
right of Rosecrans' army, near Franklin. On the 
27th, a second attack was made on Franklin, which 
resulted in a complete rout of the enemy. The regi- 
ment then moved toward Triune, and at night en- 
gaged the enemy. 

On December 29th, a reconnoisance in force was 
made. On the evening of the 30th, the regiment was 
assigned position on the extreme right. At two o'clock 
on the morning of the .31st, the first battalion being 
on picket duty, apprised Colonel Zahm, of the advance 
of the rebel forces. The brigade was placed in line of 
battle, and the first biittalion formed as skirmishers. 
At four o'clock in the morning the skirmish line was 
driven in, and the brigade attacked by Wheeler's rebel 
cavalry. After two hours' fighting, through superi- 
ority of numbers, the rebels forced the main portion 
of the brigade from the field. During the morning 
of the 31st, the "rebs" captured General McCook's 
corps ammunition train, and was removing it from the 
field. The second and third battalions of the Third 
Cavalry, who withstood the shock, and remained at 

their posts, made a dash at the enemy and recaptured 
the train, taking one hundred and forty prisoners, and 
killing a number of rebels and horses. During the 
afternoon of the 31st, the regiment lost, in sustaining 
a charge made by the rebels, thirteen killed and a 
large number wounded. 

At noon of January 1, 1863, the Third Cavalry 
left the field to escort a train of four thousand wagons 
for Nashville, after supplies. The train was attacked 
at Stewart's creek Ijy Wheeler's rebel cavalry, and the 
regiment, supported by the Tenth Ohio Infantry, re- 
pulsed the rebels with severe loss. Later in the day 
the train was attacked by the same force. A portion 
of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, eight hundred 
strong, being the rear guard, was attacked and com- 
pletely routed by the rebels. The Third Cavalry, in 
the rear, came up and met the enemy. A sharp fight 
ensued, lasting until after nightfall, in which the 
rebels were repulsed. The train was safely taken 
through to Nashville, laden with supplies, and re- 
turned to Murfi'eesboro'. After the battle of Stone 
River, the Third Cavalry was sent in pursuit of the 
enemy, and near Middleton, Tennessee, attacked his 
rear guard and cajotured one of his trains. The regi- 
ment then returned and went into camp at Murfrees- 
boro'. While stationed here, the second battalion was 
detached, and reported to Colonel Hazen, at Ready- 
ville. Here it skirmished frequently with John Mor- 
gan's oxitlaws. While in camp at ilurfreesboro', a 
detachment of the third battalion, while on a scout, 
was attacked and completely suri'ounded by the eiie- 
my. A demand was made for surrender, and refused. 
Lieutenant Brenard, in command, ordered a saber 
charge, and cut his way through the enemy's lines 
with slight loss, taking a number of rebel prisoners. 
On the general advance of the army from Murfrees- 
boro', in July, 1863, the Third was engaged in skir- 
mishing almost daily. In the Sequatchie valley the 
enemy was encountered, and a running fight of three 
days' duration ensued. During the battle of Chicka- 
mauga the regiment occupied a position on the ex- 
treme left, and afterward moved in pursuit of the 
rebel Wheeler's cavaby, through Tennessee, engaging 
them at McMinnville and Farmiugton. The latter 
engagement was a handsome and successful cavalry 
fight. Wheeler's forces were completely routed and 
demoralraed, large numbers of the rebels being killed 
and captured. In this engagement the Third Cavalry 
lost two men killed and twenty-three captured. 

In November. 1863, detachments of the regiment 
scouted through the mountains of Etist Tennessee. 
In January, 186-i, at Pulaski, Tennessee, the Third 
Cavalry re-enlisted. Of the original number of thirteen 
hundred, only four hundred effective men were left at 
this date. On the 4th of February, it left Nashville 
for Ohio, and reached Monroeville, where it met with 
a cordial reception. On March 2. 1864. the Third rc- 
assemliled at Monroeville. Through the efforts of 
Major Charles W. Skinner and Cai)tain E. M. Colver. 
nearlv one thousand recruits were enlisted, and on its 


return to the front at Nashville, it numbered over 
fifteen hundred strong. At Nashville it was re-equip- 
l)ed, armed and mounted. 

About May 1st, the Third moved from Columbia, 
Tennessee, as the advance guard of the Seventeenth 
Army Corps. At Courtland, Alabama, the regiment 
was engaged with the rebel General Rhoddy's com- 
mand. The rebels were routed with the loss of a 
lieutenant-colonel, major and upward of thirty men 
killed and wounded. Reaching Rome, the Tliird 
Cavalry was assigned to a position on the left flank of 
Sherman's army, and participated in the engagements 
at Etowah, Kenesaw Mountain. Noonday Creek, and 
at the crossing of the Chattahoochie river. It was 
sent to Roswell, Georgia, to destroy the rebel stores 
and factories at that place. In this affair four hund- 
red factory-girls were captured and sent through the 
lines. At McAfee Bridge; on July 9th, four com- 
panies of the Third Cavalry, under command of 
Captain E. M. Colver, engaged a superior force of 
rebel Texan cavalry, killing a lieutenant and seven men, 
and capturing a large number of prisoners and horses. 

The regiment was engaged in the battle of Peach 
Tree Creek and Decatur, and in the raid to Covington, 
Stone Mountain, and in the Stoneman raid, in each of 
which it suffered severely. After the occupation of 
Atlanta the regiment encamped at Decatur, Georgia. 
It was sent in pursuit of Hood. It was engaged in 
the battles of Franklin, and before Nashville. It was 
engaged in the Wilson raid through Alabama and 
Georgia, and at Selma, Montgomery, Macon and Grif- 
fin. It was engaged in the chase after Jeff. Davis. 
Lieutenant D. C. Lewis and a number of other officers 
were captured at Selma. Lieutenant Lewis was after- 
ward paroled, and while on his way home, was killed 
in the explosion of steamer Sultana, near Memphis. 

Under orders from General Thomas, the Third 
turned over its horses and arms at Macon. It pro- 
ceeded to Nashville, and was mustered out, from thence 
to Camp Chase, Ohio, where it was paid off and dis- 
charged on the 14th of August, 18G.5, having served 
four years, — less twenty days. 




The following is the muster roll of a company in 
the Third Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, commanded 
by Colonel Samuel K. Curtis, and called into the ser- 
vice of the United States by the President, under the 
act of congress approved May 13, 1846. All but two 
were enrolled at Norwalk, by General McLaughlin, 
and mustered into service at Camp Washington, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, by Captain Shriver, June -^4, 184(i. 
They were discharged August 31. 184ti. 


Captain Chauncey Woodruff Second LieuteDaiit Owen Francis 

First Lieutenant William W. Rob .Second Lieutenant Edward T. 
inson Croxford 


bergeaut Benjamin R. Pratt . Corporal Charles Tupper 

Sergeant El>enezer S. Sacket. Corporal Hiram Brant, 

Sergeant Samuel Haskell. Corporal Elie D. Eaton 

Sergeant Daniel Leslie Corporal Samuel N. Terrillanini . 

John Austin, 
W^illiam "W. Ackerman. 
Silas Bemus, 
Joseph Bosler, 
MathewR. Birdsell, 
Charles Bailey, 
John Van Buskirk. 
Samuel Barus. 
Albert Bartholomew , 
Hudson T. Curtis. 
Alexander Cole, 
JohnD. Curtis. 
George Clark. 
Leonard C. Cronk. 
William Church 
Milo Caton . 
Hiram A. Curtis . 
Orlando Chamberlin 
David M. Catlin. 
George Dart. 
Joseph Dunlap. 
Samuel C. Dean. 
George S. Davis. 
James Elliot , 
Jasper Flint, 
Cyrus Francis . 
Samuel W. Gordon, 
John Gingerich. 
George H. Goodwin. 

.leseph Hoover. 
Slyvester Hoyt. 
John Jones. 
Alfred Jacobs 
Newton Leonard. 
Sidney C. Miller. 
John McGookey . 
Tibius Mabie. 
!: imeon Preston . 
Husted Pierce, 
William McPherson. 
George I. Read 
Henry Ray , 
Joseph Smith . 
Edward D. Stephens 
Alfred B. Stephens. 
Samuel Shields, 
Andrew I. Todd. 
Warren Z. Webster. 
James A. Wilson. . 
Reuben I. Woolcot. 
George Woolcot. 
Harry Woodruff . 
Fry Williams, 
Thomas Riley, 
James G.Wilson. 
Charles Burr. 
John Gruesbeck. 
Ambrose Steel. 

Charles Burr died at Brazos Santiago, July 28. 1846, of solar i 

John Gruesbeck died at the same place, July 31, 1846, of congestion of 
the brain 

Ambrose Steel was discharged at Matamoras, August I". 1846, on sur- 
geon's certificate . • 


This company served during the Mexican AVar as fol- 
lows: August "20, 1847, in the battles of Contreras and 
Cherubusco; September 8th, battle of Moliuo del 
Rey; September 11th, battle of Chepaultepec; and 
marched into the City of Mexico, under General Scott, 
September 14, 1847. 


Second Lieutenant Cornelius 
Ketchum . 


; Fred. Laubenheimer. Sergeant A. J. Dewaldt. 
Sergeant Anthony S. Sutton 


Crawford White . 

Lester Huyck. 


.\nda Riker. 

Joseph Kelble. 


Robert Buck. 

Joseph Maltby 

George A. Dean, 

E. Little. 

Simeon Jones, 


Alfa Jones 


and others whose names are forgotten 




Mustered into the service at Camp Dennison, Ohio, June 44, 1861. Mus- 
tered out of service July 13, 1864. 


Captain Franklin Sawyer, promoted to Major June 28, 1861; to Lieuten- 
ant Colonel November 3, 1861; and to Brevet Brigadier General 
March 1, 1865. 

First Lieutenant Daniel C. Daggett, promoted to Captam July 9, 1861 ; 
resigned June 27, 1862. 

Second Lieutenant Anthony S. Sutton, resigned March 1, 1862. 



First Sergeant John Reid, promoted to Captain Februarr 6, 1862 

Sergeant Jolin G. Reid. promoted to Captain of Company H. 

Sergeant Salem T. Howe, discharged on Surgeon's certificate March 11, 

Sergeant John Briggs, liilled in action at Antietani September IT, 1862. 
Sergeant Elijah T. Kust, killed in action at Winchester, Virginia, March 

2:3. im-i. 

Corporal Charles S. Manahan, promoted to First Lieutenant March 1, 

18tM; killed at Spottsylvania May 12, 18M. 
Corporal Samuel P. Bonett. killed at Fredericksburg December 1.3, 1862. 
Corporal William W. Farmer, killed in action at Antietam, Maryland, 

September 17, 18S2. 
Corporal Ezra Stevens, mustered out at expiration of service . 
Coi-poral William Gridley. Jr , mustered out at expiration of service. 
Corporal Robert W. Park, discharged December 1, 1862, for disability. 
Corporal Ebenezer K. S. Bunce, died March 7. 1862, of wounds received 

in the battle of Winchester. 
Corporal Hubert W. Bowker, discharged August 2, 1862, by reason of 

wounds received at battle of Winchester, Virginia, March 2;J, 1862; 

promoted to Captain U.S.A. 
Musician, Albert Yeatman, mustered out at expiration of service 


Aaron Alvord, transferred to Invalid Corps December 13, 186:i. 

George H. Allen, discharged May 11, 1862, for disability. 

Ira H. Brooks. 

Silas Bemis, discharged January 20, 1863, for disability. 

Cornelius Booman, transferred to Company C, June 25, 1861. 

Jay L. Curry, discharged October 27, 1862, tor disability. 

Daniel F. Curtiss. 

George W. Chandler, promoted to First Lieutenant, West Virginia Cav- 

Clarence Doneman. died October 18, 1861 

Joseph Dewaldt. 

David Ennis. 

Virgil N. Ennis. 

William S. Foster, promoted to First Lieutenant, Third Ohio Cavalry. 

Robert Foster, discharged November 22, 1862, by reason of wounds re- 
ceived in the battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862. 

Frederic W. Fowler, discharged January 22, 1862, for disability. 

Horace Fling. 

Charles Fisher. 

John Finn . 

William Grover, died at Grafton, Virginia, October, 1861 . 

James S. Graves, died December 17, 1862. 

Peter Griffin, transferred to Company C, June 25, 1.861. 

Adam Haumer, discharged December 27, 1862, for disability 

David W. Hindman 

Samuel Hohnes, discharged Februarj- 1, 1862. for disability 

Samuel Holmes, discharged for disability 

Lucius Hoyt, killed inaction at Antietam, September 17, 1862 

Charles Johnson. 

Joseph E. Jameson. 

Nathan Jump. 

Charles B. Keeler, died of dis.ease in the service. 

George Klinnell, discharged February 1, 1862. 

Joseph B. Knox. 

David W. Long, transferred to Company C, June 25, 1861 

Thomas Lee, transferred to Sixth United States Cavalry, October 22, 

Charles Locher 

George H. Long, transferred to Company C, June 25, 1861 

Michael McCarthy, discharged February 1, 1862, for disability. 

Peter A. Miller, died at Grafton, October 2, IS-il . 

John Manin, joined Sixth U S. Cavalry 

Thomas McHenrj-, killed near Whitehouse, in battle. 

William Mountain, killed in action, a? Antietam, Maryland, September 
17, 1862. 

Alexander MelvlUe, killed at battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862. 

Thomas Matthews, died of wounds received in the battle of the Wilder- 
William F. Parker, discharged for wounds at Antietam. 

Wilson S. Parker, promoted to Sergeant Major. 

JohnF. P>craft 

Lucius A Palmer, discharged July 1, 1862, for disability. 

Henrj-G. Rust 

William Reynolds, discharged for wounds at Antietam. 

William Raymond, discharged January 9, 1862, for disability 

Josiah Raymond, discharged January 20, 1862, for disabiUty. 

Casper Rhoner, transferred to Fourth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry, 
June 2», 18&4. 

Louis Rounds, transferred to Fourth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry, 
June 24, 1864: promoted to Captain. 

John J. Reiber, transferred to Company C, June 85, 1881. 

Lewis S. Rouse. 

Hubert H. Russell, died at Oakland, October 25, 1861 . 

Leo A. Sweet, discharged October27, 1861, for disabihty. 

Daniel Starks, transferred to Sixth United States CavaUy, October 22, 

Williiam Steel, died of wounds received at Petersburgh, 
Charles Stewart, transferred to Sixth United States Cavalry, October 

82. 1868. 
Frank ShafTer, killed in action at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3, 1863. 
George A. Scott, transferred to Sixth United States Cavalry. October 

22, 1862. 
James Taggart, transferred to Sixth United States Cavalry, October 22, 

Joseph Taylor, transferred to Fourth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry, 

June24, )864. 
Evander White. 

David ^Miite, discharged for disability, October", 1862. 
William J. Ward, died. December 28, 1863, at Stevensbui-gh 
David 0. Ward, transferred to Sixth United States Cavalry, October 

22, 1862. 
Samuel F. Wend, transferred to Sixth United States Cavalry, October 

William Wallace, transferred to Sixth United States Cavalry, October 

22. 1862 
Samuel R. Welch. 
Frederick E. West. 

Christopher C. Wood, discharged January 2). 1S62, for disability. 
William W. Wells. 

Evan Williams, discharged for disability. 
John White. 
The men not otherwise disposed of were mustered out with the Com- 


Arnold S. Johns, mustered January 30, 1364; discharged at San Antonio, 


Andrew Decker, mustered January 14, 1864; mustered out with com- 

William Dennis, mustered January 25, 1865; mustered out with com- 

Samuel R. Gatline, mustered December 81, 1863; wounded October 16. 
1864; discharged July 13, 1865. 

Charles Hammond, mustered February 88, 1864; mustered out with com- 

Solomon Hammond, mustered December 17, 1863; mustered out with 

William H. Hammond, mustered February 10, 1864; date of discharge 
not given. 

Jeremiah Hartney, mustered February 38, 1834; mustered out with corn- 
Francis Mullen, mustered February 19, 1864; mustered out with com- 

Hugh McWhutter, mustered February 10, 1864. 

Joseph Noble, mustered February 24, 1861; mustered out with company. 

Joseph Whissen, mustered February 21, 1864; date of discharge not 

James W. White, mustered January 15, 1864; wounded in action Decem- 
ber 31, 1862; discharged April 10, 1863. 

Peter Wycoff, mustered January 1. 1864; mustered out with company. 

Parker C. Bird, mustered December 7, 1863; discharged May 27. 1863. 

Peter Hammond, mustered February 10, 1864; wounded in action Jtay 
, 14, 1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Edward Richardson, mustered February 10, 1864; wounded iu action 
May 27, 1864 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

John Wycotf, mustered June 30, 1864: transferred to Veteran Reserve 


Isaac Ames, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 
Dayton Andrews, recruit; discharged July 17. 1.863. 
William L. Benton, recruit ; mustered out with company . 
Daniel C. Brooks, recruit; discharged May 16, 1865. 
Harvey M. Carley. recruit; mustered out with company. 
John B. Coleman, recruit; mustered out with company. 
John L. Dunbar, recruit; discharged October 31, 1864. 
Harrison Eggleston. recruit: mustered out with company. 
John L. Ennis, recruit; mustered out with company; appointed 


Burns T. French, recruit; mustered out with company, 
Solomon Foster, recruit; prisoner of war. 
Joshua Foster, recruit; uo record of discharge. 
Leonard Henry, appointed corporal May 10. 1865. 
William Jeffrey, recruit; discharged July 20. 1865. 
Fred. A. Ketchum, recruit; mustered out with company. 
Martin Osborn, appointed corporal August 18, 1865. 
John J. Pillen, recruit; mustered out with company. 
George Snyder, appointed corporal May 10, 1865. 
Leonard R. Simmons, recruit; discharged June -i, 1865. 
Philip Smith, recruit; mustered out with company. 
Patrick Shannossey, appointed corporal September 12, 1865. 
Thomas Weston, recniit; died of wounds December 15, 1864. 


Mustered into service at Camp Ford, September 25, 1861 . Mustered ( 
of service at San Antonio. Texas, October 24, 1865 . 


Sergeant John F. Cook, discharged June 1:3, 1862 
Sergeant Edward L. Hall, discharged August 14, 1862 

Andrew J. English discharged at expiration of service. 

William N. Fugate, died March 14, 1863 of wounds . 

Israel D. Gonser, appointed corporal ; wounded at Chickamauga, Georgia. 

Robert Huston, discharged Octobers, 1864. 

Samuel McConnell, died November 25, 1862, 

David M. Rainsburg, appointed corporal; mustered out with company. 

John R. Ross, discharged October 5, 1864. 

James P, Rainsburg, died February 22, 1862, 

Peter Loveland, discharged October 5, 1864. 

John B. Shipley, discharged October 1, 1862. 

Harry H. Shipley, promoted sergeant; mustered out with company. 

Jesse Vamer, died October 19, 1862. 



Captain Lyman M. Kellogg, resigned to accept an appointment in the 

Eighteenth United States Infantry. (No date given). 
First Lieutenant Moses F. Wooster, appointed Adjutant of the regiment 

June 19, 1861 . 
Second Lieutenant William B, Sturges, promoted first Lieutenant July 

23, 1861; to Captain February 28, 1862, and to Major of the re^-iment, 

November 7, 1863 


First Sergeant Thomas M, McTlure, promoted to Second Lieutenant 
July 23, 1861, and assigned to Company B 

Sergeant Edgar B. Kellogg, promoted to Second Lieutenant July 85 
1861, and assigned to Company K. 

Sergeant David N. Bodflsh, died at Clarksburg, Virginia, August 4, 1861, 

Sergeant John Acker 

Sergeant David A , Merrill, promoted Second Lieutenant June 6, 1862; 
assigned to Company F, January 10, 1863. 

Corporal Hiram Whitney. 

Corporal John H. Fosdiok, promoted to Sergeant December 26, 1862. 

Corporal Paul Spohn, transferred to Company E, December 14, 1861. 

Corporal Nathaniel P. Burt, promoted to Sergeant December 26, 1861. 

Corporal Sumner W. Smead, discharged to enlist in Fourth U. S. Artil- 
lery, Octobers:}, 1862. 

Corporal William W. Minor, promoted Sergeant February 28, 1863. 

Corporal Francis W. Bacon, discharged April 8, 1863. 

Corporal Charles B. Davis, discharged August 7, 1862. 

Fifer Osmer B, HaU, discharged July 20, 1862. 

Wagoner Otis H, Van Tassell 

Joseph Buckley. 
Benjamin C. B:aii 
Daniel Burnham 
Edward Bartow. 


Joseph E . Bonett, discharged November 5, 1861 . 

John Bub, discharged August 5, 1862. 

George W . Brown, promoted First Lieutenant and assigned to Company 

C, August 15, 1864. 
Henry E. Camp, discharged June 23, 1862. 
JohnC.Coleman, discharged January 2.'i, 186:j, to enlist m Twelfth U. 

S. Infantry. 
Charles Coleman. 
James W. Crum, died June 27, 1862 
John Cook 

Clark Calligan, discharged March 5, 1862. 
Henry Carr, veteran volunteer. 

Cortes Elliott, died at Cheat Mountain Septemb.r 1, 1861 . 
Isaac I . Furman, veteran volunteer 
Robert H. Herford, discharged June 25, 1862 
Danforth G. Heimeway, discharged of wounds May 23, 1862. 
Isaac Holman . 

Carlton Humphrey, promoted Corporal January 14, 1863. 
Charles I. Hoyt. 

Arnold Hassler, promoted Corporal October 31, 1863. 
James H. Jaques, promoted First Lieutenant July 4. 1863. 
Epenetus P. Kinney, died of wounds May 6, 1862. 
Joel W, Kinney 
Henry Klabish . 

Lewis G. Kies, promoted Commissary Sergeant August 11, 1861, 
Gottleib L, Klein, died May 18, 1862. 
William C. Linn, died March 6, 1863 

Albert F. Le , promoted Corporal; died of wounds March 8, 1864. 
Alexander McMillan, discharged January 20, 1862 
August Meyer, died November 5. 1861 . 
Frederick 3Ieyer. 
Joseph M. Millis. 
AmbeisE. Miller 
David M,MUler. 

John A. Meak, died September 8, 1861 , 
Edwin Miller, discharged April 21, 1862. 
Mitchell A, Minor, promoted Corporal October 31, 1863 
John A. Molock. 

Charles G. Morehouse, promoted Sergeant Major December 18, 1861. 
Harlan R. Page, died November 10, 1861. 
Julius F. Pratt, veteran volunteer. 
Addison Potter, veteran volunteer. 
Milton F. Pettit. 
Frank E. Pray. 
George Quirin . 

Jackson W. Ridgeway. discharged January 20, 1862. 
Seneca Ronk, discharged October 22, 1863. 
William Rice, discharged August 4, 1862. 
George H. Stevens. 
Levander Stacey, discnarged October 22, 1862, to enlist in Fourth U. S. 

John A. Sheffield. 

William E. Sherwood, appointed Wagoner October 31, 1863 
Henry F. Sherman. 
John Thomas. 

Robert E . Tillinghast, veteran volunteer . 
Palmer Whitney, died of wounds April 17, 1862 
Edwai-d Wbitford, promoted Corporal January 14, 1863 
Michael H Waggoner. 
James M. Willson. veteran volunteer 

Lewis Sewell, promoted Quartermaster Sergeant March 3, 1862. 
Charles Trowbridge, killed in battle April 7, 1862. 
Edward C. Pejk, died of wounds April 17, 1862. 
Calvin L. Peck, died October 14, 1862. 
Lathrup Taylor, died Februarys. 1863. 
Reuben F. Atherton, died February 6, 1864. 

Daniel D. Brooks, enlisted February 23, 1864. 
Harry M. Carey, enlisted January 5, 1864, 
John B. Coleman. enUsted January 5, 1864. 
Harrison Egleston, enlisted February 23, 1864 . 
Burnice T. French, enlisted February 23, 1864. 
William Jeffrey, enlisted February 23, 1864. 
Martin Ausborn. enlisted January 4, 1864. 
John J. Pillers. enlisted January 5, 1864. 
George Snyder, enlisted January 5, 1864. 
Erastus F. Squire, enlisted January 5, 1864, 
Leonard R, Sanmons, enlisted February 2:3, 1864. 
Daniel Walper, enlisted Januarys, 1864. 

John F. Blaudon, discharged June 6. 1862. 
Angus McLaughhn. discharged July 29, 1862 . 
Horace C, Hill, discharged February 27, 1863. 




First Lieutenant Enoch Weller, transferred to Company H, October 3, 
1861; promoted to Major, August 11, 1862; killed in action, December 
31, 1862. 

Second Lieutenant Dewitt C . Wadsworth. promoted to Captain, February 
16, 1863; Icilled in battle of Chickaniauga, September 30, 1863 . 


Sergeant Frank L. Myers, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant John M , Root, died August 24, 1861 

Corporal Alfred Marion, promoted to Sergeant, September 1, 18fii; killed 

at battle of Stone river, December 31, 1861 . 
Corporal Francis Bradley; died, March 22, 1862. 
Corporal Leonard B . Osborn 
Corporal John M. Shepard. 
Wagoner Charles Mc Graves, discharged February 16, 1862, 


Nelson Arnold 

John Ami 

one Anderson, killed July 25. 1861 

John Brokely, died July 4, 1862. 

Thomas W , Carpenter, mustered out with company 

John Donevan, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

George Dart, killed by Joseph King, January 13, 1863. 

Victor W . Frederick, transferred to Company H , 

John Heater, veteran vohinteer 

John H Hibler 

Joseph King, sentenced to twenty years imprisonment, and pay shopped, 

for murder 
William Luff, 

Michael McGookey, mustered out with company 
Henry Myers. 

John Matt, promoted Corporal ; discharged (no date . ) 
Peter Miller, mustered out with company. 
George Neidle. discharged. May 17, 1862 , 
Jason R , Orton . 
James Quinn. 

Peter Ryan, discharged, April 3, 1862. 
Jackson Ryan, discharged. May 17, 1862, 
Jacob Rinehart, mustered out with company. 
Lewis Roble . 

Charles Sills, discharged. January 20, 1862. 
Richard Stetle, promoted Corporal 
Bohard Stinley, mustered out with eompany . 
Charles Studenhover. mustered out with company. 
Charles Shirley, mustered out with company. 
Henry Trout, mustered out with company , 
William Tetswood, discharged, January 20, 1862, 
William Voit, mustered out with company. 
George Vining, mustered out with company. 
Charles Wilson. 

Jacob Warner, mustered out with company . 
Max Wolf. 

William Luff, discharged. May 8, 1863. 
Frederick Teater, discharged, September 8, 1862, 


John L. Dunbar, transferred to the Department of the Cumberland 
John L. Ennis. transferred to the Department of the Cumberland. 
Solomon Foster, transferred to the Department of the Cumberland. 
Joshua Foster, transferred to the Department of the Cumberland . 
Henry Garrett, transferred to the Department of the Cumberland. 
Leonard Henry, transferrt-il totha Department of the Cumberland. 
William Marlow, trnn^^ferred t.> th.' Departmentof the Cumberland. 
David Steigle, transf.T!>-(l t.. the Ht-partment of the Cumberland. 
Philip Smith, transfenvd to the Dtpartment of the Cumberland. 
Patrick Shunnessy. transferred to the Department of the Cumberland. 
Tliomas Weston, transferred to the Department of the Cumberland. 


Organized at Monroeville. Ohio. Mustered into service May 18. 1861 
Mustered out June 19, 1864 


Captain Henry Terry, promoted to Major June 6, 1802; killed at the bat- 
tle of Stone River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862. 

First Lieutenant Samuel Clock, resigned October 28, 1861 . 

Second Lieutenant Robert G. Clark, promoted to First Lieutenant, and 
transferred to Company H, December 14, 1881 . 


First Sergeant James G. Breckenridge. 

Sergeant Charles W. Olds, promoted to First Sergeant January 1. 1803, 

Sergeant Coleman Ehrman, wounded at Shiloh April 7, 1862. 

Sergeant Frederick Hettell . 

Corporal Benjamin F. Skinner, promoted Sergeant July 21, 1861 

Corporal Benedick Moser, 

Corporal William Bennett, appointed Sergeant December 26. 1861; 

wounded at Stone River: discharged July 5, 1863. 
Corporal David O. Williams, promoted Second Lieutenant December 14, 

1861, and transferred to Company H, 
Corporal John N. Sivers. killed at the battle of Shiloh, Tennessee, April 

7. 1862. 
Corporal William B. Clark, discharged March 11, 1863 
Corporal Victor R. Monroe . 

Corporal James Smith, discharged November 6, 1862, 
Wagoner, John O'Conner, discharged January 14, 1864. 


Thomas C. Arnold, mustered out with company. 

John R. Bloomer, mustered out with company. 


Jacob Born, promoted Corporal ; died of wotmds November 18, 1863 

James W . Conant , 

Luther Conklin, 

Charles C. Clemmons, killed June 30, 1862, 

Robert Dutchman, discharged August 4, 186! 

Timothy Dorsey, died September 2, 1862. 

Henry Dewitt. 

William S. Finch, died February 7, 1862. 

John G. Frederickson, discharged October 23, 1862. and enlisted in the 
Fourth United States Artillery, 

Martin Frederickson. discharged on account of wounds, Feb 23, I86;3 

John Friderger, died October 11, 1862. 

Henry L. GrifiBn, discharged September 20, 1861. 

Alexander I . Grant, captured at Stone River , 

Peter Grisel , 

Lucas Geif ell, discharged October 29, 1862, to enlist in the Fourth United 
States Artillery , 

Youngs Gregory, discharged January 2, 186:3 

Gottleib Hilber, discharged July 20, 1863, 

Emory A. Hulbert. discharged to enlist in Fourth United States Artil- 
lery, October 23, 1862. 

John Harley, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 

David W. Heath, discharged to enlist in Fourth United States Artillery. 
October 23. 1862, 

Paul Hager, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 

William H. Hughes, 

William Hyber. 

George M. Hulburt, discharged February 23, 1863. 

James Herrington 

Charles W. Hopkins, discharged June 28, 1862. 

Gotleib Holzer, 

Martin L. Hahn 

William Jeffries, 

Charles Kern, died August 14, 1861. 

.John A. Lantz, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 

Lewis Lemmon 

Stephen C. Lobdell, discharged August 5, 1862. 

Thomas R. Mitchell, 

Frederick Myers. 

James MoGrew, died October 21. 1862. 

Berkhdtt Martz . 

Hezekiah Masten, discharged February 23, 1863. 

Abram R. Marsh, discharged September 23, 1863. 

George F. Norman . 

Dennis O'Brien, killed at Stone River, December 31, 1862. 

Anton Peach, captured at Chickamauga . 

John Rothgele, died March 29, 1862. 

Joseph Rider, discharged October 16, 1863. 

Joseph Reamer, 1st, 

Joseph Reamer, 2d, captured at Chickamauga. 

Joel W. Rickel, wounded at Chickamauga , 

Heber Squires. 

John Stephens, discharged October 23, 180:3, to enlist in the Fourth 
United States Artillery. 

John A. Smith, 

Jacob Swartz. transfei-reil to Veteran Reserve Corps 

Casper Seabolt. 

Thomas G. Stuchfleld 

John B. Smith, died October 13, 1862. 

Abram Spoors. 

August Thomas, 

William Williams, discharged December 0, 1862 

Charles Weist, discharge* August 5. 1862. 

Edgar A. Welch . 

Isaac Bennett. 




Mustered into service, September 7, ISfil, at Camp Dennison, Ohio. 
Mustered out of service, July 30, IWiS, at Louisville, Kentucky. 


Captain Jay Dyer, resigned April 10, 1862 


First Sergeant Russell B. Bennett, promoted Chaplain 

Albert C. Bailey 
Alonzo Blawett. 
Benj. Y. Blaney. 
Asa Carr . 
Jacob Carr 
Amba C. Cole. 
George H. Courter 
Aaron Clossen . 
Hiram C. Fuller. 
Emery Garlinghouse . 
John G rsuch 
Erastus F. Granger. 
Thomas C. Gaylord. 
Thomas H. Grist. 
Jesse W. Gardner. 
Burton Hubbell. 
William Z. Hubbell. 
Nathaniel Haycock . 
George Haycock 
Enoch Hartrum 
Ira Hartrum 

This company became veterans i 
No muster out rolls of first mustei 

James Herroon . 
Isaiah Irwin 
Willis Lake. 
William B. Massma 
Aden Mullen. 
Miles McLeod. 
John C. Nutt. 
George Osborne. 
William Piper. 
Harmon Robins 
Abraham Robins . 
Thomas E. Rose. 
John H. Stenbeck. 
Charles E. Smith 
Selah J. Stark. 
Hos^a C. Sherman 
David Sherman. 
John W. Taylor. 
James S. Tyler 
Phillip H. Waters. 
George Warfield. 
Oscar F. Weeks. 


o£ original enlistment, 
e in Adjutant General's 


Mustered into service, February 25, 1863, at Cumberland, Maryland. 
Mustered out of service July 37, 1865, at Wheeling, Virginia. 

Transferred from Company E, Thirty-Fourth Regiment Ohio Volunteer 

John W. Ernes. James V. Kirk. 

William Fulkerson . Isaac J . Mead . 

Theodore Gearing. Jacob Mullenkoph 

JohnHecket. William Shickler. 

Amos Hillborn . Samuel Sloan 

Dennis Mulligan, discharged May 14, 1864. 

These men, with one exception, were mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service September 9. 1861, at Camp Brown, Ohio. Mus- 
tered out of service August 7, 1865, at Little Rock, Arkansas. 
Corporal Jacob Fehr, mustered out with company. 
Private Johann EngraCF, mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service September 23, 1861, at Camp Brown, Ohio. Mus- 
tered out of service August 7, 1865, at Little Rock, Arkansas. 


First Sergeant Sebaldus Hassler, discharged for promotion April 19 

Sergeant Henry Reutsh, promoted Q. M. Sergt. 
Corporal Peter Sailer, discharged October 8, 1803. 
Musician, Gisbort Raymond, appointed Chief Bugler September 19, 1861.. 

Charles Bengel, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 30, 18i>4. 

Theodore Dimisch. discharged for wounds June 1, 1862. 

Henry Glaser, discharged June 11, 1862. 

Casper Hardtman, discharged December 19, 1862. 

Charles Happ, veteran volunteer; discharged for wounds April 5, 1665. 

Frank Roth, promoted Corporal: discharged September 19, 1864. 

11 A 

John Straus, promoted Corporal; killed in action May 17. 1863. 

Henry Stall, discharged for wounds May 35 (no year) . 

John Steinrich, killed in action May 34, 1863. 

Henry Schmidt, veteran volunteer. 

Adolph Schwab, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

John Wentzinger, veteran volunteers ; mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service September 19. 1861, at Camp Brown, Ohio. Mus- 
tered out of service August 7. 1865, at Little Rock. Arkansas. 


Corporal August Roedicker 

Joseph Aborte, George Metzger, 

Joseph Gartio. Lewis Schwartz. 


Mustered into service December 9, 1861, at Camp Chase, Ohio. Mus- 
tered out of service . [No muster-out rolls of 

this regiment on file at Columbus.l 


First Lieutenant Milton Kemper. 

Sergeant David R Brown. i.orporal Jacob Edwards. 

Corporal John Kearns Corporal James L. Kemper 

Corporal Michael Shiltz. 

Joshua Barker, 
William Chambers, 
Samuel Chambers, 
James Corner, 
Stephen Demona, 
Conrad Fox, 
William Grim, 

Lewis Jones, 
Nelson Maze, 
Francis Pilliod, 
Victor Soupp, 
David Starret, 
Christian Waggler, 
.Jacob Waggler. 


Mustered into service at Camp Wood. Ohio, October 29, 
out of service November 37, 1865. 


Sergeant James McMahon, transferred to Company I, 

Sergeant John O. Strong. 

Corporal William H. Pierce. 

Corporal Daniel H. Smith. 

Corporal William H. Rossitter. promoted to Sergeant. 

MuB cian Alonzo Hosford. 

Seneca A. Camp, killed in battle April 7, 1863. 

Hanson H . Camp. 

James H. Grant, killed in battle November 23, 1863. 

Charles Gunsaul, killed in battle, November 23, 1863. 

Edwin Hasbrook. 

Lester E. Marks. 

Aquilla Mains. 

Emraur E . Rossitter, killed i 

Floyd Rossitter. 

Philander Talcott 


Sylvester M. Dawson, veteran volunteer, mustered out with c 

Peter Clucky, discharged May 16, 1865. 

Henry Tuttle, promoted Corporal, 1865. 

William Greene, discharged June 7, 1865 

Henry Talcott, kUled in battle November 37, 1863. 

John Gleason, discharged June 7, 1865. 

Elmer N. Wilkinson, veteran volunteer; promoted Corporal. 

Sherman R Haskell, discharged January 9, 1865. 

Francis Klenungger, mustered out. (Mo date) 

Privat* Gilbert W Sherman, died in hospital . (No date) 

I battle December 



Mustered into service August 31, 1882. Mustered out of service June 

3, 1865. 
Private 'Michael Madden 



Lieutenant Samuel Starr, promoted Captain: resigned March 15, 

Peter Bates 
Peter Mahon 
Charles Merrii 
Andrew Xelso 


Corporal William Sprang. 

Martin Orduer. 
GilbertS. Orcut 
.lohn Ruth 
John Shaffer. 
William Wilber 



Colouel John C. Lee. resigned, May 8, 1863. 
Lieutenant-Colonel George H. Saflf ord, resigned, March 4, 18(33. 
Major Daniel F. DeWolf, resigned October 8, 1863. 
Chaplain John G. W. Coivles. resigned, Jul.v 21, 1862. 
Surgeon Jay Kliug, mustered out on expiration of service. 
Assistant-Surgeon Henry R. Spooner, promoted to Surgeon, November 

20, 1863, and assigned to Si.^ty-First Regiment Ohio Volunteer In- 
■"T fantry. 

First Lieutenant and Adjutant Frank W. Martin, promoted to Captain. 
First Lieutenant and A. Q. M. Robert G. Pennington, resigned, July 33, 

Sergeaut-JIajor Mahlon L. Lambert, appointed October 25, 1861. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant Benjamin C. Taber, promoted First Lieutenant ; 

July IT, 1862, appointed Regimental Quartermaster. 
Commissary Sergeant James G. Millen, transferred to Veteran Reserve 

Hospital Steward William E. Childs, re-enlisted as veteran volunteer, 

January 1, 1864. 


Mustered into service at Nonvalk, Ohio, December 31, 1801 , Mustered 
out of service at Louisville, Kentucky, July 11, 1865 


Captain Charles B. Gambee, promoted to Colonel, and killed in action 

at Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 1,864. 
First Lieutenant Benjamin F. Eldridge, promoted to Captain ; resigned 

December 28, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant William H. Long, resigned August 17, 1862. 


First Sergeant Henry H. Moore, promoted to Captain; resigned Janu- 
arylD, 1865. 

Sergeant John E. Kunkel, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Sergeant Charles M. Smith, promoted Second Lieutenant. 

Sergeant Albert J. Dimick, mustered out at e.vpiration of service. 

Sergeant William H. Harrington, mustered out at expiration of service. 

Corporal Lyman T. Ford, veteran volunteer, promoted Sergeant Janu- 
ary 1, 1864. 

Corporal John Stevens, discharged for disability July, 1862. 

Corporal John Ryan, discharged for disability August 22, 1862. 

Corporal James W. Saunders. 

Corporal George A . Stillson, discharged tor disability July, 1862. 

Corporal Sidney F. Sinclair, discharged for disability July 22, 1862. 

Corporal Oren J. Stark, discharged for disability August 7, 1868. 

Musician, Daniel Herring, died a prisoner May 27, 1863. 

Musician, George W. Goodell, veteran volunteer, mustered out with 

Wagoner, William H. Ciyder, died of small pox July 26, 1803. 

Horace B. Adams, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

Nelson Barber, died of woimds May 20, 186-3 

Philip Beckley, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

virh company. 

Thomas Beckley, veteran volunteer, mustered out 

Stephen Beckley, promoted Sergeant December 17. 1864. 

James Boughton. veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 

Louis S. Bergstrener, transferred January 16, 1864. 

Joseph Ball, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps September 1. 1863. 

James Carver, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps September 14, 1863. 

John Chinrock, died of wounds, July 31, 1863. 

Howard M. Coleman, discharged October25, 1802. 

Albert Chapman, discharged April 26, 1863. 

Albert P. Curiy, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 15, 1864. 

William Charvill, discharged September 1, 1862. 

Milton Crockett, mustered out June 3, 1865 

ElUott A. Cobb, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company . 

AlonzoCorser promoted Sergeant March 1, 1865; veteran volunteer. 

Henry R Carver, mustered out June 32, 1865 

Levi Close, mustered out June 2, 1865. 

Miles Duesler, promoted Sergeant; died June 3, 1863, of wounds received 
at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 2. 1863. 

John J. Duesler, discharged on account of wounds August 14, 1863; 
right arm amputated 

Francis Davis, mustered out with compan.v. 

George G. Dietrich, mustered out with company 

Uriah M. Eckhart, veteran volunteer; re-enlisted January 1, 1864; mus- 
tered out with company . 

Martin J. Ford promoted Corporal Januarj- 1, 1864; veteran volunteer. 

Benjamin F. Fulkerson. lost on steamer General Lyon, while a prisoner. 

Arthur Franklin^ killed at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 2, 1863. 

John Grubb mustered out with company. 

William H. Goodson, discharged July 22, 1S63. 

Francis Gale, discharged November 34, 1863. 

Henry Gale, discharged April 23, 1362. 

John Gleeson, veteran volunteer. 

Henry Gehring, discharged August, 1862 

George H. Gale, discharged May 18. 1862. 

Charles Gale, mustered out December 20 1865. 

Charles Haler. killed at Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 1864. 

Henry J. Hayward, promoted Corporal January 1, 1864; veteran vol- 
Henry Henney, veteran volunteer. 

Theophilus P. Howard, discharged November 26, 1862 

William Hartman, received gunshot wound through right arm at Chan- 
cellorsville, Virginia . 

Samuel Henney. veteran volunteer; died of wound received at Resaca. 

William Hyde, died March 18, 1863. 

Dexter R. Jones, discharged November 1 1862 

Rollin Jacoy, died March 30, 1862. 

Thomas A. Kunkel, mustered out June 83, 1865 

Jesse Khne . 

William E. Miller, promoted Sergeant January 1, 1864 

John Moyer. mustered out with company. 

Charles R Mathis, discharged December 10, 1862. 

Amandus Mohr, died of wounds, July 14, 1863, received at Chancellors- 
ville, Virginia. 

Aretas Miller, mustered out with company 

James G. Millen. 

David McCormick, veteran volunteer 

James B. Mohn . 

George W. Orwig. veteran volunteer; mustered out with company; cap- 
tured at Chancellorsville, Virginia; paroled and exchanged 

Jolm Peightle, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Silas P. Riley, killed at second battle of Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 

Elias Smith, veteran volunteer , 

William Stegman, mustered out with company. 

Samuel Smith, discharged April 16, 1863. 

Elias Stearns, discharged March 23, 1862. 

Dewalt J. Swander. mustered out with company . 

James Slinker, veteran volunteer. 

Jonas Shoemaker, veteran volunteer 

William E. Sheffield, discharged December, 1862, of wounds received at 
the second battle of Bull Run 

James Sowards, died at Louisville, Kentucky, July T, 1864, from wounds. 

WiUiam Sowards, veteran volunteer 

Ashael P. Smith, promoted to Hospital Steward, May 1, 18i)5. 

RossC.Tremain, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Amaziah Thorp, mustered out with company. 

George W. Todd, discharged December 23, 1863. 

Charles H. Welch, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Eli C. Wright, died of measles March 8, 1863. 

George O. Winters, not on muster-out roll . 

Jefferson Wright, mustered out with company 

Moses W, Wilt . mustered oi« with company 

Russell S. Williams, killed near Bentonville, North tarolina. March 16, 

Benjamin Zimmerman, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 
James H. Bitting, enlisted February 13, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany . 
Sylvester Hevelone, enlisted Feb, 19, 1864; mustered out with company. 



Martin Landenschaler enlisted February S, 1864; mustered out with 

company . 
William M. Giles, recruit . 
Frederick Close discharged October IS. 1864. 
James J. Null, recruit. 

Edward Farnsworth. discharged June 8, 1865 . 
George W. Price, discliarged 
NeLson Crockett, promoted Second Lieutenant; wounded at Bull Run; 

discharged June 3. 1863 . 
Jacol) B. Wales, recruit 
Walter E. Long, recruit. 
Benjamin F. Moore, recruit . 


Mustered into service October 16 1861. Mustered out of service 
July 11, 1865. 


Captain Horatio N. Shipman, resigned March 10, 1863 

First Lieutenant Henry William Persing, promoted Captain and 

A. Q. M. July 18, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant Arthur Cranston, resigned March 15, 1862. 

Fi St Sergeant Walter W. Thomas, promoted Second Lieutenant March 
13. 1862; died April 6, 1862. 

Sergeant Thomas 0. Leary. promoted First Lieutenant March 6, 1863: 
resigned December 28, 1863. 

Sergeant James Young, discharged April 23, 1863. 

Sergeant Stephen L. Saunders, veteran volunteer ; wounded at Cedar 
Mouutaiu Virginia, August 9, 1862. 

Sergeant Robert Y'oung. promoted Sergeant January 1, 1864. 

Corporal John R. Lowe promoted Second Lieutenant: wounded at Bull 
Run August 30, 1864. 

Corporal Henry B. Warren promoted First Sergeant: wounded at Get- 
tysburg July 3. 1863. . 

Corporal Charles H. Lockwood, discharged March 29, 1862. 

Corporal Edwin H. Butler, discharged January 20, 1863. 

Corporal William Bellamy, banner bearer, killed August 30, 1862. 

Corporal Bradford N. Kellogg, veteran volunteer; mustered out with 
company . 

Corporal William H. Long, appointed Sergeant October 16, 1861; dis- 
charged October 27, 1862. 

Corporal James D. Walker, discharged October 29, 1862. 

Musician, John Bowers, discharged October 5, 1862. 

Musician, Billy N. Mtssenger, discharged September 3, 1862 

Wagoner, Justus Squire discharged October 4, 1862. 

Albert Q. Adams, discharged November 25, 1862. 

Ernest Anson, wounded at Gett.ysburg July 3, 1863; mustered out with 

Jack B. Burch, mustered out with company. 

Xavier Bergamyer, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 
Lewis Bauer, transferred Veteran Reserve Corps, 1863. 
Frank P. Barton, promoted Corporal ; wounded at Resaca, Georgia, May 

13, 1864: died Blay 22, 1864. 
William H. H. Bemis, discharged October 2r, 1862. 
Silas Brown, discharged June 22, 1863. 

Robert Blake, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 
Benjamin F. Bemis. killed November 23, 1863. 
Enoch M. Bell, veteran volunteer: mustered out with company. 
Thomas Carr, discharged January 1, 1863. 
William A. Crawford, promoted Corporal; killed at Resaca, Georgia, 

May 15, 1864, 
Milton N. Cowles, promoted Corporal; captured at McDowell, Virginia; 

exchanged ; mustered out with company. 
Andrew W. Clawson, promotrd Corporal November?, 1864. 
Wilham Coultrip, wounded at second Bull Run battle. 
William Cowell, wounded at second Bull Run battle. 
James M. Chaffee, discharged December 29, 1864. 
William Dourian, discharged September 4. 1862. 
Henry C. Ellis, discharged September 8, 1862. 
Alden A. Emmons, died July I'.i, 1862. 
Oscar F. Fuller, discharged January ,30, 1863. 
Henry J. Fay, promoted Corporal January 6, 1863. 
Wesley C. Fay, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps Marcli 1, 1864. 
Nyruni Gregory, mustered out May 20, 1865. 
Henry H. Hess, died a prisoner July, 1862. 

Henry H. Hess, discharged June 8, 1865 . . 

Edwin H. HoUister, discharged September 21, 1862. 
Thomas J. Harris. 

Tames Hartney , promoted Sergeant October 38, 1864 . 
Edward G. Harris, discharged April 10, 1863. 
William Gaeger. 
George E. Jefferson. 

William Jurrett, discharged March T, 1813 . 

David E. Jefferson, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, December 2, 

Michael Kavanagh . 

Alonzo Keeler, promoted Sergeant January 1, 1,864. 
Burnie M. Kline, veteran volunteer, mastered out with company. 
Charles C. Lowe, promoted Corporal July 11. 1864. 
Jacob Mitchell, killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863 
John R. Myer, killed at Gettysburg July :3, 1863. 
Samuel McGuckiu, killed at second Bull Run August :iO, 1862. 
David McGuckin, discharged April 29, 1862. 
Azenia A. Nickles, promoted Sergeant May 1_, 1865. 
Francis M. Nickles, promoted CorjJoral May 1, 1865 
Albert Niles, discharged May 20, 1863. 
Williston Osborn, discharged October 9. 1862. 
Cyrus M. Osier, discharged February 6, 1863. 
John P. Patterson, died March 6, 1862. 
Wilham M. Parks, discharged October 27, 1862 
George W. Plue, discharged September 4, 1862 
Jackson N. Pinney, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 1864. 
Henry C. Pinney, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 1862. 
John C. Purdy, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 
William E. Pollock, killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 
Lewis Ray, discharged Decembers, 1862. 
Edwin F. Russell, transferred to Volunteer Reserve Corps . 
Lewis Roberts, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 
William H. Robinson, discharged September :30, 1862. 
George Riiz, discharged March 10, 1862. 
Frank W. Sparks, discharged October 19, 1864 . 
Rush R. Sloan, died at Grafton, Virginia, March 8, 1862. 
John Sprotberry, discharged September 14, 1863. 
Sickinger Rinehart, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 15» 

Anthony A. Simmons, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company., 
William B. Saeman, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company. 
Charles S. Saeman, discharged November 11, 1864. 
Daniel D. Stage, died October 20, 1862. 

James H. Stage, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company . 
Benjamin Tanner, discharged July 6, 1865 . 
John Taylor, veteran volunteer, mustered out with company . 
Robert Vangorder, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. March 1, 1864. 
Jonathan Welch, Jr., promoted Corporal Maj- 1, 1865. 
Francis A. Williams, discharged October 20, 1863. 
David A. Warren, promoted Sergeant: veteran volunteer, wounded at 

Gettysburg and Bull Run . 
George W. Wright, discharged September 9, 1862. 
John White, discharged January 29, 1863. 
Luther A. Welch, discharged April 16, 1863. 
Sylvester Hull, killed May 15, 1864, at Resacca, Georgia. 
Jay HoUister. died September 20, 1863. 
Jerome Welch, wounded June 21, 1864; died July 10, 1864. 
Corporal Francis Vangorder, discharged June 17, 1863 . 
Wilbert L. Green, discharged January 14, 1865. 
Elihu Westfall, recruit, discharged September 16, 1863. 



Captain Frederick A. Wildraan, resigned February 12, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Charles P. Wickham, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, 

June 6, 1864. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick H. Boalt, promoted to Captain June 1. 

1S63; resigned September 13, 1864. 


First Sergeant diaries M. Stillman, promoted First Lieutenant June 1, 
1864; resigned. 

Sergeant Williams. Wickham, promoted Captain September 26, 1864, 

Sergeant Luther B . Mesnard. 

Sergeant Barna Cooper, discharged September 26, 1862. 

Sergeant James P. Jones, promoted to First Lieutenant April 1, 1864; 
mustered out March 12, 1865. 

Corporal Alvin B. Chase. 

Corporal William C. Penfield. promoted Sergeant: captured at Gettys- 
burg, Pennsyvania. 

Corporal Frederick Rombo. 

Coi poral Theodore M. Wood, promoted Sergeant, wounded and taken 
prisoner at ChancellorsviUe, Virginia, May 2, 1863; exchanged; mus- 
tered out with company. 

Corporal Jacob Fetterman, killed at battle of Bull Run August :iO, 18ti2. 

Corporal Noble Call, discharged July, 1862. 

Corporal George CoUingwood, promoted Sergeant ; wounded at Chan- 
cellorsviUe, Virginia. May 2, 186;3. 


Corporal Edward E. Shayes, discharged November 20, 1863. 

Musician. Guel M. Wood. 

Musician, Win. Waldron. 

Wagoner. Charles Florence, veteran volunteer. 


Samuel Ashbolt. veteran volunteer. 

Andrew Anderson, discharged September H, 1863. 

Chauneey Adams, discharged Januai-y 12, 1863. 

John Bitterman, discharged April 13, 1863. 

David Battee. died July 3. 1862. 

William Biler, discharged. (No date). 

George Bailey, veteran volunteer. 

Edwin Bedell, discharged February 8, 1863. 

Finley Benson, veteran volunteer. 

Irvin E. Barker, discharged December S3, 1862. 

Moses P. Brewster, discharged February 1.5, 1S63 

Robert E. Bailey, veteran volunteer. 

Jacob A. Brown, taken prisoner at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 

Jacob Brown, veteran volunteer. 
David L. Carpenter, taken prisoner at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 

2, 1863. 
William F. Clark, discharged Decembers, 1861. 

John A. Cain, taken prisoner at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863. 
William Cromwell, discharged on account of wounds received at second 

battle of Bull Run. (No date). 
Samuel ClafiSger. 
James Doran. 

George Doll, died at Alexandria, Virginia. (No date). 
Richard Dobney, discharged January 12. 1863. 
Mathew Donnelly, discharged December 22, 1862. 
Joseph L. Day, discharged October 10. 1862. 
Thomas E. French, discharged, October 15, 1862. 
Henry Freeman, discharged, February 28, 1862. 
John J. Fisher. 
Charles E. Ganung. 
Jacob Goble, veteran volunteer. 
Charles C. Godfrey, discharged, Septembers, 1862. 
Samuel Harrington, taken prisoner at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 
John Hannerott, veteran volunteer. 

Henry W. Husted, killed at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 2, 1863 
Evelyn E. Husted, promoted Corporal. 
James M. Harland, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, August 13, 

Charles H. Horton, promoted Corporal. 
Charles L Hurlbut. promoted Corporal. 
Lorin C. Hill, veteran volunteer. 
Michael Hartnick, veteran volunteer. 
Harrison Jones. 
John Keller, veteran volunteer. 
Gustave Knapp. veteran volunteer. 

Alonzo B. Keeler. captured at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 2, 1863. 
Phillip J. Keller. 

Clarence L. Keeler, killed, June 7, 1802. 
Philetus C Lathrop. 

Samuel Lane, discharged, August 23 1862. __ 

Peter Ludwig, 
Henry Miller. 

Thomas Newberry, discharged, April 22. 1862. 
Charles Olens, transferred to Fourth United States Cavalry. 
Walter R Perrin,. 
George P. Palmer 
Ludwig Reisterer, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, September 14, . 

JairusH Rowland. 

Charles .A. Stover, discharged, December 83, 1862 
Charles Stacey, captured at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, .July 2, 1863 
John Strouhnour. 
William K. Starr. 

Anthony Rhipman, discharged, (no ilate.) 
Adolph Sibold. 
Anthony Stienly 
Benjamin C Taber. 
Abner D Twaddle. 
John M. Tread well. 
Thomas C. Taylor 

Jacob C. Utz. discharged for wounds, Januarys, 1963. 
Edwarl F. Volck, wounded at Bull Run; died September 25, 1862. 
Sumner A. Wing. 

Daniel Wells, discharged, December 2, 1862. 
George H. Walsworth. died. July 10. 1862. 

Thomas Wilson, killed at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 2, 1863. 
George WiUey, discharged, (no date.i 
Joseph Zimmerman, veteran volunteer. 
Carl Zendersi wounded at Bull Run, August 2!l 1802 
William Zarr. 

I Quartermaster Sergeant. 


Norwalk, Ohio, December 31, 1801. Mustered 
It Louisville, Kentucky, July 11, 1865. 


Major December 20, 1861 ; ] 
864; .Acting Colonel when n 

Captain Edwin H. Powers, promoted i 

moted Lieutenant Colonel June 27, 

tered out with regiment. 
First Lieutenant Albert E. Peck, promoted to Captain March 6, 1863; 

killed May 15, 1864. 
Second Lieutenant Francis H. Morse, promoted to Captain March 19, 

1864: resigned April 20, 1864. 


First Sergeant Hiram K. Preston, died June 18, 1862. 

Sergeant Henry W. Crosby . 

Sergeant Giles King, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps August 

Sergeant John H. Boss. 
Sergeant Ambers Rice. 

Corporal George W. Foote. discharged July 9, 1863. 
Corporal Ira D. Peck, discharged April 16. 1863. 
Corporal John West, discharged July 23, 1863. 
Corporal John L. Flaharty. 
Corporal Alpheus J. Peck, veteran volunteer. 
Corporal John Bellman, promoted Sergeant; veteran volunteer. 
Corporal John F. Wheaton, discharged September 22, 1863 
Corporal William F. Smith . 
Musician, John Allman. 

Sewell C. Briggs, discharged for wounds November 22, 1862. 

Thomas Brumbay, died of wounds August 23. 1863. 

Erastus Barrit, died April .5, 1.862. 

Henry Baxtuer, veteran volunteer, 

Thomas E. Buckley, discharged for wounds March 3, 1863. 

Thomas (Banning, discharged May 18, 1862. 

Lewis Bellman, died July 11, 1.S62. 

William F. Crapo, discharged October 13, 1862. 

John Coppins, veteran volunteer. 

William Clinton, discharged November 21 1862. 

William Collins, veteran volunteer. 

John Coupe, p-^omoted Sergeant: wounded in shoulder at second battle 
of Bull Run . 

William E. Childs, appointed Hospital Steward November 21, 1861 . 

William Deleany. died February 14, 1863. 

James Doughty, died March 22, 1862 

Burton Farnsworth, discharged September 13, 1862. 

John Furguson, discharged February 14. 1863. 

Divid Gates, veteran volunteer. 

George Howarth. transferred to Sixth United States Cavalry November 
10, 1862, 

William Harphain, 

William Harris, died December 7, 1862. 

William K. Horr 

Edward Hotchkins, discharged December 26, 1862. 

Henry Heff ron, veteran volunteer , 

Michael Hinaeey. wounded at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 2, 1863, in 
left hand and arm , 

Sidne.v Hooper, discharged April 10. 1862. 

Edwin F. Hood, veteran volunteer. 

Francis L. Jupp. 

Mellville Jamison, veteran volunteer 

Ira S. Jump, veteran volunteer. 

William Jones. 

Henry C. King, discharged October 19, 1882. 

Henry Kloon, discharged August 29, 1862. 

James H. Lowi-y, veteran volunteer; wounded in head at Chancellors- 
ville, Virginia, May 2, 1863 

James Larkins. 

Ezra Lee , 

Alonzo McCord, discharged March 14, 1863. 

George W. Minus, drowned April 18, 1862. while on duty 

George H. Malloy , 

Rufus Norton, discharged June 9, 186:1. 

Henry W. Opfer, discharged July 2, 1862. 

Henry Opfer, killed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. July :i, 18ta 

Cyrrance A. Peck, discharged Septiamber 12, 1802. 

Sterling H. Post, veteran volunteer. 

Benjamin Pease, veteran volunteer. 

Benjamin Pronto, veteran volunteer. 

Anson Pease, veteran volunteer. 

Myron B. Run.van, veteran volunteer. 

-Alexander .M. Richards, discharged November 16, 1862 

Jonathan Smith, veteran volunteer, wounded at Chancellorsville, Vir- 
ginia, in the band. 



Horace Smith, dieil February -M. 1803. 

Jedediah D. Smith, veteran volunteer. 

Ambrose D. Smith, discharged July 13. IStii. 

Robert Scott, veteran volunteer: wounded at Chancellorsviile. Virgin 

throirgh hip and leg. 
Edward Sharp 
William E. Sperart 
Jolm W. Saftmau 

Frederick J. Slatterie. discharged November 15, lS(i-V 
Ulartiu Van Sickles, transferreil to Vetei-an Reserve Corps, 
(ieorne Winklepliek, discharged November 16, 18Ba. 
Johu Winklepliek. veteran volunteer. 
Allen A. Winters veteran volunteer. 
Havid Williams, discharged March 19, IStiS. 
Frank Wyatt, veteran volunteer. 
Mahlon T. Lambert, promoted Sergeant Major. October '^.5, I86I . 

.t Norwalk, Ohio, December 31, 18U1. Mustered 
t at Louisville, Kentucky. July 10. 1.16.). 

Captain Ira C. Terry, resigned October 31, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Richard Patrick, resigned June 10, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Hartwel) Osborn, promoted Captain August 4. 1863. 


First Sergeant Nelson H. Nicholas, discharged January 1, 1863. 

Sergeant Benjamin F. Erans. promoted to Captain April 24, 1865. 

Sergeant Rodney Sanford. died January 14, 1863. 

Sergeant Albert Gage, discharged September 1, 1863. 

Sergeant Robert Fenson, veteran volunteer. 

Corporal Elias Burrough. 

Corporal Mason Catlin, killed in action May 3, 1863. at Chancellorsviile, 

Corporal Hiram W. McGlone. 

Corporal Andrew J. Sykes, promoted Sergeant; veteran volunteer. 
Corporal Russell S. Owen, promoted Sergeant. 
Corporal Joseph Zuber, veteran volunteer. 

Corporal Daniel Sweetland, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
Corporal Henry C Love, died March 14, 1863. 
Musician, Nathan Dancer, died July 13, 1863. 
Musician, Dwight Lee. 
Wagoner. Daniel D. Rogers, discharged July 13, 1863. 


William H. Barber, veteran volunteer 

Lucius Babcock, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 14, 1861. 

Randolph M. Bard, wounded at Chancellorsviile, May 3, 1863, and at the 
second battle of Bull Run, August 3, 1863. 

Jacob F Beck, died July 3, 18G3, of wounds received at Gettysburg, Vir- 

Clark Berry. 

Hiram D. Barber. 

AloDzo D. Barber, veteran volunteer. 

William F. Babcock. 

Henry Brown, discharged March 5, 1863. 

Coleman Brown, discharged January 9, 1864. 

Alonzo B. Burlingham, wounded at Gettysburg July 2, 1863. 

Joseph Coxley, discharged March 18, 1863. 

Frederick A. Corney. 

Charles Clark, veteran volunteer. 

Harvey A. Cross, veteran volunteer. 

Charles A. Carr, veteran volunteer. 

Elisha Cole. 

Sebastian Daha, discharged January 31, 1803. 

Minor L. Day, veteran volunteer. 

Isaac De' Puy, promoted Sergeant; wounded at Chancellorsviile. Vir- 
ginia, May 2. 1863. 

Joseph A. DePuy, veteran volunteer. 

Edmund Franklin, veteran volunteer. 

Warren V. Franklin, veteran volunteer. 

Jerome Franklin, veteran volunteer. 

Burdette Goodell. veteran volunteer 

John Hoyles. 

Frank M. Hunt. 

Henry C Hanford, discharged, March 8, 1863 

Zadock M. Hungerford, ilischarged. September 10, 1803. 

Clin B. Johnson 

William Jenkins. 

Hiram Johnson. 

Brundage Knapp, died, August 13, 1863. 

Jairus Knapp, discharged, March 2, 1863. 

Joel Knapp. discharged, November 1.5, 1862. 

William -Allen Kirsey, discharged, December 3, 1862. 

Gettysburg. Pennsylv 

Luther J. Moore, discharged, December 11, ls63. 

Joseph McConnell. 

John T. McMorris. 

James McConnell discharged, August 3.5, 1863. 

George T. May, veteran volunteer. 

Emerj- Owen, veteran volunteer 

William W. Potter, discharged for wounds. December 33. 

Charles F. Pruden wounded in action at Chancellorsviile 

3 1863. 
Samuel Post, discharged, March 26. 1S63. 
Andrew Reed, discharged July 28, 1863. 
Jerome Robinson, killed in action. May 3, 1863. 
Oscar Rawson died September 4. 1862 of wounds leceiv 
Edgar Richards. 

Zetus Richards died, December 31. 1863. 
Joseph S. Robinson, veteran volunteer. 
Andrew F. Sweetland, wounded in ; 

July 3. 1863. 
Jonathan L. Shamp. 
Johu Sutton, died, July IT 1863. 
Reuben Sutton. 

Jefferson Smith, discharged, July 38. 1863. 
John Sha. veteran volunteer. 
John W. Thorley. 

Amos Turwillinger, discharged, April 16, 1863. 
Loring Walsworth. died, July 2. 1863. 
Peny Walker, wounded in action at Chancellorsviile, Virginia May 3 

William L. Wilson discharged, January 1, 1863. 
Jesse Woodruff, discharged, Decembers 1863. 
John White, discharged, May 20 1862. 


Mustered into service. May 10, 1862. Mustered out of .service. February 

Sergeant James H. Peabody, promoted to First Sergeant March 35, 1863. 
Corporal Perry Flaherty, mustered out with company. 

George H. Harris, captured at Gettysburg, July 1, 1863. 
Samuel Pence, appointed Corporal May 19. 1862; wounded at Chancel- 
lorsviile, Virginia. 
Benjamin Robbins. mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service. November 6, 1861. Re-enlisted, and finally mus- 
tered out December 3, 1865. 

Alonzo Akers. Jasper L. Ruggles. 

Henry H. Clai k . William Rhinemiller . 

Irving Hough . Charles M. Saunders. 
Lloyd A. Manley 

These names do not appear on final muster out roll. They were, 
doubtless, discharged on expiration of original term of enlistment. 
George Stebbins, mustered out with company 


110 VOI.UNTEl 


Second Lieutenant Frank B. Hunt, promoted to First Lie 
8, 1862; resigned November 29. 1863. 

First Sergeant Samuel H. Young Corporal William B Hunt 

Alvin M. Parker. 

James Houston . 

Marshall W. Johnson 

Hiram C. Parker 

Madison Baker, dischiiged Janu 

ary 37, 18U5. 
Theodore Belden . 

Alfred Luin. 
Janus L. .McKihben. 
Henry Moore. 
Sherwood C. Nicholson. 
James H. Packard 
-Abijah Packard, 
.losiah T. Parker. 



JolinF. Buck. 
John W. Chorus. 
Levi Curtiss. 
Alfred C. Ellsworth. 
Schuyler C. Gates. 
Elias Luiu. 

DariasD. Rolf. 

Adam Shanks. 

MedadF. WoodruSE. 

Andrew J. Young. 

Julius C. Young, discharged June 

15, 1883. 
Deoius P. Brown 

Mustered into service with regiment. Mustered out of sei-vi( 


First Sergeant Dolsen Vankirk. Corporal Augustus Keimlin. 

Sergeant John C. Zollinger 
Cori'oral Brewer Smith . 

Adam Apple 

Jacob Binharamer, captured; 

died in Andersonville prison . 
Chris F. E. Blaich 
William Clark. 
Charles Carpenter. 
Martin Casey. 
John C. Earnst 
Lewis Eckhart 
Jacob Fike 
Joseph Fellman . 
John Geideman 

Corporal H. C. Jennings. 
Corporal John MoUaney. 

Theodore Geisey. 
William Kalhorst 
Fred Koegele . 
Henrv Leidkie 
James Murtjv 
Michael Nash 
John T. Nicholai. 
James Nolan. 
George W. Philo. 
John Sullivan. 
J. C. Weidemieir. 
William Walsh. 

William Campbell 
William Hensow. 
James Hensow 

No mi 
at Columbus, Ohio 

Mustered with regiment. 


Randolph J, Loecher 
Peter Wigle 
Henry M. Sprague 
rolls of this regiment (original enlistment. ) are < 



Organized December, 1S61. Mustered out December 31, 1861 


Coiporal Christian Schwartz, promoted Sergeant; woimded July IS, 



Captain Joseph P. Owen, promoted from Corporal of Company K; 
mustered out June 14, 1863. 



Sergeant James J. Banks. 

Corporal Joseph P. Owen, enlisted November 2, 1861 ; wounded in left 
hand at Fort Wagoner, July 18, 1863; promoted to Captain of Com- 
pany F; mustered out June 14, 1865. 

Corporal Henry Clatlin. 

Musician, Roscoe Caselten . 

Homer Akers. 
Lafayette Baird. 
Jonah C. Barton 
Henry H. Gibbs 
Alonzo H. Hopkin.s. 
Jeremiah McFall 
Comfort H. Ruggles, promoted 

l-ATES . 

Edwin Russell. 
Charles Sivers . 
Frank M. Stewart . 
Jolin Turner 
Daniel B. Waggoner. 
John W. Whiddon. 
Eugene Whitney. 

Mustered into service February 18, 1863. Mustered out September 
11. 186.5. 


Captain James Fernald, mustered out with reginienl. 

First Lieutenant William C. Bidle, promoted to Captain and transferred 

to Company E. 
Second Lieutenant John H. Poyer, resigned, December 3, 1862. 


First Sergeant Jacob M Beecher. promoted to First Lieutenant in Sev- 
enty-First United States Colored Infantry April 17. 1864. 

First Sergeant Jonas Stanberry, wounded at siege of Spanish fort, Ala- 
bama; mustered out with company 

Sergeant George Downing, veteran volunteer mustered out with com- 

: with . 


Sergeant William P. Sliilk, veteran volunteer: 

Sergeant George Taylor, veteran volunteer; mustered out with com- 

Corporal Robert Dalzell, veteran volunteer; mustered out with com- 

Coiporal Eliliu Fernald, veteran volunteer, promoted to Sergeant and 
transferred to Company E. 

Musician, Christian Engle, veteran volunteer; discharged August 7, 1865- 


Erasmus H. Andress, not on muster-out roll. 

Sydney Adams, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

John R. Akers, not on the muster-out roll. 

Ebenezer G. Allen, mustered out with company. 

Burel Butman. mastered out with company. 

David Brownell, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Charles Barber, mustered out with company. 

Peter Broms. mustered out with company. 

Lewis C. Clark, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Wilson S. Ci-um, veteran volunteer: discharged August 7, 186,3. 

John Coon. 

John Call. 

Samuel Dailey. 

Eward Daniels, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Willard Dike, discharged December 14. 1864. 

William Davie, discharged December 14, 1864. 

Henry W. Daykin, discharged December 14, 1864. 

Christopher Edwards. 

Erastus Erskin, veteran volunteer; discharged May 13, 1865. 

Henry L. Ewing, dischai-ged June 11, 1864. 

Louis A. Ervin. 

Thomas C. Fernold. 

Hiram B. French. 

Heniy French. 

Eugene Frankenbury, died at Andersonville prison. 

Norman Foster, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

John Franigan. 

Edward B. Fuller. 

Edward Gibbs. 

Nicholas L. Grow. 

John Haughn, discharged December 14, 1864. 

Alfred Haun. 

Charles Haughn, discharged to accept pro:notiou July 10, 1864. 

Francis Higgins. 

James Hageny 

Solomon Hower. 

Charles Harley, veteran volunteei 

J oseph Imhaf . 

David H. James. 

John H. Jefferson. 

Frantz Kromer. 

Charles Kramus. 

Andrew Loughlin. 

JolmV. Ladd. discharged Oetob( 

Comfort M. Lewis. 

Charles Lansen. 

George W. Lewis. 

Rufus W. Lawrence. 

Dennis Lavler 

William H. McEnaliy 

Dennis Mack. 

Philip Mons, died in rebel prison 

Michael McCarty. 

Augustus Mulchey, veteran vohmteer; 

Robert Meek. 

William Perry. 

.lohn D. Plum. 

Calvin R. Porter. 

James L. Porter. 

William Rood. 

William L Roberlson. 

Albert Rice, veteran volunteer; mustei 

.Augustus Rice 

George W Reed . 

George H. Sutherland, discharged Dee 

Erastus Squires. 

Merritt Sestous. 

discharged August 7, 1865. 

volunteer; mustered < 


John C . Steward, discharged bj' 

tember 27, 1864. 
James M. Smith . 
Frederick Schater. 

William Seitt, discharged February 10, 1865 
Henry Sprow. 
Morris Sweet. 
John Shadenck. 
Joseph R. Turner. 
Benjamin Thurlby. 

John D. Turner, veteran volunteer; muster 
Michael Parchner. 
Jonathan Taylor 

of tracture of right ankle, Sep- 

mustered out with company. 

De Witt C. Vance, died of wounds August 8. 1.864. 

Isaac Vanderpool. 

Henry Wile. 

Thomas J. Wright. 

Harrison Warren. 

William H. Walker. 

Mustered with regiment. 


First Sergeant Andrew Meckel, promoted Second Lieutenant in Com- 
pany A, April 29, 1864. 


Frank Mittler, 
Frederick Mittler, 
Lewis Raw, 
John Raw. 
William Roos, 
Charles Smith, 
Henry StuU, 
Louis Schneider, 
Andrew Schumaker, 
Joseph F. Willi, 

Rudolph Dilger, 
Henry Dickman, 
George Filmeier, 
Fridolin Haid, 
Charles Hubbard, 
George Hubbard, 
Martin Killian, 
Frederick Loomis, 
Jacob Lang, 
Rochus Link, 

Peter Zimmerman, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Xo muster-out rolls of original enlistments can be found. 

The names are copied verbatim from the rolls, and the writer will not 

be responsible for errors in spelling. 


Mustered into service June 10, 1862, for three months ; mustered out at 
expiration of term of serrice. 

William A . Barber 
Arthur W. Fitch. 
Samuel P Kenyon 
Thomas Kanaly 

George W. Rickard. 
John C . Schneider 
Kelsey Weeks. 


Private Andrew C, Mavrill. 

;ered into service, July .31, 186J. Mustered out of service, July 3 


First Sergeant Martin L. Coyer. 

Sergeant Isaac P. Baldwin, discharged January 18, 

Corporal Martin M . Ryerson . 

Corporal Russell Prentiss 

Corporal John M. Sloan. 

Clark H. Ames. 

Palmer Amsden. 

Charles 1 Black. 

James Bissell. 

Sylvanus Burch 

Homer Brundage, dischai-ged January 30, 1S64. 

Benjamin Curtit, discharged July 12, 1.S04. 

Wili-onL. Driver. 

Asa Drake, discharged March 14, 186.1 

George Daniels, discharged July 18, 1864 

Hiram Fisher. 

George Fisher. 

Samuel C. Gregory. 

William H. Green, discharged March 18, 186.5. 

Charles Hooper, discharged October 25, 1863. 

Scott Halloway. 

WUliam Hubbell, discharged July 6, 1864. 

GUes W. Jump 

James Jackson . 

John H. Kandall. 

Dallis Lawton. 

Leonard Lane. 

Adam Lootman. 

Elias Mason, discharged July 6, 1864. 

Harrison Mohn . 

Ferdinand Market. 

John S. Pierce. 

Torance D Parker. 

Francis Rice, died January 17, 1864. 

Taylor Sweet. 

MunsonL. Squire. 

EzraH. Smith. 

Nelson Sutton. 

Henry Tice, mustered out with company. 

Samuel Weyenbacher. 

Thomas H. Wood, discharged March 18, 1865. 


ed out of service June 

Surgeon, Thomas M. Cook, mustered into service at Moaroeville, Ohio, 
August 12. 1862; mustered out with regiment. 

Assistant Surgeon, Walter Caswell, resigned July 28, 1863. 

Chaplain, Oliver Kennedy, resigned November 17, 1863. 

Adjutant, Leonard D. Smith, promoted to Captain and assigned to Com- 
pany C May 30, 1863. 

Sergeant Major, Jay C. Smith. enroUed as private in Company B; pro- 
moted Sergeant Major February 14, 1863, and to First Lieutenant, 
Company I, May 9, 1864. 

Hospital Steward, Levi B. Lathrop, discharged April 14 , 1863, at Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, on Surgeon's certificate . 

Hospital Steward, J. Edward Mathews, enroUed as private in Company 
B; promoted to Hospital Steward April 15, 1863. 


Clustered into s 

e at MonroevUle, Ohio, August 30, 1862. Mustered 
out of service at Camp Harker, Tennessee, June 12, 1865 . 


Captain Charles Caligan, resignation accepted December 10, IS&i. 
First Lieutenant Asa R. Hillyer. died January 4, 1863, of wounds received 

at Stone River December 31, 1862. 
Second Lieutenant Daniel H. Fox, promoted First Lieutenant February 

1. 1863; mustered out July 29, 1864, to accept commission as JVIajor 

of the regiment . 


First Sergeant Justus F. Brisack, discharged for disability December 

31, 1.862. 
Sergeant A. Ward Hillyer, discharged for disability Decembei- in, 1862. 
Sergeant David W. Smith, discharged for disabilit3^ March 6, 1863 . 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Brs'ant, promoted to First Lieutenant February 

1, 1863. 
Corporal Andrew A. Jackson, promoted to First Sergeant May 12, 1864. 
Corporal WUlard E. Robbins, discharged for disability April 29, 1863. 
Corporal Horace Hill, dis.'liarged for disability January 6, 1863. 
Corporal James E. Ells mot on muster-out roll) . 
Corporal Gideon D. Webb, discharged tor disability March 27, 1865. 
Corporal Van R. M. Ryan, discharged for disability April 24, 1863. 
Corporal Henry Kingsley, discharged for disability March 10, 1863. 
Corporal Frederick J, JelTerson, promoted to First Sergeant November 

1, 1863; killed at Rocky Face Ridge May 11, 1864. 
Musician, Andrew Clock, transfei red to Veteran Reserve Corps March 

15, 1864. 

Musician, Mathew Park, discharged by order of Secretary of War May 

16, 1865. 

Wagoner, John Buck, discharged for disability March 7. 186:1. 


Delmer Atkinson, discliarged for disability May 2, 1863. 
James Allen, discharged for disability April 3. 186.") 

Julius Austin, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps November 20, 1863. 
Patrick Brady, promoted to Corporal May 1, 1865 

John Base, promoted to Corporal August 1, 1863; prisoner of war since 
September 20, 1863. 


Traven Brady (not on muster-out roll). 

Ransom Barnitt. discharged for disability December 4, 1862. 

Newbury Barker, died at Xashville, Tennessee, December 1, 1862. 

Miles E. Cartwright. died in service August 13, 1864. 

William P. Cleveland, discharged for disability February 12, 1863. 

Lucius A. Challer. died at Nashville. Tennessee. December 21. 1862. 

George P. dieil in serviee April 26. 1864. 

Leon.lrd Chan.e. di.-.l in service May 30. iSm. 

1 C. Dis 


Thomas Earl, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps November 20, 1863. 

Henry Emsberger. died in service November 4, 1862. 

Andrew Evans, discharged for disability March 21, 1883. 

Henry Fish, died in service April 2.5, 1863. 

Charles R. Green, mustered out with company 

Thomas Green, discharged for disability July 1, imi. 

John R. GrifBn. promoted to Corporal February 1, 1863. 

Norman Gregory, killed near Dallas, Georgia, May 30, 1864. 

Cornelius F. Harder. 

John Harriman, mustered out with company. 

Philip F. Henley, discharged for disability March 3, 1863. 

Sidney Hoft, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps November : 

Frederick J. Haller. mustered out with company. 

Albert R. Hill, promoted Corporal September 14, 1862; discharged for 
disability January 31, 1863. 

John W. Hasbrook, discharged for disability in the spring of 1863. 

Abram Inman, died October 5, 1863. of wounds received at Chickamauga 
September 20, 1863. 

Wilbur Kingsley, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps August 1, 1863. 

Abel Kiiapp. promoted Sergeant November 1, 1863: mu.stered out with 
company . 

Enoch H. Kilburn. transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March ", 1864. 

John King, promoted Sergeant May 1.1S6.5; mustered out with company. 

George Lameron. killed at Chickamauga September IS. 1863. 

Alpho Lowe, Jr., died at Louisville. Kentucky. June 14. 1S64. 

William M. Jliner. transferred to Engineer Corps August r, 1864. 

John McGraw, discharged July 14, 1864. 

James S. Moody, not on muster out roll 

Harman H. Martin, prisoner of war since September 20. 1863. 

James Marks, not on muster out roll. 

William L. McPherson, died of wounds received at Chickamauga, Octo- 
ber 13. 1863. 

Amos W Polly, discharged for disabiUty May 17, 1S63. 

Samuel A, Pike, died in serviee September, 1802. 

Cyrus B. Prosser. died of wounds received at Stone River, January 12, 

Edwin Bunyan, killed at Stone River, December 31, 1862 

John L. Riggs, died in service, January, 1?63 

George P. Raidart, not on muster out roll. 

William H. Russell, transferred to navy, April 15, 1864. 

Oliver HP Springer, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, March 1. 



Lovell R. Simmons, not on n: 

Gersham R. Staunton, not on muster out roll. 

Benjamin F. Strong, discharged for disability May 5, 1864. 

Joseph Scott. 

Joel Sear!, died in service April 3, 1863 

John Stimson, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 14, 1864 

John Smith, discharged for disability January 4, 1S64. 

William W, Shanger. transferred to Engineer Corps August 7, 1864. 

Marquis D. Stephens, transferred per General Order, No. ll. 

Chailes A Turner, transferred to Mississippi Marine Brigade January 

Isaac Vasburg. discharged for disability. January 1, 1863. 
Vanscoy Vanrenssalaer. discharged for disabilit.v, winter of 1863. 
Albert Whitney, promoted to Corporal May 1, 1865. 
John Williams, discharged tor disability June, 1863. 
Harmon G. Webster. Iransfen-ed to Veteran Reserve Corps, November 

28. 1863. 
Daniel Webster, died in service February 3, 1863 
Alpheus Welch, discharged for disability November, 1862. 
Samuel J. Wilson, missing in action at Chickamauga. September 19, 

Marvin Wooden, died in service, January 12, 1865. 
George Young, discharged by order of Secretary of War, March 11 

18)3, to enlist in 9Ii$sis<ippi Marine Brigade. 



Captain Thomas C. Fernald, resigned on account of disability January 

25. 1863. 
First Lieutenant Stephen P. Beckwith. promoted to Captain Februarj- 

1, 1863; resigned November .30, 1864, by reason of disability 
Second Lieutenant Otis L Peck, dishonorably discharged January 2.5. 


First Sergeant John M l:ull-r. |.i-'!noted First Lieutenant January 25, 

1863; resigned 1'. . ■ mi. r .:. i- ; 
Sergeant Charles E Sfich ,!K.I,.n-ed for disability Februarj- 14. 186:i. 
Sergeant Jay C. Butler, j r .lii .r.-l Secnd Lieutenant Januaiy 25. 1863, 

to First Lieutenant Mai-ch en lsi;4, and to Captain March 16. 1865. 
Sergeant James Gordon, discharged for disability March 8. 186^3. 
Sergeant Simeon Huntington, wounded at Stone River; died by reason 

of the same January I'J, 1863. 
Corporal Alonzo R, Sharp, discharged for disability June 1. 1863. 
Corporal Henry J. BIy. discharged for wounds received at Stone River, 

February 17, 1863. 
Corporal Joshua B Davis, transferred to First U. S. Engineers July 29, 

Corporal William D. Taylor, promoted Sergeant January 25, 18*>4 ; mus- 
tered out with company. 
Corporal Francis L. Pease, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 

6. 1864. 
Corporal William B. Bice, promoted to Sergeant January 25. IS(i3 
Corporal Jacob Merkley. mustered out with company. 
Corporal John W. Ward, discharged for disability March 8, 1863 
Musician. George W Hill, died at Perry ville. Kentucky. November 12. 

Wagoner, William P. Barton, mustered out with company. 


Harper Austin, mustered out with company. 

Seth A, Barton, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 4, 1864. 

William Burrell, died in serviee January 28. 

Allen ?I. Curran. promoted Sergeant January 25. 1863. 

William H. Carpenter, discharged lor disability January 15, 1S63. 

Edwin Clatlin, dischartted Aijril 3. lSfi.5. by reason of accidental wound. 

Robert CuUen, mustered out with ecimpany. 

Wilbur F. Cowles, promoted In Fiist Sergeant January 25.1863; cap- 
tured at battle of Chickamauga. 

William H. Colvell, transferred to Marine Corps, May 3, 1863. 

John W. Dodge, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps February 4, 

Milton C. Dodge, missing in battle of Chickamauga, September SO, 1863. 

Simeon A. Davis, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps May 3, 1861 

Charles B. Dennis, mustered out with company . 

Henrj- M. Elwood. discharged for disability, December 20, 1862. 

Sidney W. Faxon, discharged for disability, January 28, 1863. 

James C. Fitch, discharged for disabiUty, 3Iay 29, 1865. 

Amos W. Fox. transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, July 1, 1863. 

Alfred Foreman, discharged for disability, January 14, 1863 

Theodore Ford, wounded at the battle of Chickamauga, Tennessee, 
September 19, 1863. 

Alfred Grant, discharged for disability, February 24, 186;). 

Leonard Ciay. discharged for disability, January 10, 1863. 

James Glin, died in service. November 5, 1862. 

Charles Gross, transferred to Veteran Resene Corps, (date unknown; 

Alexander C. Hosmer. transferred to Company A to receive promotion 
as Second Lieutenant. 

William L. Hutton. discharged for disability. October 7, 1863 . 

Jerome Holly, died May 8. 1803. 

Harrison J. Hammond, died in service February 14, 186:3 

Francis Houseman, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, March 18, 

Orlando Holly, died in serviee, November 8, 1862. 

Albert Hinman, discharged by reason of wounds received at Stone 
River, (no date 1. 

Smith Harrington, discharged for disability, February 24, 1863 

David Hinds, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, (no date given). * 

Oliver Holbrook. discharged for disability. March 10. 1863 

.Martin Ingles, died in service, December 9. 1863, 

Philip Hunz. mot on muster out roll). 

Emmett Lincoln, transferred to marine service, (date not given). 

CJeorge W. Littleton, mustered out with company. 

James H. Laden, discharged for disability. April 7, 1863. 

George W. Ladd. promoted Sergeant January 25, 1863. 

.lustus Lulirs. promoted to Corporal June 1, 1864. 

( liai I - Mri.i tti,-an, transferred to Veteran Rererve Corps, May 3, 1864 

I I ; ' 1 1 istered out with company. 

I li I I li.ill. discharged February 28, 1863, by reason of wounds 
I— n.-! a: River. 

William 31eachani, mustered out with company 

.John F. Miller, died May 26, 1884, from wounds 

J Edward Matthews, promoted to Hospital Steward. April 14. 1863. 

Charles D Pierce, discharged for disability, .lune 11, 186:3. 

Edwin C Pomeroy. diedjune:30. 1864, from wounds received at Chatta- 
nooga. Tennessee . 

Oscar Pertschman. promoted to Corporal March 1, 1865. 

Henry B. Penfield, discharged for disability, December :30, 1863 

William R Pope, discharged March 12, 18frl, by reason of wounds re- 
ceived at Chickamauga. 

Theodore Rebadiie. prisoner of war. 

History of huron and erie counties, ohio. 

Aden Rice, Clerk ai Headquarters Fourth Army Corps, mustered out 

with cotupany. 
Jay C. Smith, promoted Sergeant Major, January 4, 181)3. 
Robert St-hetb, mustered out with company , 
Charles Shupe, prisoner of war, no record of discharge. 
Orange Seamans. discharged for disability, January 9, 1863. 
Bradford J. Seavery, mustered out with company. 
Ralph E. Taylor, discharged for disability, October9, 1863. 
David W. Thompson, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps September 

20, 1863. 
Royal H. Tucker, discharged for disability May 29, 1865. 
Joseph Terril, captured Septemper20, 1863, and died from starvation in 

rebel prison April 1, 180.5. 
Joel S. Wolvcrton, discharged for disability December 30, 1802. 
Daniel Wood, discharged for disability January r, 1804. 
Michael Wood, discharged for disability December 30, 1803. 
Anton Wauck, discharged for disability December 30, 1863. 
Henry O. Wright, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. (No date 

Samuel G. Wright, discharged for disability December 30, 1863. 
Dustin Washburn, transferred to U. S. Engineers August 29, 1864. 
Jacob Young, promoted Corporal March 1, 1865; mustered out with 

Jacob M Zimmerman, died in rebel prison January 9, 1864. 
Robert Sankey, died at Nashville, Tennessee. (No dale given) 


Mustered into service August 30, 1861, at Monroeville, Ohio. Mustered 
out of service J une 12, 1865, in Tennessee . 


Captain H. G. Sheldon, resigned by reason of disability January 28, 1803. 
First Lieutenant J. B. Curtis, resigned by reason of disability January 

2, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant J. M. Lattimer. Jr., promoted First Lieutenant March 

5, 1863, and to Captain March 21, 1863: mustered out with company. 


First Sergeant Manferd D. Sloeum, transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps August 1, 1863. 

Sergeant G. W. Payne, discharged March 28, 1863. 

Sergeant Ira Beman Reed, promoted to First Lieutenant Maich 21, 1863, 
and to Captain March 29, 1864; assigned to Company E. 

Sergeant John D. Blair, killed at Chickamauga, September 19, 1863. 

Sergeant Dutton Jones, discharged September 9, 1863. 

Corporal Elbert J. Squire, promoted to First Lieutenant March 29, 1864; 
captured near Huntsville, Alabama, January IT, 1865. 

Corporal Charles E. Marsh, discharged December 28, 186J. 

Corporal Enos L. Marsh, discharged by reason of wounds May 9, 1863. 

Corporal Jerome G. Gibson, discharged January 7, 1863. 

Corporal Justus N. Brown, mustered out with company. 

Corporal George N. Mead, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps Feb- 
ruary 15, 1864. 

Corporal Minor Lawrence, discharged March 28, 1863 

Luzerne Amsden, discharged March 23, 1864. 

Duane Austin, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps August 10, 1804 

Jacob M. Abbott, died at Nashville, Tennessee, January 25, 1863 

Clark Barber, died at Louisville, Kentucky, July 7, 1863. 

Charles F. Brewster, discharged April 2\ 1803. 

William R. Bell, discharged March 13, 1863. 

Egbeit 31. Burgess, died at Louisvdle, Kentucky, December 3, 1863. 

Charles C. Bacon, died at Nashville, Tennessee, January 1, 1863. 

Frederick G. Brown, discharged February 3, 1864. 

Delas Bishop, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps August 1, 1863. 

Joseph L. Bishop, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, Nc 

Alonzo F. Bishop, discharged April 27, 1865. 

William \V. Conover, discharged February 3, 1863. 

Chester H. Carpenter, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 

15, 1864. 
Enoch Cole, mustered out May 16, 1865. 
George W, Curtiss, discharged January 13, 1803 
Jotham A. Curtiss, died August 15, 1804, of wounds received in action 

near Kenesaw Knob, Georgia . 
John H. Crawford, captured at Chickamauga September 20, 1803 
E. W. Cunningham, discharged June 22, 186;!. 
George F. Drake, discharged July 15, 1863. 

William L. Dickinson, died at Louisville, Kentucky, December 12, 1802. 
William S. Denton, died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, June 26, 18&4. 
Henry G. Dills, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps September 30 1863 
Constantine Frank, died at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, May 31, 1863* 
George W. Fish, died at Gashville. Tennessee, January 5, 1863. 
12 A 

Edward P. Fowler, mustered out with company. 

Myron H. Furlong, discharged February 10. 1803 . 

Leroy L. Guthrie, mustered out May 15, 1865. 

Charles A. Gowdy, died at Bardstown, Kentucky. December 8, 1862. 

G. W. Goodman, discharged February 6, 1863. ~ 

Hamilton Wilson, promoted to Corporal May 1. 1803; discharged August 

24, 1804. 
James HoUoway. mustered out with company. 
George Hunt, discharged February 9, 1863. 

George N. Hubbell, promoted to First Sergeant September 20, 1803. 
Thaddeus Hackett, discharged March 2.5. 1804. 
W. W. Hopkins, mustered out with company. 

Janus H. Hopkins, died at Bowling Green, Kentucky. December 4, 1S02. 
John N. Hopkins, died at .Murfreesboro, Tennessee. June 15, 1803. 
E. M. Hume, discharged February 9, 1803. 

Eugene Hawkes, captured at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863. 
John W. Johnson, mustered out May 17. 1805. 
Flavel B. Jones, killed in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 

19, 1863. 
George N. Keeler, mustered out with company. 
Corydon Kingsbury, promoted to Sergeant March 1, 1804 
Simeon W. Kinsey, mustered out with company. 
William Leak, mustered out with company 
Ge rge Lawrence, transferred to Veteran Corps, April 29. 1864 
George A. Lawrence, mustered out with company. 
E. E. Lyons, discharged December 13, 1863. 
George E. Mattoon, mustered out with company. 
William F. Merit, died at Danville, Kentuckj', November 12, 1862. 
Charles H. Mead, promoted to Sergeant May 1, 1864. 
Henry M. Newton, promoted to Sergeant May 1, 1803. 
Charles Pickens, died of wounds received at Stone River, January 1 , 1803 
Charles Penfield, discharged on account of wounds. May 4, 1863. 
-\lbert Palmer, mustered out with company. 
D. G. Palmer, mustered out May 22, 1865. 
Job Peterson, mustered out with company. 
Charles B. Rose, mustered out with compay 
Erastus S. Russell discharged February 14, 1803. 
John H Rickey, died of wounds June 23, 1864. 

Watson W. Rowland, died .January 31, 1863, at Nashville, Tennessee. 
Levi O.Rowland, discharged February 15, 1864. 
Samuel L. Smith, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 10, 

George H. Sowers, promoted Sergeant May 1. 1804. 
William H. Snyder, discharged December 28, 1802. 
Charles Scott, killed in action at Kingston, Georgia, May 19. 1864. 
John C. Sprague, discharged i ebruary 14. 180:^ 
Orrin S. Sutton, mustered out with company . 

Luther L. Terry, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. February 5. 1864. 
James E. Terry, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, February 15. 

Hiram N. Townsend, discharged March 7, 1863. 
William H. Trnmbley, discharged March 8, 1863. 
Jacob Trusell, Jr., discharged December 12, 1863. 
Homer Truxell, discharged February 14, 1863 
Merit WycofE, disharged January 10, 1863. 
William C. Wyekes, promoted to Corporal May 1, 1864; mustered out 

with company 
Samuel C. White, died of wounds received at Chickamauga, Georgia, 

September 20 1863 
W. J. Washbnrne, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, September 30, 

Lemuel Wood, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. January 15, 1864. 
Jesse W. Bell, discharged February 7, 1863. 


i Lieutenant Colonel, to date January 

Captain John Messei', prt 

3. 1863; resigned January T, 1864. 
First Lieutenant John P. Fleming, promoted Captain May 23, 1863; mus 

tered out with company. 
Second Lieutenant Horace D. Olds, promoted to Firet Lieutenant May 

27, 188;3; discharged December 25, 1804, to accept promotion in First 

United States Volunteer Veteran Engineer Corps 


First Sei-geant William H. Van Ness, discharged October 26, ISSJ. 

Sergeant .\mbrose B. C. Dunman. captured September 19. 1863. 

Sergeant Jonathan Cooke, transferred to First United States Volunteer 
Veteran Engineer Coips August 7, 1864 . 

Sergeant George W. Flemmg, discharged March 4, 1803. 

Corporal Squire A. Butler, promoted to First Sergeant May 3, 1804; mus- 
tered out with company 

niSTOKY OF lirnOK and EHIE counties, OHIO. 

Corporal George Jloi-doff, promoteil to Sergeant July 'J. 1NI14; mustered 

out with company . 
Corporal Isaac C. Capen, promoted to Sergeant March 4. 18t53; killed in 

battle September 19, 1863. 
Corjjoral Francis M. Miller, discharged October 17, 1862. 
Corporal George L. Smith, died December 4. 1802. 
Corporal Jasper F. Webster, promoted to Second Lieutenant May 3, 

1864, and to First Lieutenant February I, 1S65; mustered out with 

company . 
Corporal John White, promoted to Sergeant October 15, 1863; mustered 

out with company . 
Musician, Rhoderick Russell, discharged March 26, 1863 

Franklin Andrews, promoted to Corporal March 1, 
Emerson Andrews, mustered out with company. 
Squire Abbott, mustered out with company. 
He = ry E. Burahauk, not on muster out roll . 
Isaac Baldwin, died June 12. 1803. 
David S. Barber, discharged February 21, 1863. 
Oliver W. Beuschootei-. died December 28, 1,862. 
Albert A. Blair, mustered out with company. 
James C. Burkholder, transferred to Veteran Re; 

Corps, May 27. 


Walter C. Beardsley. captured September 19, 1863. 

Oliver JI. Butler, mustered out with company 

Marcus Ci-annell, wounded December 1.5, 1804: mustered out with com- 

John Daniels, died February 19, 1803 

Hezekiah S. Drake, promoted Corporal March 1, 1805 

John J. Dunning, discharged July 10, 1863. 

William Dunham, killed at Kenesaw Mountain, June 2.5, 1804 

Floron Dalzell, died January 28, 1803. 

Henry E. Dwight, mustered out with company 

Henry D. Fisher, mustered out with company 

Alpha B. Falley, discliarged June 23, 1803 

George L. Fowler, promoted Sergeant July 1, 1804: mustered out with 
company . 

Ralph G. Fuller, mustered out with company, 

James Ford, transferred to .Mississippi Marine Brigade March 11, 1803. 

Alfred Ford, discharged for wounds May 13, 1805. 

Peter Greiner, transferred to Signal Corps October 22, 1803. 

Oliver Gardner, mustered out with company. 

Daniel W Harris, mustered out with company. 

George Hewett, killed at the battle of Stone River January 5, 1.863 

Oeorge Hoover, mustered out with company. 

Jacob Hay, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps May 3, 1804 . 

William Hutchinson, killed in battle of Nashville, Tennessee, December 
.5, 1804. 

Malacbi Humphrey, discharged for wounds May 85, 1865 

Daniel B. Higgius, mustered outwith company. 

Miles E Hale, discharged January 31. 1803. 

Edgar F. Horn, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. (No date) . 

.Alha H..>VHy. mustered out with company. 

I' lii' H 'V ^ t. a nsferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. (Nodate). 

-1 ' t, :: t I littered out with company. 

i- 1 .-,1, 1 1. i. 111. ml,, mustered out with company. 

Ben,)amm ,lones, mustered outwith company 

Peter Landin, discharged February 7, 1863 

Laban D. Lowry, discharged December 1), 1803. 

Charles Long, mustered outwith company, 

Alexander Lewis, died December 2, 1862. 

Charles D. Morehouse, discharged February 28, 1804 

Curtis B. Mullenox, killed in battle of Stone River January 2, 1803. 

Andrew Meikle killed in battle of Stone River January 2, 1803. 

Francis Magill, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Lafayette Miller, transferred to Engineer Corps August 7, 1864. 

Daniel Myers, mustered out with company 

Andrew J. Miller, promoted Corporal March 1, 1805, 

William Munson, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps April 10, 1864. 

George B. Morse, promoted Corporal January 1, 1805. 

Leroy Mullenox. died fi-om wounds July 25, 1864. 

Lewis Osborn, died in Libby Prison December 14, 1803 

Stephen Paxton, promoted Corporal May 10, 1803; mustered out with 
company . 

James J. Pike, discharged Januaiy 6, 1864. 

David Plue, promoted Corporal July 1, 1864; mustered out with com- 

John Russet, nuistered out with company. 

Charles Russet, mustered out with company. 

Giles W Ray, promoted Corporal July 1. 1864. 

Horace V. Ramsdell, discharged of wounds March 11. 1863. 

L.vraan B. Russell, mustered out with company. 

Almon W. Sherman, mustered out with company. 
Elisha D Smith, discharged June 4. 1864. 

Russell Sanders discharged August 1.5, 1863. 

Oeorge W Shaffer, died June 19, 18IM. 

Alfred Sutton, mustered out with eomiiany. 

DeWitt Thompson, nmstered out with company. 

Martin V. Wilbur, discharged for wounds March 27, 1805. 

John D Wheat, mustered out with company. 

Madison E. Wells, promoted Sergeant .Fuly 1, 1804: mustered out with 

George W. Wheat, discharged February 4, 1863 
Andrews Bradley, starved to death in Andei'sonville prison, September 

24, 1864: captured September 23, 1863, 


Mustered in o service September 9 1862. at Cleveland, Ohio. Mustered 
out of service July 10, 1865, at Charleston, South Carolina. 

First Sergeant Henry Bernhard. discharged March 2, 1863. 
Sergeant George Beck, missing in action at Gettysburg July 1, 1863. 
Sergeant Justus Thornberg promoted First Lieutenant: woundt d May 

2, 1863. 
Sergeant Carl Groesli, discharged December 22, 1862. 
Sergeant Leopold Weinman, mustered out with company. 
Corporal John Becker, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Frederick Frey, promoted Sergeant March 5, 1803: mustere 

out with compaii,v. 
Corporal Charles Wahlei-. wounded in action July 1. 1863. 
Corporal Henry RodiT. imistcrt-d ,,iit with company. 
Corporal Henry Frt-.v. .Ii.d N-i 1, 1802. 
Corporal Joseph Fels.^cliaiv^t.-d U>i wounds May 27, 1864. 
Musician, Stephen Scliuun-. mustered out with company. 
Wagoner. ,Josei)h Bleier, mustered out with compan.v. 

Herman Breunniy, discliarged April, 1863. 

Jacob Bretz. died October 8, 1863. 

T. Xavier Buerge. mustered outwith company. 

Augustin Berzikafer. mustered out with company. 

Jacol- Beecher. mustered out with company. 

John Bueher, mustered outwith company. 

Frederick Biehl, captured at Gettysburg: eight months a prisoner. 

Adam Bergheeler. promoted Corporal: mustered out with company 

John Becker, wounded at Gettysburg; promoted Corporal. 

John Breil. died May 14, 1865. 

Frederick Busch, mustered out with company. 

Joseph Bishop, died December 31, 1802, 

Andrew Bengel, killed in action March 2, 1803. 

John Ernst, transferred to Veteran Reserve CoriJS September 26, 18ii3. 

John Ensdorff, promoted to Sergeant October 1, 1864; mustered out 

with company 
Charles Frauck, mustered out with company. 
John G. Fott, mustered out with company. 
Charles Gerdes, mustered out with company. 
Edward Gessler, mustered out with company. 
Edward Giteman, mu.stered out with company. 
Joseph Hormes, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, by reason of 

George Helmech, killed in action July 2, 186:3 . 
Henrj' Hossle, mustered out with compan.y. 
William Heinzman, not on muster out roll 
William Hacker, missing at Gettysburg, July 1. 1":03. 
Martin Indlekofer, died June 19, 1865. 
John Kastor, mustered out with company 
Charles Krumbholz, not on muster out roll . 
Henry Klappel, promoted Corporal March 1, 1804. 
Anton Lung, mustered out with company. 
Ferdinand Loeblein. killed in action May 2, 1803. 
Alphonse J. Leffler, not on muster out roll . 
Frank Mangin. mustered out with company. 
John Moos, mustered out with company . 

Jacob G. Miller, absent, sick, when company was mustered out. 
Conrad 5IK-I- ]••:•■ I'l i^ Corporal March 1, 1864; wounded May 2, 

1 Reserve Corps May 20, 1863 

August 51 ■ - ■ 'I 1 

Joseph 51nrll. I iiiii~ir i.l .nit with company. 

Frank Newber^er, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps May 20, 1863. 

Gustav Phillips, promoted to Corporal November 24, 1862: wounded in 

action May 2, 1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps August 

22, 1804 . 
Peter Reader, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. JIarch 5. 1864, by 

reason of wounds. 
Peter Reis, died from wounds July 10. 1863. 
August Raber, died of wounds August 2, 18t>3. 
Nicholas Rimel. died in Libby Prison. 
Henry Ross, mustered out with company . 
John Surreu. transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps February 1, 1804. 


William Siieider, promoted to Principal Musician. 

Adam Schaub, wounded in action IMareh 1, ISiJi; mustered out with 

Valentin Sheidler, not on muster out roll. 

John Schomer, mustered out with company. 

John Smith, not on muster out roll. 

Christian Thomas, mustered out with company 

Wendel Viethauer, not on muster out roll. 

Jacob Walter, wounded in action May a, 1863;. mustered out with com- 

Garret Walter, missing in action July 1, 1863. 

Anthony Wintersteller, not on muster out roll . 

Jacob Zuber, not on muster out roll. 


Mustered into ser\-ice September !i, 1862, Cleveland, Ohio. Mustered 
out of service July 10. 186.5, at Charleston, South Carolina. 

Sergeant Edward Reitz, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant William Bowers, promoted to First Lieutenant, Company B, 

April 23, 1865. 
Otto Shick, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Andrew Myers, captured at Gettysburg, Jul.y 1, 1863; mustered 

out with company. 
Corporal George A. Wise, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Romig, wounded at Gettysburg; discharged May 21, 1861. 
Corporal Henry Setzler, wounded at Chancellorsville: transferred to 

Veteran Reserve Corps . 
Wagoner, Joseph Myers, mustered out with company 


Amos Arbogast, mustered out with company. 

Philip Buliong, mustered out with company . 

Jacob Bauman, died February 4, 1863. 

WiUiam H. Bauman, died December 2, 1863. 

Harry Baursax, promoted Corporal September .«, 1862: mustered out 
with company . 

Samuel Cane, mustei ed out with company . 

George Denhart, captured at ChancellorsviUe. 

Jacob Egli, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps November 28, 1863. 

Martin Gross, wounded at Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps September 1, 1863. 

Joseph Gruner, mustered out with company. 

Nicholas Huther, mustered out with compiny. 

Christopher Heer, mustered out in hospital (no date). 

Christiau F. HiUhvein, promoted Sergeant July 1, 1863; mustered out 
with company. 

Melchoir Kechely, mustered out with company. 

James W. Myers, mustered out with company. 

George Metz, died of wounds June 2. 1863. 

Conrad Metz, promoted Corporal March 5, 1863 ; mustered out with com- 

Frederick Metz, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 16, 1864. 

Phihp Oakleaf, promoted to Corporal December 4, 1862; died January 
2, 1863. 

Philip Ohlemacher, mus:ered out with company. 

Franklin B. Price, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March 2, 1864. 

John Parker, mustered out with company. 

Alphonse Reamer, captured at Gettysburg; mustered out with company. 

PhiUp Raw, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 16, 1S64. 

George Roedersdorf . mustered out with company . 

Philip Seel, promo:ed Corporal January 1, 1864; mustered out with com- 

Michael Seitz, wounded at Gettysburg, July 1, 1863; transferred to Vete- 
ran Reserve Corjis March 2, 1864 . 

John Soulter, died June 3, 1863. 

Joseph Sneider, died April 10, 1863. 

Peter Frautmau, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corp.s January 16, 1864. 

Joseph Weis, wounded at Gettysburg; transferred to Veteran Reserve 

Peter Weilnan, died June 7, 1863. 

John W. Weisenheimer. transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Simon Yeager. captured February .5, 1863; paroled, and at Annapolis, 
Maryland, when company was mustered out. 

Mustered into service September 3, 1862, at Camp Toledo, Ohio. Mus- 
tered out of service June 27, 1863, at Salisbury, North Carolina. 


Sergeant Charles Baker, promoted to Second Lieutenant, Company K, 

May 1, 1864. 
Corporal Gemira G. Burton, luustered out in hospital (no date). 
Corporal Henry Vanbuskirk, mustered out with company. 
Corporal John R. Ramsej', discharged (no date) . 
Musician, Janus Current, died June 29, 1864 

William H. Arling, discharged at Louisville, Kentucky (no date). 

Robert Long, mustered out with company . 

Jacob Parker, not on muster out roll. 

Joseph A. Porter, mustered out with company . 

Edward Sibrell, mustered out with company. 

John Soanlen, discharged January 10, 1865. 

John StoU, mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service September 5, 1,862, Mustered out of service with 


Sergeant Patrick F. Dalton, promoted to Second Lieutenant in Company 

H, Aprils, 1865. 
Corporal Philip Mathia, wounded at Franklin, Tennessee, November 30, 

1864; discharged from hospital at Columbus, Ohio (no date). 

George W. Crowell, promoted to Second Lieutenant, Forty-Eighth 

U. S. C. I., January 2, 1865. 
Richard K. Dalton, died at Bowling Green. Kentucky, November 23, 1862. 
Silas Dymond, mustered out with company. 

Frederick S. Story, died at Bowling Green, Kentucky, November 21, 1862. 
Orrison Smith, discharged from hospital (no date). 
John Tuekerman, severely injured by railroad disaster near Gallatin, 

Tennessee, March, 1863, while in line of his duty as train guard. 


Mustered into service September 24, 1862, at Monroeville, Ohio. Mus- 
tered out of service June 12. 1865. at Camp Chase, Ohio. 


Captain Horace Kellogg, promoted to Major April 6, 1863, aud to Lieu- 
tenant Colonel December 14, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

First Lieutenant John Fitz Randolph, promoted !to Captain March 6, 
1863; mustered out with regiment. 

Second Lieutenant Caleb Dayton Williams promoted to First Lieuten 
ant March 6, 1863; killed in action July 18, 1864. 


First Sergeant George Joseph Frith, wounded in action at Winchester, 
Virginia, June 13, 1863; died June 20, 1863. 

Sergeant Eugene Smith, promoted to First Sergeant; prisoner at Rich- 
mond, Virginia, from June 15 to July 15, 1863; mustered out in hos- 

Sergeant Benjamin F. Blair, promoted to Captain, and transferred to 
Compan.v K May 27, 1865. 

Sergeant Harris E. Smith, promoted to First Lieutenant in Thirteenth 
U. S C. A. January 9, 186:3. 

Sergeant George A. Drake, prisoner of war at Richmond, Virginia, from 
June 13 to July 13. 1863. No date of discharge. 

Corporal Ira D. Wells, wounded in action at Hatcher's Run, Virginia, 
March 31. 1865. 

Corporal George Buskirk, wounded at Winchester, Virginia, June 13, 
1863. Discharged November 19. 1863. 

Corporal William H. Thomas, promoted to Second Lieutenant in the 
One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh United States Colored Troops, 
March 13. 1863. 

Corporal Samuel B. Caldwell, prisoner of war from June 13, to July 15, 

Corporal Edward L. Husted. prisoner from June 15 to July 15, 1863. 

Corporal Ezra A. Wait, discharged Decembers, 1863. 

Cori^oral William G. Ailing, discharged in hospital. 

Corporal Josiali R. Fisher, wounded at Winchester, Virginia, June 13, 
1862; discharged July 14, 1S64 

IMusiciau, Joseph Sallalanil, mustered out with company. 

Musician George Williams, mustered out with company 

Nelson Armstrong, promoted to Corporal ; no date given ; mustered out 

with company . 
Malvern H. Barnhart, died at Winchester, Virginia, May 12, 1863. 
Albert Blish, captured June 15, 1863; dischai-ged in hospital. 
Enoch L. Birdseye. promoted to Corporal; uo date; mustered out with 

Albert Burch, mustered out with company. 
John Y'. Benfer, captured June 15, 1863; discharged in hospital. 
Anson T. Bowen; discharged June 21, I8tM. 

Edwin J Beverstock, promoted to Hospital Steward September 1, 1861. 
William Barliite. promoted Corporal September 26, 1862; captured June 

15, 1863. 


OiTin G. Bond, mustered out with eompany . 

Stanley F. Bond, starved to death at Andersonville prison, August 16, 

1864. by order of Jeff. Davis. 
Jehlle Castle, discharged in hospital. 

Elijah S Conger, killed in battle at Winchester, Virginia, June 13, 186-3. 
Henry S. Clapp, promoted to Second Lieutenant in Nineteenth United 

States Colored Troops. August 11. 1864. 
IriwngCole, wounded in actional Winchester, Virginia, June 1.3, 1863: 

right arm amputated: discharged October 3. 18B4. 
Judson Castle, discharged in hospital. 

William C. Cummings, captured June 15, 1863: discharged in hospital. 
Richard Evans, died of woun ds July 10, 1863. 
Michael Freund, discharged in hospital. 
Reuben Fox, captured June 15, 1863 ; discharged in hospital. 
Amos Fo.x, captured June 15, 1863; discharged in hospital. 
Jordon Fox, discharged in hospital. • 
John L. Greggs, died April 39, 1863. 

Emanuel F. Goodell, captured June 15, 1S63; discharged in hospital. 
Serah Godfrey, discharged in hospital. 

Andros J. Gilbert, captured June 15, 1863: mustered out with company. 
Elmer E. Husted, mustered out with regiment as First Lieutenant and 

Rufus T. Holcomb, died .August, 1863. 
Palmer D. Hatch, discharged in hospital . 
Benjamin Holcomb. died of wounds July 3, 1863, 
Philip A. Hoffman, captured June 15, 1863; discharged in hospital. 
Ezra A. Hoffman, captured June 15, 1863; discharged from hospital. 
William W. Hill, captured June 15, 1863: discharged in hospital, 
Ebenezer B. Harrison, discharged in hospital. 
Henry C. Hicks, discharged in hospital. 

Louis Kutcher, captured June 15, 1863; discharged in hospital. 
George Kutcher, captured June 15, 1863. 
Leonard Keller, killed in action June 13, 1863. 
Francis Little, discharged (records lost). 
Solon Lane, discharged in hospital. 

Noyes S. Lee, captured June 15, 1863: discharged in hospital. 
William Lett.s, discharged in hospital . 
Alfred W. Miller, discharged in hospital 
Uriah Mogg, captured June IS, 1863; discharged in hospital. 
William Mann, captured June 15, 1863; discharged in hospital. 
Sylvanus A. Messeldine, discharged in hospital . 
Albert T. Nye, discharged in hospital . 
William B. Prouty, discharged (records lost). • 

Emery Prouty, discharged in hospital. 
Clinton Prouty, discharged December 31, 1864. 
Charles H. Reynolds, discharged (records lost). 
Henry C. Rushton, promoted Corporal (no dates). 
Charles Roe. mustered out with company . 

Louis Rutherford, wounded July 18, 1864. at Snicker's Ferry, Virginia 
Bowen W. Schnebley, killed in action June 13, 1863. 
Riley Sparks, discharged (records lostl. 
Henry C. Stultz, killed in action July 18, 1864. 
John L. Smith promoted Corporal January 1. 1865; mustered out with 

company . 
Henry J. Spangler, missing in action at Snicker's Ferry, Virginia 
Thompson Smith, mustered out with company . 
Edward Strickfather, mustered out with company 
Martin Stoekmaster. wounded at Hatcher's Run, Vii-ginia, March 31. 

1865; mustered out with company. 
Wagner R. Smith, captured June 15, 186:3: mustered out with company. 
John Slater, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps (records lost). 
George W. Slater, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 
William Slater, wounded at Hatcher's Run, Virginia, March 31, 1865. 
Benjamin F, Skinner, mustered out with company, 
Joseph Tuman, died May 1, 1863. 
Anson H. Taylor, nmstered out with company. 
Loren Twiss, captured June 1.5, 1863; mustered out with company. 
A. Woodruff, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps (records lost). 
Fred. C. Wickhauer, promoted to Commissary Sergeant September 36, 

Seymour Waldron, discharged (records lost). 
Benjamin H. Williams, killed in action June 1.5, 1863. 
Edward H. Williams, promoted to Quartermaster Sergeant October 

as, 1863. 
Victor Weiss, captured June 15, 1863: mustered out with company 
Abraham W. Walter, died of wounds June 35, 1863. 
Robert W. Burns, captured June 15. 1863; nmstered out with i 

I company. 


Mustered into service September 39.1862. at Monroeville, Ohio. Mus- 
tered out with regiment June 12, 1865. 


Captain Charles V. Parinenter, resigned for disability, Octobers, 1804. 
First Lieutenant Edgar Martin, resigned for disability, February 18, 1863. 


First Sergeant Frank A. Breckenridge, promoted to Second Lieutenant 
April .5, 1863; mustered out with company. 

Sergeant John Kennedy, mustered out with company . 

Sergeant Augustin L. Smith, discharged February, 1863. 

Sergeant James Amadell.jJischarged March. 1863. 

Sergeant Lewis White, drowned while in action July 18. 1864. 

Corporal Marion C. Lester, captured June 15, 1863; promoted First Ser- 
geant; mustered out with company. 

Corporal Philander Miles, discharged for disability, (no date). 

Corporal George A. Webster, in Salisbury prison from September 3, 1.S64, 
to March 1, 1865. 

Corporal William Odell, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with com. 

Corporal William H. Ramey. discharged for disability, March 30, 1863. 

Corporal Norman H. Tillotson. mustered out with company. 

Corporal Addison Barker, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, (no 

Corporal Lymau P. Blake, mustered out with company. 

Musician, Dennis K. Canfield, promoted to Principal Musician Septem- 
ber 1, 1864. 

Musician, Clark Canfield, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with 

Nelson Baker, captured June 15, 1S63; mustered out with company. 

Albert S. Blanchard. captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with com- 

William L. Burnham, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with com- 

Thomas N. Beers, mustered out with company. 

Romane Curtis, promoted to medical cadet. May, 1863. 

William Carson, discharged in hospital. 

Sidney Carpenter, in Richmond, Virginia, on muster out; discharged 
July 3il, 1854. 

Jacob Carson, wounded May 11. 1864, and September 19, 1864. 

William Carr, captured June 15, 1863; discharged in hospital. 

Patrick Clark, discharged March 18, 1863 

Orrin Cole, captured June 15, 1863, (no date of muster out) 

Willis H. Conklin, prisoner from July 24, 1864, to March 1, 1865. 

Eureka Colt, captured May 15, 1864; died in rebel prison September 1, 

Wilson Day, mustered out with companj' . 

Hugh Debow, no date of muster out. 

Orry Decker, killed in action June 13, 1863. 

Henry W. Erswell, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 

Charles Erswell, captured lune 15, 1863; mustered out with company, 

Martin Fay, mustered out with company . 

Daniel T. Fink, March 1, 1865, mustered out with company : promoted 

George L. Fish, discharged for disability, February, 1865. 

John B. Fairchilds, captured June 15, 1863; discharged in hospital, 

Addison M. Frye, promoted Sergeant February 19, 1864: captured May 
15, 1864. 

Harvey E. Garrison, starved to death in rebel prison, Feboiary 14, 1865. 

Henry Goodenough, mustered out with company. 

Crary Green, killed May 31 , ]S63. 

Frankhn Gieen, discharged February 18. 1863 

Thomas Grannals, discharged from Cumberland hospital, Slarch 14, 

Frederick Heminway, captured June 15, 1863: mustered 

Seymour C. Lester, promoted Sergeant April 5, 1863; captured June 15, 
186:3; mustered out with company. 

William McKee, discharged in hospital. 

John W. Miller, promoted Corporal March 1,1865: mustered out with 

John Miller, discharged April, 1863. 

Wilson Moore, discharged March 30, 1863. 

Nelson S. Mosier, discharged March 20. 1863 

Charles Nixon, died in rebel prison December 11, 1864. 

John S. Phillips, mustered out with company 

Franklin Phillips, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 

Joseph H. Rhodes, promoted Corporal April 5, 1863; wounded in action, 
September 19, 1864; captured June 15, 1863; discharged in hospital. 

Napoleon Robinson, mustered out with company, 

James Spence. died September 1, 1863. 

John Salisbury, captured June 15, 1S63; mustered out with company, 

Wallace D. Skinner, captured June 1.5, 1863: mustered out with com- 

Levi J, Steel, died May 14, 1863. 

Simon Steel ; wounded April 6, 1S65; discharged from hospital 

Jacob Steel, mustered out with company . 

Josiah Snyder, died a paroled prisoner March 29, 1865. 

Lyman R. Shepard, prisoner at Salisbury, North Carolina, from October 
19, 18«4, to March 1, 1865; mustered out with company 

with com- 


Lorin L. Spronger, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 

Homer S. Seeley, died June 30. 1863. 

John Siflet, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 

Fernando Sly, died June 20, 1S63. 

Otis Sylier, wounded in action September 19, 1864; limb amputated; dis- 
charged iu hospital; captured June 15, 1863. 

Christopher E. Tillotson. captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with com- 

Cyrus Taylor, discharged from hospital . 

William Waggoner, mustered out with company . 

Samuel White, captured June 15, 1863; discharged from hospital. 

Johfl R. Wilson, stm-ved to death in Andersonville prison October 81, 

Albert H. Wait, promoted Corporal Febi-uary 19, 1S64; captured June 15. 
1863; mustered out with company. 

Hiram Whitmour, discharged February, 1863, for disabiUty , 

Alphord Bascom, discharged February 14, 1863, for disability. 

Silas Simpson, killed by cars December 19, 1864. 

Alonzo Linn, died from wounds received June IT, 1863. 

John Murfy, discharged February 14, 1863, for disability. 

Lafayette Loveland, discharged for disability (date not Ijnown). 

Nathan Beei-s, mustered out with company . 

David B. Moore, recruit; wounded at High Bridge, Virginia, April 6, 
1865; mustered out with company. 


Blustered into service September 29, 1862, at Monroeville. Ohio. Mus- 
tered out with regiment June 12, 1865 , 


Captain Samuel W. Reed resigned February 12. 1863. 

First Lieutenant Dwight Kellogg, promoted to Captain April 5, 1863; 

mustered out with company. 
Second Lieutenant Martin H. Smith, promoted to Captain of Company 

D, June 7, 1865. 


First Sergeant WiUiam S. Rulison, died at Cumberland, Maryland, 

Deeember 10, 1862. 
Sergeant Martin V. Aldrich, discharged March 18, 1863. 
Sergeant Charles H. Sowers, promoted to First Lieutenant December 9, 

Sergeant Charles Loring, promoted to First Sergeant April 5, 1863; mus 

tert d out with company. 
Sergeant James Angel, discharged for disability April 15, 1803 . 
Corporal Horace Lawrence, promoted to Sergeant December 10, 1862; 

mustered out with company. 
Corporal David H . Hutchison, captured June 20, 1864 ; iu rebel prison 

when company was mustered out. • 

Corporal James Wheaton. disii-harged April 24, 1S63, for disability. 
Musician, Samuel Bratton, died in rebel prison February IT. 1865. 
Wagoner, William Stone, on detached service when the company was 

mustered out. 

William Biirge, sicli iu hospital when company was mustered out. 
James Bennington, discharged January 25, 1865. 
Jeremiah Cassner sicli in hospital since September 20. 1864. 
Moses Cassner. captured at Cedar Creel;, Virginia, October 19, 1864. 
Henry Coats, absent on detached service. 
Hudson Catlin, absent with pontoon train . 

Jacob Dorn, Itilled in action at Winchester, Virginia, June 15, 1863. 
Alexander Dennison died in rebel prison February 18, 1864. 
Hamilton Dennison, died July 6. 1863, of wounds received in action. 
Nicholas Durgin, died August 1, 1863. 
Joseph Dignan, promoted Corporal, January 8, 1864. 
John Ensign, discharged December 23. 1863. 
Micliael H. Fullcert, discharged September 30, 1863. 
Henry Gibson, wounded at Winchester, Virginia, September 19, 1864. 
James Gregory, mustered out witli company. 
John Ghorani, discharged March 18, 1863. 
Elias Hanlcison, mustered out with company. 
Richard Howell, mustered out with company. 
John Hanserd, mustered out with company . 
Peter Letts, mustered out with company. 
Daniel Mead, mustered out with company. 
Victor F. Mosier, mustered out with company . 
James S. Moody, mustered cut with company 
Isaac Odell, promoted Corporal April 5. 1863. 
Lucius Palmer, mustered out wiih company. 
George Pipher, died iu rebel prison, Agust 9, 1864 . 
James B. Reed, died April 18, 1863 
David Reed, mustered out with company 
Thomas Shamp. died March 2'<, 1865. 

Lorenzo Sweetland, discharged, from wounds receiveil iu action, Sep- 
tember 15, 1803. 


Frederick Shafer, died in rebel prison December 25, 1864. 

Edmond P. Snyder, promoted Corporal April 5, 1863; mustered out with 

compan.v . 
Edwin Snyder, promoted Sergeant October 12, 1864; mustered out with 

company . 
James B. Smith, discharged 31arch IS, 1863. 
Lambert N. Sackett, discharged April 1. 1803. 

James Smith, starved to deatli in rebel prison, about October 15, 1804. 
Newell B. Salisbury, died October 1, 1804, of wounds received in action 

September 30, 1864. 
Edwin Trimmer, promoted Corporal April 5, 1863 
George W. Tucker, discharged October 15, 1863. 
Wiliard C. Vanlere, discharged December 1, 1863. 
Charles Vogal, killed in action at Winchester, Virginia, June 13, 1863. 
Lemuel Veil, absent in hospital when company was mustered out. 
David Williams, discharged April 31, 1863. 
Perjy C. Wyrick. discharged December 23, 1862. 
Mathias Zimmerman. 

Ralph C. Poiner, (name not on muster out roll). 
John W. Garrison, mustered out with company . 


Captain Charles H. Riggs, died September 15, 1864. from starvation, 

while in rebel prison at Charleston. South Carolina. 
First Lieutenant Oswald H. Rosenbaum, was private to August 22, 1863, 

when he was promoted to First Lieutenant; promoted to Captain 

March 7, 1865. 
Second Lieutenant Frank B. Colver, promoted to First Lieutenant June 

I. 1863; discharged by special order War Department, April 4, 1865. 


First Sergeant Sherman A. Johnson, promoted Second Lieutenant Janu- 
ary 14. 1864; discharged for wounds June 15, 1865. 
Sergeant George A. Scobey, transferred to Non-Commlssioned Staff 

April 0, 1863. 
Sergeant Wesley B. .Jennings, promoted to First Sergeant January 1, 

Sergeant Charles M. Keyes, transferred by i>romotion to Company K, 

April, 1864. 
Sergeant Martin L. Skillman, captured June 15, 1865; mustered out with 

company . 
Corporal Myrcn E. demons, promoted to Sergeant; wounded at 

Hatchers Run, March 31, 1865. 
Corporal John Steele, discharged March, 1863 (records lost). 
Corporal Augustus O. Garrett, promoted to Sergeant; captured June 

15, 1863. 
Corporal Frank W. Canfield, discharged tor disabilit.y (records lost) . 
Corporal Jacob Wentz, died in rebel prison January 3T, 1865. 
Corporal Wilham Gallard, killed in action June 13. 1863. 
Corporal William H. Metcalf. name not on muster-out roll. 
Corporal William H. Levering, name not on muster-out roll. 
Musician, William Jennings, mustered out with company. 
Musician, William Allen, mustered out with company. 
Wagoner, George R. McCounelly, absent as brigade teamster. 


Louis Buyer, captured June 15, 1863 

Solomon Brown, died of wounds November 21, 1864. 

Charles Brumm, discharged for wounds March 20, 1865. 

Napoleon Buyer, absent when company was mustered out. 

Lut'aer Barnard, wounded in action September 19. 1861; captured June 
15. :-63. 

Henry C. Barnard, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 

George N. Bonn, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 

Jay Bogart, mustered out with company . 

Albert D. Buck, mustered out with company. 

James Burns, captured June 15, 186;3; mustered out with compan.v. 

Henry Blosier, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 

Michael Clark, captured June 15, 1883; mustered out with company. 

John Clavhi, discharged for disability (records lost) . 

James Cross, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 

William H. Chamberlain, discharged for disability (records losti. 

Cornelius D. Congor. captured June 15, 1863: mustered out with com- 

George B. Drake, promoted Corporal: captured June 15, 1863; mustered 
out with company 

Benjamin Drake, captured June 15, 1803; mustered out with company. 

Jacoli Detless, died from wounds received in action November 21, 1864. 

Martin Dippel. discharged for disa1>iUty (records lost). 

Benjamin E. Deeley, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with com. 


Edward Forester, on detached service . 

Conrad Filmore, absent— sick in hospital . 

Joseph Grofif, captured June 15. 186;) 

Joseph H. GofI, captured June 15, 186:3; mustered out with company. 

George W. Greenhoe. captured June 15. 1863; mustered out with com- 


^ords lost ) 

Charles W. Gillen. discluir^-t-.l f..r .Usability ( 
■William Golden, captinvd Ausrust Vl 18«4 
Georfre Golden, .Jr.. dit-d June vl. I^'i.'J. 
Bryant Headley. transferred by promotion 

First United States Colored Troops. Septe 
Charles Hegony, no date of muster out. 
John Harper, captured June 13, J86.3. 
James Hoyt, died March li, 18ia. 
William Hoyt. died May 23. 186.3. 

Richard Howe, captured June 1.5, 1S«3; mustered out with company 
Charles Hammond, discharged for disabiUty ; no record 
John Hines, on detached service. 

George Hines. captured June 13, 1863; mustered out with company. 
Henry D. Johnson, died from wounds received in action June 15, 1863. 
Charles G Knight, promoted Corporal : captured June IS, 1863. 
Thomas Keyes, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 
Lyman Luce, mustered out with company. 
Patrick I^ughlin, captured May 13, 1864; exchanged March 11, 1865; 

mustered out with company. 
John La Fere, died in rebel prison (date not known). 
Andrew J. Lewis, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps (records lost) 
Frank Littlefleld, discharged for disability (records lost). 
James P. McElwain. died in rebel prison (date not known). 
William Morgan, mustered out with company. 
Barney McGookey. died in hospital May i), 1863. 
Richard Martin, missing in action June 13, 1863. 
Foster Neil, captured June 15, 1863. 

Thomas Neil, died in Andersonville prison (starved to death). 
Theodore Ocks, killed in action March 31, 1865. 
Albert Ott. killed in action July 12, 1864. 

William Oehm, in hospital when company was mustered out. 
August Raab. absent in hospital when company was mustered out. 
Conrad Rhoela, discharged for wounds received in action June 13, 1863. 
Delos C. Ransom, captured June 15, 1863. 

William Reed, captured June 15. 186:j; mustered out with company. 
James Reed, died from wounds July 12, 1864 

Samuel E. Stowe. captured June 15, 1863: mustered out with company 
Andrew Strawson, captured October 19, 1864. 
Albert Srutley, name not on muster out roll . 
John R. Savenack, mustered out with company. 
Peter Sheur, captured June 13, 1863; mustered out with company. 
George Stockley, captured June 13, 1S63. 
George Shesley, on detached duty 
Benjamin Thompson, on detached service. 

Frederick Tucker, in hospital when company was mustered out. 
Alfred C. Vantyne, discharged for wounds, Febru ary 20, 1863. 
George A. Warren, died in hospital at Cumberland, Maryland (no date). 
Albert L. Walker, promoted to First Lieutenant March 14, 1863; assigned 

to the One Hundred and Eighty-Sixth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer 

William P. Wheeler, promoted CoriJOial; wounded in action September 

19, 1864; discharge.l from liospital. 
Solomon Kri-s.Mis..hargH.| fnr disability, (record lost) 
William Stahl. di«hniged in liospital, (no date). 
George Weber, capturt-il .lune 15. ls63. 
John McGookey, mustered out wich company. 
Richard H. Trimmer, wounded in action; captured June 15, 186:1, 
Thomas Persons, captured June 15, 1863. 
Milo H. Wager, wounded in action; captured June 15, 1863. 
Wilham Kelly, wounded in action; captured June 15. 1863. 


Mustered into service September 8, 1863, at Monroeville, Ohio, 
tered out of service with regiment June 12, 1863 

Sergeant John O. Davis, prisoner from May 1.5. to Decembei- 6. 1864; 
mustered out with company. 

Corporal Frederick Staley, promoted Sergeant September 1. 1863; cap- 
tured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company 

Daniel Ambrosier. wounded October 111, 1864, and left in hospital. 
Shannon Blackford, name not on muster out roll. 
WilliamlBeck, captured June 15. 1863; mustered out with company. 
Samuel K. Swisher, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 
William L. Foy, died while a prisoner. June 44, 18G4. 

Joseph Sidell, mustered out with company 

Samuel S. Carson, discharged for disability (records lost) 

H. M. Carey, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company 

Thomas McClintock, discharged for disability (records lost) 

James W. English, captured June 1.5, 1863; mustered out with company. 


- October 16, 1862, 

; Monroeville, Ohio 


First Sergeant James Healy, captured June 13. 1863; mustered out 

with company . 
Sergeant Joseph Goodsal, died of wounds, September 5, 1864 . 
Corporal Ignatius Buff, discharged May 4, 1863. 
Corporal Thomas R.ibinson. promoted Sergeant: captured June 15. 1863; 

mustered out with compan.v 

David S. Ames, mustered out with company. 

Thomas W. Boyce, pi omoted First Lieutenant of Company F, March, 

James Caul, died June, 1863. 

Andrew Dunahoe. killed in action, at Hatcher's Run, March :jl. 1865. 
James Duffey mustered out with company . 

Arthur Donnelly, discharged at Cumberland, Maryland, (no records). 
John Grant, promoted to Corporal; wounded Septembers, 18(>4. 
Francis Higgins, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 
John Hastings, transferred to Company B, October 16, 1862. 
Michael Hyde, transferred to Company B, October 16, 1862 
Daniel McGrady, mustered out with company. 

George R. Marvin, captured June 15, 1863; mustered out with company. 
John Robinson, died of wounds received in action, September 12, 1864. 
Benjamin Spittle, captured June 13. 1863. 

Edward Lavenack, transferred to Company B, October 16, 1862. 
Ozias Huntley, in hospital at City Point when company was mustered 


Mustered into service, February 27, 1862, at Johnson's Island, Ohio. 
Mustered out of service July 13, 1865, at Camp Chase, Ohio 


First Sergeant Leroy W. Bailey, promoted to First Lieutenant. 

Sergeant William Koch, discharged to accept promotion as First Lieu- 
tenant in the One Hundred and Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

Sergeant Marshall Duray, promoted First Lieutenant; resigned De- 
cember 13. 1S64. 

Sergeant John Doherty, discharged August 7, 1862. 

Corporal Frank Berger, discharged at expiration of term of service. 

George Aikin, mustered out with company. 
Michael Abele, mustered out with company. 
Henry Brewer, mustered out with company 
Frank Bridenbaugh. mustered out with company 
Jacob Brunner, mustered out with company 
John H Carrington. mustered out with company. 

Clirist.ipli.-r L'r...-k. mustt-red ..ut with company. 
J..lin EikltT. iiiusteic.l ..lit witli company. 
Fr.Tiiklin KIlis, ninstrrt-.l ..ui with company. 
George Fl.-iniUL-. imwt.i.-.l out with company. 
Benjamin F. F..« I, r. mnstered out with company. 
John Gould, niiistfivil ..ut with company. 
William Hart, mustrrid uut with company. 
James A. Harvey, nuistered out with company. 
AKred Luff, nuistered out with company. 
Basil JIark, mustered out with company. 
Henry Motry, mustered out with company. 
Ariacus Offerman, mustered out with company. 
Frederick Ofterman, mustered out with company. 
George W. Rohbacher, mustered out «ith company 
George O. Sharp, mustered out with company. 
Samuel Steck, mustered out with company. 
Christian Steebig, mustered out with company. 
,lohn Werner, mustered with company 


Abrani C. Wliite. mustered our with company, 
Benjamin;F. Withingtou. mustered mt with company. 
Seth Woodward, mustered out with company. 
Edwin R. Woodworth, mustered out with company 
David Wright, mustered out with company. 
John Wright, mustered out with company. 


nson's Island, Ohio. Mustered 
: Camp Chase, Ohio . 

Mustered into service June 6. 186:3, at Jc 
out of service July 13, IfcitiS, 


Corporal Emery Bureau, discharged June 5, 1805. 

Jolin Burge, discharged June 5, 1865. 

Joel V. Bidwell, discharged December T, 1862. 

Ler Bates, discharged June 5, 1865. 

John L. Davis, discharged June 5. 1865. 

Charles A . Graves, mustered out with company 

Joshua S. Harris, mustered out with company. 

Samuel Knight, discharged June 5. 1865. 

James McCarty, discharged June 5 1885. 

Philip Morton, discharged August 20. 1863. 

Edwin Moore, promoted to First Lieutenant in the One Hundred and 

Second United States Colored Troops, September, 6, 1863. 
Loeb Mark, discharged December 7, 1863. 
Glaorge Van Buskirk, discharged June 5, 1865. 


Mustered into service September 16, 1S6S, at Johnson's Island, Ohio. 
Mustered out of service July 13, 1865, at Camp Chase, Ohio. 


rporal Charles Waucke, mustered ( 
rporal John Gluck, mustered out. 

Frank Beitchman, discharged April 25, 1863 
William Beith, mustered out. 
John Baunling, mustered ( 
George Currie, mustered < 

August Gla 
Charles Hittle, n 
JolmHeyler. mu 
Valentine Henn, 
Jacob Hartmann 

lustered ( 

t with company. 
; with company . 
t with company . 

lUstered out with company. 

stered out with company . 

mustered out with company. 

, discharged August 13, 1863. 
Joseph Koleuber, mustered out with company. 
John N. Lehman mustered out with company. 
John Lechler. mustered out with company. 
Jacob Metzgan, mustered out with company. 
George Martin, mustered out with company. 
William Raymond, mustered out with company. 
Frank Rettman, mustered out with company. 
Frederick N. Smith, mustered out with company. 
Charles Solomon, mustered out with company. 
Sebastian Schwinford, mustered out with company. 
Mike Schlagter, mustered out with company. 
Jacob Wellinger, mustered out. 
SainuelS. Yoder. promoted September 26, 1864. 
Benham Zahin, died January 26, 1863. 


Second Lieutenant Foster V. FoUett, transferred to Company A, April 4, 

Sergeant Ervin Hewit, mustered out with company . 
Corporal Louis Ray, mustered out with company. 
Musician, Aloys Baumeister, mustered out with company. 

August Bottger, mustered out with company. 
Boyd Clendenning, mustered out with company. 
Barney Conley, mustered out with company. 
Francis Conley, mustered out with company . 
John Conley, mustered out with company 
Moses Dildine, mustered out with company . 
Benjamin S. Ervin. 

William Ford, mustered out with company. 
Doctor C. Gardner, mustered out with company. 
Dyark W. Gardner, mustered out with company. 
Andrew J. Hastings, mustered out with company. 
Aaron J. Hunt, mustei-ed out with company. 
William Hunt, mustered out with company . 
William Jones, mustered out with company. 
John Lahrman, died September 24, 1864. 
David T. Livingood. mustered out with company . 
Urban C. Livingood, mustered out with company 
Jacob Long, mustered out with company . 
John Noss, mustered out with company. 
Edward S. Philo, mustered out with company . 
George Reiter. mustered out with company. 
James Buggies, mustered out with company . 
William Ruggles, mustered out with company . 
Joseph Shebeley , mustered out with company . 
Frank Speildenner. mustered out with company . 
George Bpron, mustered out with company . 
Jefferson Stephens, must<'red out with company 


Mustered into service May 15, 1864, at Norwalk. Ohio. Mustered out of 
service September 9, 1864, at Camp Cleveland, Ohio. 


Captain Edgar Martin. First Lieutenant Samuel W. Curtiss. 

Second Lieutenant Sterry H. Cole . 


FirstSergeantEdw'dA.Comstock. Corporal Simon DeGraff. 

Sergeant Walter Petteys . 
Sergeant George S. Hoyt. 
Sergeant David M. Pelton . 
Sergeant Thomas MiUiman . 
Corporal Edgar Barnhart. 
Corporal George Willsey. 

David Acker, 
Cecil C. Abbott. 
George Beers. 
John Butt. 
Asa Briggs, Jr. 
George F. Burton . 
Michael Considing. 
GarrahB. Clawson. 
Nicholas Dunn. 
Peter R. Draper. 
Isaac X DeGraff 
Charles V. Fay . 
Charles H. Hoyt. 
Frederick Hines. 
William H. Haskell. 
Chalres Isenhour. 
William N. Jenkins. 
Sydney S . Llpyd. 
Robert Lester. 
Josiah Lawrence. 
James E. Lutts . 
Allen Morrison . 
Thomas W, Miller. 
Samuel B . Newcomb 
Seth W. Osborn. 
Henry C. Owens. 
John B. Perkins. 
Henry Sayers. 
Hiam Stout. 
John R. Sly. 
Marcus M. States. 
Jared C. Tutsworth. 
Ben.iamin Worthington. 
Wilbur Waldron 

Corporal Albert Dunn . 
Corporal Lyman J. Swift. 
Corporal Lorey Arnold. 
Musician, Spencer C. Cornell. 
Musician, Henry Butt. 

William H. .-imes. 
Cyrus Arnett. 
Daniel A. Jas. Baker. 
Jacob Burdue. 
James N. Burdue. 
Myron H. Bentley. 
George W. Curtis. 
.\shurM. Cole. 
William C. Davis. 
Horace Draper. 
Reuben Emerson. 
Thomas Hagaman . 
Elhanan W. Hawks. 
Edmund J. Husted. 
Joseph Isenhour. 
Abbott Jones. 
Charles F. Lee . 
Marshal Lester. 
Andrew J. Lockwood. 
Alonzo E. Lawrence. 
Marshal W. Lowe. 
Robert Mountain. 
Carlos Norton. 
Joseph Nast, 
Allen D Owens. 
Harvey Palmer. 
William Rice. 
Eli,iah Soule. 
John C. Sower. 
Van Ransaelaer Swift. 
William S. Smith. 
Ezra Tutsworth. 
Stedman Winchester. 
Giles Yaples. 

Coiporal Norris D. Fay, July 14, 1864. 
Corporal Dwight Ruggles. .-iugust 3. 18W 

Spurr>- Green. July 31, 18W. 
Charles E. Burr, August 1.5, 18»4. 
John Pinney, .Vugust 19, 1864. 
Cornelius S. Plue, at home. .Septembe 


Mustered with i 

Halsey D. Atberton. 
Bryant I. Bloomer. 
William H. Bishop. 
D. E. Cliaffee. 
William Denman. 
Rebel t Ellis. 
John Ford. 
George F. Gunn. 
James Gray. 
Lucius L. Hollis. 
Thomas C. Hill. 
Charles T. Hester 
Charles Higgins. 
Harrison McConnell . 
Jacob M. Miller. 
Joseph Briggs. 
Lewis P. Bishop. 
James Conoly. 
Byron Culver. 
BenHJah Dolba. 
John I. Dewitt. 
Augustus C. Fritchel. 
Leonard P. Feruauld. 
John He£Ener. 
George W. Harringtoi 
WilUam Jones. 
John Kunchel. 
Robert Miller 
Henrj' L. Moore. 
Andrew McFarland. 
Henry C. Niver. 
William Norton, 
AlvinE Phillips 
William S Prosser. 
Benjamin Robinson . 
John Roberts. 
John W. Sage. 
David Summerlin. 
Thomas Simpson 
Eli Thomas. 
Manson Terwilliger, 
Peter V. Woodruff. 




za B. GUson was t 
the regiment he 
tiou, he was not 

Ephraim Briggs. 
Robert A. Bloomer. 
George D. Cox. 
Albert I. Crosby. 
Andrew Dufner. 
Frank E. Fitch. 
George F. Fletcher. 
Homer P. Gibson. 
Addison Gardiner, 
Heber Harris . 
William G. HolUday. 
J. R Haskms. 
George Jenkins. 
Milo McCrilUs. 
Luther A Amsden. 
Doctor F. Brown. 
Francis Childs. 
Henry Cornell. 
George W, Decker 
Benjamin Dolba. 
George W. Donelson . 
M. E. Fenson. 
Alonzo French 
Benjamin F Heffner 
William Hales. 
George Jillich. 
John Kraps. 
Marcus S. Miles. 
Frank A . Moore . 
John Nesbett. 
John M. Niver 
Byron E. Noble. 
Oscar Pease. 
Ludwig Reimer 
Orlando E. Raymond . 
William Richardson. 
Judson H. Snyder. 
William F. Smith. 
John H. Smith. 
Daniel Truman. 
William H. Vogle. 
Humphiey Winslow. 
William Wheaton 
David Knapp. 

Irst Captain of this company. On organization of 
was elected Major, but through informality in elec- 
commissioned, and returned home. 


Mustered into service in August and September, 1864, tor one year. 
Mustered out of service June 14, 1865, at Nashville, Tennessee. 


Captain Ira B. Wambugh, promoted to Captain September 18. 1864; mus- 
tered out with company. 

First Lieutenant Heni-y H. Crane, promoted to Captain, and assigned to 
Com])any G, April 3, 1865. 

Fecond Lieutenant Joseph P. Owen, promoted to First Lieutenant, and 
assigned to Company E, Februarys, 1865. 


First Sergeant Alfred W. House, died at Nashville, Tennessee, Decem- 
ber 19, 1864. 

Sergeant William H. Smith, died January 6, 1865 

Sergeant Charles M. Fiser, appointed Hospital Steward. October a, 1864. 

Sergeant Nelson P. Hyland, mustered out with company 

Corporal Willis Hague, promoted Sergeant December 86, 1864; mustered 
out with company. 

Corporal Joel S. Wolverton, promoted First beigeant March 30, 1865; 
mustered out with company . 

Conioral William Wright, promoted Sergeant October «>, 1864; mustered 
out with company. 

Corporal Lafayette T Trask, promoted Second Lieutenant March 22, 

180.5, and transferred to Comi)any C 
Corporal John J. Lowery, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Frederick M. Childs, discharged May 30, 1865. 
Corporal Stacy Packard, discharged April 13, 1865. 
Musician. George Kidd, died January 0, 1865 
Musician, George Schneider, died January li. 1865. 


James C. Bard, mustered out with company 

Eli Bushshawn, died January 12, 1865. 

Edward Butcher, mustered out with company 

Anthony I;- i- . -. ii-i I .l.i-uary 1-3. 1865 

Corneliu- I ■ i mistered out in hospital. 

Joseph ('■ : i- - ! "iit with company . 

James P., iiiiis!i-i, .i .>ut with company. 

William Coupjiles, mustered out with company. 

Charles Collins, mustered out with ccmpany . 

Jeremiah Chamberlain, must ered out with company 

Leonard Dellmater, promoted Corporal; mustered out with company. 

Lewis Dieble. mustered out with company . 

Frederick Dalton, this name is not on muster out roll 

Charles Darby, discharged May 3, 1865. 

Jacob Darr, mustered out with company. 

Thomas Evans, mustered out with company . 

Henry Englebuy, mustered "out with company. 

Benjamin F. Fowler, discharged in hospital, (no date). 

Sylvester B. Fleming, died February 5, 1864 

John G. Gassman, not mustered out with conipan.v. 

Nelson Gunn. appointed Hospital Steward, February 13, 1865. 

Simon Grubb, mustered out with company. 

Calvin Hall, mustered out with company. 

CjTus Hinckley, appointed Corporal Deceml>er -iS, 1S64; mustered out 

with company . 
Robert Holley, died March 18, 1865. 
Charles A. Hearth, died October 2. 1865. 
Jeremiah Hinton. mustered out with company. 
Charles Hall, died February 11, 1S63 
Erastus Hatch, mustered out with comjiany 
Benjamiu F. Holmes, mustered out with company. 
Mills B. Hinsdale, mustered out with company . 
Ovitt S. Hinsdale, mustered out with company. 
Isaac L. Hendrixson, mustered out with company. 
Charles W. Hill, mustered out with company 
Samuel Holmes, mustered out with company 
John R. Hoy, mustered out with company. 
Christian A. Jeffers, mustered out with compan}-. 
Martin Kolb, mustered out with company, 
John Keller, appointed Corporal October 25, 1864; nmstered out with 

Joseph Knapp, mustered out with companj*. 
Thomas Lundy, discharged May 3, 1865, 
Loran K. Loomis, died December 5, 1864. 
William E. Lohr, mustered out with company. 
Thomas Morrow, mustered out with company 
Jacob Middletou, mustered out with company. 

Charles McKelvey, appointed musician; mustered out with company, 
William S. McGowan, appointed Corporal December 14, 1S64; mustered 

out with company. 
Giles Mead, mustered out with company. 
Thomas Mills, discharged May 30, 1865. 
James Newman, mustered out with company. 
John Paxton. mustered out with company. 
John E , Patterson, appointed Corporal December 26, 1864 ; mustered out 

with company. 
George B. Powers, appointed Corporal April 20. 1865; nmstered out with 

Newton Parsons, mustered out with company. 
Barney Pratt, mustered out with company, 
Robeit Rice, discharged May 3, 1865, 
Nelson Roby. nmstered out with company, 
John Reddisseller, not mustered out with company. 
Henry Shartzer, mustered out with company, 
Charles L. Shorts, mustered out with company 
Penell S. Shorts, died January 18. 1865. 
Brobus Sterger, appointed Corporal December 26, 1864; nmstered out 

with company. 
Jacob Surgessou, mustered out in hospital. 
John T. Slackford, discharged May 3, 1865. 
John Snyder, promoted Sergeant March 30. 1865; nmstered out with 

Ezra Sturdevant. musteied out with company, 
John Salt, nmstered out with company, 
liaiii hi .--I'l' '■'i\ mustered out with company, 
.N . -: I i.iMstereil out with company, 
^^ I - " nmstered out with company, 

,Ia ->nii>li I Mustered out With company. 


Charles Talbert, mustered out with company. 
Thomas O . Taylor, mustered out with company. 
Franklin Vanderpool, mustered out with company. 
Thomas White, died February 3, 1 805. 
David E. Wells, died January 26, 1865. 
Louis D. Woolsey, mustered out with company. 
Jackson Warnick, died February 10, 1865. 
Thomas Wilson, mustered out with company. 
John Will, mustered out with company. 
Barney H. Weigle, mustered out with company, 
Isaiah Wilson, mustered out with company 
William L. Wallace, mustered out with company 
Frank V. Young, mustered out in hospital. 

Theodore J. Youngs, promoted to Corporal October S5, 1854; died at 
Nashville, Tennessee, December 14, 1864. 


John M. Byron, not mustered out with company. 
William H. Fletcher, not mustered out with company. 
Charles H. Fletcher, not mustered out with company. 
James Grey, not mustered out with company , 

1 Jameson, not mustered out with company . 


Mustered into service September 36, 1864, for one year. Mustered out 


Sergeant Henry Ritz. died March 18, 1865. 

Corporal Henry Martin, mustered out with company. 

Corporal Hurman Callman. mustered out in hospital (no date). 

John Bichley, mustered out with company. 
Ferdinand Eccard, mustered out with company. 
Josiah ia . Elder, mustered out with company. 
Thomas Eagon, died, January 1, 1865. 
Alvis Haren died, February 3, 1865. 
JohnHurbel, mustered out in hospital, (no date). 
Alexander Kiefer. mustered out with company. 
George Mclntire, mustered out with company. 
Antey Meier, mustered out with company. 
George W. Osborn, mustered out with company. 
Wilham Oachs, mustered out with company. 
Otis Olney, mustered out with company. 
Ashley Quayle, died April -i. 1835. 
Adam Schneider, mustered out with company. 
Columba Z. Squires, mustered out with company, 
Lucas Sickinger, mustered out with company. 
Englebert Zimmerman, mustered out with company, 


Mustered into service August, September and October, 18&4, for one 

year. Mustered out of service July IT, 1865, at Salisbury, North 



Second Lieutenant Samuel C. Hemphill, discharged, March 27, 1865, 

James M, Benn-tt, mustered out in hospital, (no date), 

John H. Carden, discharged, June 7, 1865. 

Eli Decker mustered out in hospital, (no date). 

John F. Foster, appointed Sergeant, April 26, 1865. 

George Vf. Earick, appointed Corporal, October 13 1864, mustered out 

with company. 
Charles R. Fonl, missing in action, November 30, 1864. 
Jacob Feels, mustered out with company. 
James Gassard, discharged. May 25. 1865. 
Philip Gossart, missing in action, November 30, 1864. 
Francis I. Gossard, missing in action, November 30, 1864. 
William H. Gossard, mustered out in hospital, (no date). 
John A. Hemphill, mustered out with company. 
Isaac Holt, died January 29, 1865, 
Benjamin Holt, promoted Sergeant October 12, ISIM, mustered out with 

Benjamin M, Kites, mustered out with company 
David Mahon, mustered out in hospital (no date). 
Joseph Reed, died February 10, 1862, 
William Riley, discharged May 29. 1865, 
John Richards, discharged at Camp Dennison, Ohio (no date). 

Joseph K, Russell, mustered out in hospital (no date), 

George Stlmmell, mustered out with company, 

George D, Stevenson, mustered out with company, 

Thomas T, Sessler, died February 5, 1865, 

William Sheldon, died of wounds, December 17, 1864, 

Peter A. Thomas, mustered out with company. 

Samuel P, Tidd, mustered out with company, 

George W, Williams, discharged June 26, 1865, 

Jesse A, Williams, mustered out in hospital (no date), 

Joseph H, Williams, mustered out with company. 

James Walters, died June 8 1865. 

James S. Wilson, discharged May 23, 1865, 

Philip Zupp, mustered out in hospital, 


Mustered into service February 87, 1865, for one year. Mustered out of 
service September 18, 1865, at Nashville, Tennessee, 

Oliver T. Ames, mustered out with company 

Jeremiah Andrews, mustered out with company , 

James Bowe, mustered out with company. 

Dyer Drake, promoted to Sergeant July 8, 1865, 

Lewis Eoy, mustered out in hospital (no date), 

Stephen Gibson, mustered out with company, 

Ale:vander Harnden, promoted to Corporal August 19, 1865 ; mustered out 

with company, 
James S, Kinman, mustered out with company, 
Galen D, Long, mustered out with company , 
Theodore Ludwig, retained under General Order 101, 
Giles Morey, retained under General Order 101 , 
Matthias Arendorf, Jr,, discharged August 3, 1865, 
Henry M, Smith, promoted to Corporal August 19, 1865; mustered out 

with company, 
Robert A, St. John, mustered out in hospital (no date), 
George Shuler, retained under General Order 101 , 
Frederick C. Wise, retained under General Order 101 
Leo Long, mustered out with company , 


Mustered into service March 3, 1865, for one year. Mustered out of ser- 
vice September 21, 1865, at Nashville, Tennessee, 


Philip Buigle, mustered out with company . 

John S, Duncan, mustered out with company, 

Samuel L. Eggleston, discharged May 25, 1865, 

Joseph Eckhart, mustered out in hospital (no date). 

Gabriel Gearhart, mustered out in hospital (no date) , 

Joseph Gearhart, mustered out in hospital (no date) 

Sylvester Grover, mustered out with company, 

Jacob Hartman, mustered out in hospital (no date) , 

Christ. Klepper, discharged May 3, 1865. 

William H Myers, retained under General Order 101. 

William H, Owen, retained under General Order 101 , 

Fidill Saile, retained under General Order 101 , 

Samuel W, Thomas, retained under General Order 101, 

Frederick Warren, promoted Corporal; mustered out with company, 


John Akers, mustered out with company. 
Natdaniel Bracy, mustered out with company. 
Conrad Bauman, promoted to Corporal; mustered c 
Thomas Biznett, mustered out with company. 
Bartholomew Biznett, mustered out with company, 
Eleader Barrett, mustered out with company, 
Sumner E. Barnes, nuistered out with company, 
Joseph Cavalier, discharged May 29, 1865. 
John Couts, mustered out with company. 
Norman Curtiss, mustered out with company. 
James A. Conell, mustered out with company . 
Sumner Converse, mustered out with company . 
Joel Cooley, mustered out with company. 
James Converse, mustered out with company 
Albert B. Cavelier, mustered out with company 
Amos B. Derby, nmstered out with company. 
James S. Darby, mustered out with company . 


with company 

Austin E. Ellsworth, mustered out with company. 
David Fatzeneer. mustered out wiih company. 
Samuel P. Foreman. iiiu>,tprt-.l ••m with company. 
Philip Felder. mu-tfi.l -m vvnh . . .i.,iuiny. 

JohnB. Fisbfr, musti-icl .ut uiili ii|)any. 

John Geusert. mustert-d mui «iih cuipauy . 

Frank Grill, mustered out with company. 

Joseph Hadd. mustered out with company . 

Levi H, Harris, mustered out with company. 

Hewitt Harding, mustered out with company 

Anthony Huber, mustered out witli comiiany 

John C Houghtlen, mustered out with company. 

Robert H J.ibnston. mustered out with company. 

George Jenkins. iirMiiiMt..>a to Corporal: mustered 

Hiram Minti. .iit with company. 

John W Mors,., .hs.hai -,d :\Iay 29. 1865. 

Silas B. Mann, nnistt-red out with company. 

Cabin McNutt, mustered out with company. 

Franklin McLucas, mustered out with company 

William B. McConnell, mustered out with company. 

Asahel A. Pond, piomoted to Coi-poral: mustered out with company. 

Emmet Portei-, mustered out with company. 

J ohn W . Page, mustered out with company . 

Alva Richman. mustered out with company. 

Isaac W . Richards, mustered out with company 

Samuel W Reed, promoted to Sergeant: mustered out with company. 

Frank E. Smith, mustered out with company 

Jared W Stocking, mustered out with company 

Johu Seucrant. mustered out with company. 

Isaac Scisinger. mustered out with company . 

Rtuben Shelden. mustered out with company 

Alanson E. Sheldon, mustered out with companj'. 

Nathan Tanner, promoted to Corporal: mustered out with company. 

Sidney Wheeler, discharged June 9, 1865. 

William M. Wade, mustered out with company 

Almond B. Wood, mustered out with company. 

Eli Wolf, promoted to Corporal: mustered out with company 

Sebastian Williocker: mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service March 9, 1865. tor one year. Mustered out of ser- 
vice September 1, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia 


Captain Frank E Pray, mustered out with company. 


Sergeant Amasa Heath mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Henry C. Niekerson, mustered out with company 
Sergeant Lewis S. Rouse, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Richard H. Reid, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Michael Bead^v, mustered out with company 
Corporal Sylvanus F. Bishop, mustered out with company. 
Corpcjral Buel P. Barnum mustered out with company 
Corporal Frank Eagle, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Charles B Halsey, mustered out with company. 
Corporal John W. Lee, mustered out with company . 
Corporal William Selleger, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Judson H Snyder, mustered out with company. 


Halsey D. Atherton 
Frederick Aves. 
Virgil Brooks, died April IS, 
Garit Bowman, mustered out with company. 
,Iohn G Brunner, mustered out with company. 
Calvin Chaffee, mustered out with company , 
William D Crawford, mustered out with company . 
Frank J. Casper, mustered out with company. 
Joseph Casper, mustered out with company. 
Alexander Chapln. nmst-ipd Mut with company. 
Henry Dewitt, must^i. I , ut with .Mmiiany. 
Martin Diggins, mustH,,-,] ,,nt uiih company. 
David Dalbee, mustei-.-d out with company 
Andrew Dutner, mustered out with company. 
Jacob Darenback, mustered out with company. 
William H. Eichert, mustered out with company. 
Samuel Edwards, mustered out with company. 
Phillip Feller, mustered out with company. 
James Finch, mustered out with company. 
Peter Fuhr, mustered out with company . 
Elza Ferguson, discharged May 15, 1865, 
James Fiser. mustered out with company 
Japhetli Galagher. mustered out with company. 

Horace D. Hill, mustered out with company . 

Thaddeus Hirbe, mustered out with company . 

WilUam Holmes, mustered out with company . 

William Hyter, mustered out with company. 

Daniel Houts mustered out with company. 

Ambros Hubbell, discharged May 15. 1865. 

Edgar Johnson, discharged May 13, 1865. 

Lewis Johnson, discharged July 19. 1865. 

William F. Kellogg, mustered out with c ompany . 

Sears Ketchum, mustered out with company. 

Michael Kramer, mustered out with company. 

Joseph Kebble. mustered out with company. 

John Kreps, mustered out with company. 

James C Lutts, promoted Commissary Sergeant June 11. 

McCurdy LeBean. mustered out with comijany. 

Herman Lougyear, mustered out with company. 

Frank Meyer, mustered out with company. 

Nicholas Mole, di charged June 17, 1865. 

John Mosier, mustered out with company. 

Cain Mahony, mustered out with company. 

ivith company. 

vith company. 

with company. 
Philip Maibadger. mustered out with company. 

Robert March mistered 
John Morrison, mustered 
Michael Myers, mustered 

t with company. 
t with company . 
with company. 
It with company. 
jt with company. 
: with company. 

Michel, mustered < 
Anthony Michel, mustered oi 
Charles Moore, mustered out 
Robert Mountain, mustered ( 
William D. Moor, rausttred ( 
Patrick Mackiu, mustered ot 
Charles McCoy, mustei'ed out with company. 
William Norton, mustered out with company. 
Joseph D. Nash, mustered out with company. 
George S. Perry, mustered out with company. 
Partine Phillips, mustered out with company . 
Charles Richardson, mustered out with company. 
Edward Ritter. mustered out with company. 
Jacob Reimel. mustered out with company. 
Edward Ricke)', mustered out with company. 
Charles Sallebauk, mustered out with company. 
Marcus Suydam, mustered out with company. 
Myron B Seym.iur. mustered out with company. 
Emil Schick, mustered out with company. 
Charles Siller, mustered out with company . 
Samuel S. Smith, mustered out with company. 
Philip Sowers, mustered out with company. 
George Polin. mustered out with company. 
Robert M Shaw, mustered out with company. 
Rupert Sti'ker. nuistered out with company. 
Antony Steakley, mustered out with company. 
William M. Sanders, mustered out with company. 
Frank Tylor, mustered out with company 
Solomon Weckert. mustered out with company. 
Franklin Wilcox, discharged May 15, 1865, 
William Walker, mustered out with company. 
Jacob Wessert, mustered out company. 
William Wheeler, name not on muster out roll. 


Mustered into service March 11, 1865, for one year. Mustered out of 
service August 4, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 


Corporal Emanuel Sanders, mustered out with company. 

Amos Baubecker, died July 30, 1S85 
Levi Crawford, discharged June 6, 1865 
Henry Carson, mustered out with company. 
Joseph Cory. niiisfHr.-dr,ut with company. 
Jackson Cory, miist.r.-.t i.nt with company. 
JohnJ. Clos,. iun>i. r.-l mui with company. 
George Carnutl. iuusti-r..-,l out with company. 
John J. Craig, mustered out with company 
Benjamin Guire, mustered out with company. 
Jacob Glove, mustered out with company. 
Joseph W. H. GUI, mustered out with company. 
Peter Heners, mustered out with company. 
William Hannah, discharged June 19, 1865. 
Jacob Huntington, mustered out with company. 
Hervey Hunting, mustered out with company. 
Jacob Heneline, mustered out with company. 
Lewis C. HoUoway, mustered out with company. 
John Hanan, mustered out with company. 


Hiram G. Johnson, mustered out with company. 
Nelson Johnson, mustered out with company. 
Lester Knapp, mustered out with compau)' . 
Marqui Knowles, mustered out with company 
Joseph Mackey, mustered out with company. 
Moses F. Mapes, mustered out nith company 
John Mockerman, mustered out with company. 
Thomas O'Harra. mustered out with company. 
PhiUp M. Riker, mustered out with company 
Charles Reno, mustered out with company . 
Alfred Stevens, mustered out with company. 
Alfred Slocum, mustered out with company . 
Henry Thomas, mustered out with company. 
Samuel W. Vanpelt. discharged June 13, 1S65. 
George Vanpelt, mustered out with company . 
OUver WilUams, mustered out with company 
Jacob Minzener, mustered out with company . 


Mustered into service March 21, 1885, for one j-ear. Mustered out of 
service September 11, 1865, at Baltimore, Maryland. 



Alexander Cavilee, mustered out with company . 
George S. Supner, mustered out with company . 
Gates Seobey, mustered out with company. 
Joseph Shepard, mustered out with company 
Alexander Collie, mustered out with company . 
Zeriah D. Ells, mustered out with company. 
Mason Green, mustered out with company 
William E. Geer, mustered out with company 
Washburn Underhlll, mustered out with company . 
Simeon O. Whaley , mustered out with company , 
Oliver O. Burgess, mustered out with company. 


Charles E. Arnold, died April 17, 1805 

Benjamin^Auspargh, mustered out with company . 

Albert Barber, mustered out with company . 

Richard Boulton, mustered out with company 

John Boyer, discharged March 29, 1865. 

James Borden, discharged June 2, 1865 . 

Edwin W. Chapman, mustered out with company. 

Joseph Criver, mustered out with company . 

Watson D. Chase, mustered out with company. 

Samuel Chrysler, mustered out with company 

Josiah Coats, promoted to Second Lieutenant of Company C . 

John M . Chrysler, mustered out with company . 

David J. Collier, mustered out with company 

Peter Deel, discharged June 13, 1865. 

George Deel, mustered out with company 

Jacob Darr, mustered out with company. 

Sylvester Daniels, mustered out with company. 

Henry C. Dwight, mustered out with company. 

William Darr, mustered out with company . 

Henry M. Easterly, mustered out with company 

Sylvester A. Filkin, mustered out with company 

John Ferguson, mustered'out with company . 

John R. Frank, mustered out with company. 

Walter Grigs, mustered out with company . 

Samuel E. Hartman, mustered out with company. 

Ferdinand Hardenbrook, mustered out with company. 

William W. Hutchinson, promoted Second Lieutenant. 

Charles Higgins, died April 4, 1865. 

Henry Hatfield, mustered out with company 

John Harley, mustered out with company. 

George Isahart, mustered out with company.. 

Charles L. Jones, mustered ojt with company. 

Josiah D. Johnson, mustered out with company . 

Jacob Kollar, mustered out with company. 

John Loivery, mustered out with company. 

George Miller, mustered out with company. 

Edward S. McCloe, mustered out with company 

James McCuUough, mustered out with company. 

John G. McCannise, mnstered out with company. 

William Ogle, discharged June 2, 1865. 

Nathaniel Robinson, mustered out with company 

Albert E. Read, mustered out with company. 

Henry Jones Rinju, mustered out with company. 

John S. Snurr, mustered out with company, 

William A. Thompson, mustered out with company. 

Edwin Thompson, died March 29, 1865. 

William Tarris, mustered out with company. 

Alfred Vansickles, mustered out with corai>auy. 
Gottleib F . Winter^mlistered out with company. 
Jefferson Wanzer, mustered out with company. 
Francis Wells, mustered out with company. 
Leonard Weis, mustered out with company. 
Robert Wilson, mustered out with company 
Samuel A. Young, mustered out with company. 
Joseph Zimmerman, mustered out with company. 
Jeremiah Zimmerman, mustered out with company 


Mustered into service March 28, 1865, for one year. Mustered out of 
service July 31, 1865, at Camp Bradford, Maryland. 


Sergeant Benjamin Ferris, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Rineheard Sickinger, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant James Turner, mustered out with company 
Sergeant George A. Trumble, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Daniel Wood, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Roland Vale, mustered out with company . 
Corporal Eugene Emmons, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Jacob Klapf er, mustered out with company . 
Corporal Arthur L. Osboru, mustered out with company. 
Corporal James E. Palmer, mustered out with company. 

Henry Butts, mustered out with company. 

Perry Curtiss, mustered out with company. 

Lewis A. Darling, mustered out with company. 

Helor Dewit, mustered out with company. 

Charles R. Elwood, mustered out with company. 

Arnold B. Fuller, mustered out with company. 

John C . Hill, mustered out with company. 

Benjamin F. Howe, mustered out with company. 

Hugh Menagh, mustered out with company. 

John McEwen, mustered < 

Oscar Pease, mustered ou 

John G. Park, died April 1 

Eli A. Rosco, mustered ou 

Tinas S. Rickard, mustered out with company. 

John Reeves, mustered out with company . 

Peter Saeman, mustered out with company. 

Franklin E. Shupe, promoted to Commissary Sergeant, April K, 1865; 

mustered out with company. 
David W. Soper, mustered out with company. 
William L. Shupe, mustered out with company . 
Lewis Slyker, discharged in hospital: no date. 
William H. Speare, discharged in hospital; no date. 
David Whiddon, mustered out with company. 

mt with compan; 
twith company. 

lith company. 


April 1, 1855, Mustered out with Regiment. 


. Sherwood, mustered ( 

Perry B. Arnold, mustered out with company. 

Seth Baxter, mustered out with company . 

Byron H. Colven, muster .-d out with company . 

George W. Cushman, mustered out with company. 

Nicholas Deag, mustered out with company. 

John Flarity, mustered out with company . 

William Flickinger, mustered out with company. 

George Gunn, died April 7, 1865. 

Lester Gregorj', mustered out with company. 

Jacob Gibbons, mustered out with company. 

Joseph Kritzer, mustered out with company. 

Flavius Kilburn, mustered out with company. 

Gilbert W. Lindsey. mustered out with company. 

Harrison McConnell, mustered out with company . 

Richard Pryce, mustered out with company. 

Alvin E . Phillips, mustered out with company. 

Bramir S. Smith, promoted to Hospital Steward, April 18, 1865. 

Haver Schenble, mustered out with company. 

Stephen Schualey. mustered out «-ith company. 

JohnSpaulding, mustered out with company, 

Jesse Woo.lruff, mustered out with company. 

George W Young, discharged from hospiial ; no date. 



Mustered into service, April 8. 1865, tor one year. Clustered out with 
regiment . 


S ergeant George Beatty , mustered out with company . 
Sergeant Truman L. Blakinan. mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Alva Bartlett. mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Thomas Banning, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Isaac S. Gibson, mustered out with company 
Sergeant David H. Lewis, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Aaron J. Bretz, mustered out with company. 
Corporal George J. Downing, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Edward P. Fisher, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Homer Millions, mustered out with company . 
Corporal William Shechy, mustered out with company. 


Samuel Aulger, mustered out with company 
Learkin Bartlett. mustered out with company. 
George Borer, miistered out with company. 
Fredolin Borer, mustered out with company . 
William Bohl, mustered out with company 
C(ft-nelius Connor, mustered out with company. 
David Darr, mustered out with company. 
Richard C, Dimock, mustered out with company. 
George Egerer, mustered out with company . 
Andrew Fell, mustered out with company. 
Edwin A. Gibson, mustered out with company 
Blake W. Griffin, mustered out with company 
Frederick Holchour, died May 5, 1S65 
Barthold Hartman. mustered out with company 
Cornelius Heath, mustered out with company. 
JYancis Howe, mustered oixt with company 
George M . Jeffrey, mustered out with company 
Peter J Kuhn, mustered out with company. 
Jacob Klarrh, mustered out with company. 
Conrad Kiefer, mustered out with company. 
Perry W, Kuntz, mustered out with company. 
Edward B. Lincoln, mustered out with company. 
Ichabod Lasey, mustered out with company. 
WiUiam C. Luff, discharged July 8, :865. 
John Merrills, mustered out with company. 
Oliver Martin, mustered out with company. 
John C. Pauley, mustered out with company. 
Charles Rider, mustered out with company. 
Henry C. Ransom, mustered out with company. 
Nathan Shinn, mustered out with company. 
Isadore Shell, mustered out with company. 
Herbert W. Shaft, mustered out with company, 
Charles Wilson, mustered out with company. 
John Wilkinson, discharged June 8, 186.5. 



Mustered into service April 21, 18G5, for one year. Mustered out of 

service May 8, 1865, at Camp Chase, Ohio. 

John Blair, mustered out with company. 
Harrison Barber, mustered out with company. 
Judson D . Bums, mustered out with company . 
William Bagent, mustered out with company. 
Thomas Conner, mustered out with company. 
William H. Endsley, mustered out with company . 
James Endsley, mustered out with company. 
Hiram Fowler, mustered out with company. 
Charles R. Gardner, mustered out with company 
Julius Hammel. mustered out with company. 
James Hanvill, mustered out with company. 
Alzen Hale, mustered out with company. 
John S. Jennings, mustered out with corapauy . 
Adelbert Jefferson, mustered out with company 
John Lichtey, mustered out with company 
William C. Tingley, mustered out with company 
Thomas Thompson, mustered out with company. 
George S. Walter, mustered out with company. 
Edward Ward, mustered out with company. 
Edwin J. Williams, mustered out with company. 


• .\pril 3-1. IMiD. for 

year. Mustered 


James E. Heater, mustered out with company. 
Frank Mitchell, mjsterel out with company 
Jacob Osterlln, mustered out with company. 

Rial Phelps, enlisted March I, 1862. 

Mustered into service February 26, 1864. Mustered out of service 
September 21, 1865. 


James Ashland, mustered out with company. 
Simeon Banks, transferred to Twenty-Third Regit 

Colored Troops. 
Isan Clay, discharged in hospital 
George Stanlej^, mustered out with company. 

United States 

Mustered into : 

■ February 26, 1864. JIustered . 

George Bailey, mustered out with company. 

Mustered into service March 7 and 8, 1864. Mustered out of 
with Regiment. 

Allen Bobson, mustered out with company . 
Bonrey Hidard, mustered out with company 



Franklin Treadwell, mustered out with company. 


Mustered into service in 1864. Mustered out of service with Regii 

Corporal William J. Thompson, mustered out with company. 

John Farley, mustered out with company 
Alexander Johnson, mustered out with company. 
Cornelius Johnson, mustered out with company 
WilUam Jones, mustered out with company . 
James H. Quails, mustered out with company 



Sergeant Major Alvin M. Woolson, mustered into service August 5, 1863; 

I service August 5, 

mustered out of service July 25, 1865. 
Hospital Steward, Wesley J. Andrews, mustered 
1863: mustered out of service July 25, 1865. 



Captain Henry J. BIy, appointed Second Lieutenant June 23, 1863 ; pro- 
moted to Captain July 16, 1863; mustered out with company. 

First Lieutenant James H. Ainsley. enlisted as private June 30, 1863; 
appointed First Lieutenant August 13, 1863; mustered out with com- 

First Lieutenant Nelson E. Prentice, enlisted June 24. 1863; appointed 
Second Lieutenant August 13, 1863; appointed First Lieutenant Sep 
tember 5, 1863; mustered out with company 

Second Lieutenant James G. Fish, enlisted June 26, 1863; promoted to 
Second Lieutenant November 2G, 1864. 

Second Lieutenant Wallace E. Bratton, enlisted June 1. 1863; jiromoted 
to Second Lieutenant January 30, 18C5. 


Fir«.t Sergeant John B. Colby, enlisted June 28, 186:3, veteran volunteer; 

nnistfrr.l out with company. 
Qiiarteniuisiei- Serjeant William H. Hallenbeck, enlisted June 21, 1863, 

veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 
Sergeant George W. Mears, enlisted June 28, 186.3. veteran volunteer; 

mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Thomas W. Hicks, enlisted July 13. 1868, veteran volunteer; 

mustered out with company 


Sergeant Romanas Shepherd, enli-^ted June Si, 1868; mustered out with 

vith com- 

Sergeant John Matt, enlisted July G, 186.S, veteran volunteer; mustered 
out with company. 

Sergeant James Hutchinson, enlisted July 9, 1863; mustered out with 
company . 

Corporal Charles R Logan, enlisted June 35, 1863; mustered out with 

Corporal Daniel Corvele, enlisted July 4, ISiB; mustered out with com- 

Corporal Josiah M. Dancer, enlisted July 9, 1863; mustered out with 

Corporal Edwin Cowell, enlisted June 24, 1863; mustered out with com- 

Corporal Alfred G. Runner, enlisted January 4, 1S64; mustered out 
with company. 

Corporal Richard Fowler, enlisted June 20, 1863; mustered out with 
company . 

Corporal Henry 51. Elwood, enlisted July 17, 1863; mustered out with 

Corporal Charles Streeter, enlisted July 6, 1863; mustered out with 

Corporal Levi A. Hultz, enlisted July 15, 1863; mustered out with com- 

Corporal Thomas C. Betts, enlisted December 32, 1863; mustered out 
with company . 

Corporal Silas McDougal, enlisted December 23, 1863; mustered out 
with company. 

Corporal John R. Hale, enlisted July 23. 1863. 

Artificer, Andrew Houk, enlisted July 33, 1863. 

Musician, Frederick Lesser, eijlisted July 1~, 1863 

Musician, James Nobles, enlisted July 3, 1863. 

Wagoner, John J. Tallman, enlisted July 6, 1863. 

William Ainsley, enlisted July 9, 1863. 

James Armatage, enlisted July 33, 1863. 

■Warren C. Breckenridge, enlisted July 13, 1863. 

Charles Bilderbach, enlisted July 33. 1863. 

Israel Borough, enlisted July 22, 1863. 

Edwin E. Jones, enlisted July 13, 1863; veteran volunteer. 

Francis L. Jupp, enlisted August 13, 1863; veteran volunteer. 

John Kinney, enlisted July 5, 18B:J. 

Joseph Kelley, enlisted July 15, 1863. 

James Lemon, Jr., enhsted July 14, 1863. 

Jay Littleton, enlisted June 17, 1863. 

Andrew H. Layman, enlisted July 14, 1863. 

Anthony Latere, enlisted July 15, 1863. 

James F. Lee, enlisted August 14, 1863. 

Channey Lathrop, enlisted .4.ugustl7, 1863. 

Henry Murphy, enlisted June 30, 1863. 

Charles B. Morris, enlisted July 13, 1863. 

Alexander Motry, enlisted July 13, 186.3. 

Horace Martin, enlisted June 27, 1863. 

Frank Morris, enlisted July 6, 1803. 

Alfred J. Nichols, enlisted July 9, 1863. 

John E. Nichols, enlisted July 9, 1863. 

Nelson Olmsted, enlisted August 16, 1863. 

Horace Place, enlisted July 18, 1863. 

George E. Pruden, enlisted July 18, 1803. 

Samuel Payne, enlisted July 30, 1863. 

Jarvis D. Rolf, enlisted June 9, 1863. 

George Row, enlisted August 17, 1863, 

George W. Reed, enlisted June 30, 1863. 

Jones W. Rosco, enlisted June 30, 1863, 

Fred W. Rosco, enlisted June 30, 1863. 

Alsiha SchoUield, enlisted January 4, 1864. 

Frank Stempson, enlisted August 16, 1863. 

Adam Smith, enlisted' July 2.3, 1863. 

Samuel J. Spangbourn, enlisted July 22, 1863. 

Henry Series, enlisted July 13, 186:3. 

Zalman B, Slater, enlisted July 13, 1863. 

Henry C. Bowen, enlisted July 23, 1863. 

Michael Beaiy, enlisted June 32, 1863. 

Joseph Coxley, enlisted July 6, 1863; t 

Delos C. Chapman, enlisted June 28, 1 

John Carney, enlisted July 9, 1863. 

John Cole, enlisted July 23, 1863; vet( 

James Cole, enlisted July 22, 1863. 

James Cartwright, enlisted May 25, 1861. 

Freeman Cables, enlisted .\ugust 17, 1863; veteran volunteer. 

Charles H. Ders. enlisted June 29, 1803 

Isaac Dewitt, enlisted .lune 2;-., 1863, 




Hubbard E. Dwelle, enlisted June 30 1863. 

Charles Dennison, enlisted Jitly 11, 1863. 

Reuben G. Dickerson, enlisted June 39, 1863. 

Peter Epp, enlisted June 25, 1863; veteran volunteer. 

Franklin Fry, enlisted July 14, 1863. 

Alpha B. Fally. enlisted June 27. 1SC3. 

John Gorham. enlisted July U, isi.,.-i. 

William Griffith, enlisted .July 14, 1863. 

Charles Grauel, enlisted July K. 1803. 

Wilson S. Gordon, enlisted June 25, 1803. 

Youngs Gregory, enlisted July 13, 1863. 

James N. Haines, enlisted July 13, 1863. 

George Hotchkiss, enlisted July 4, 1863. 

Lewis V. Hackett, enlisted July 6, 1863. 

John Hire, enlisted .July 4, 1863. 

George Hess, enlisted July 16, 18G;i; veteran volunteer. 

Francis M. Halsey, enlisted July 18. 1863; veteran volunteer. 

Lewis Button, enlisted June 22, 1?63. 

William G. Henson, enlisted July 6. 186:3.- 

John Henderson, enlisted August 13, 1863. 

John R. Jewett. Jr., enlisted June 22. 1863. 

Frank Stible. enlisted July 18, 1S63 

Sanford Selvey. enlisted July 4. 1863 

Martin L. Shanks, enlisted July 21, 1863. 

Marlyn Sweatland, enlisted July 4. 1863. 

Jay C. Smith, enhsted July 14, 1863. 

Aaron Thewecter. enlisted July 7. 1863. 

John Tomkins, enlisted July 4. 1863. 

Claudius V. Turner, enlisted July 33, 1863. 

Theodore B. Tucker, enlisted July 9, 1863. 

William H. Wilson, enlisted July 11. 186:3. 

Alexander Wiley, enlisted July 1, 1863. 

William Ward, enlisted July 23. 1863. 

Allen White, enhsted July 19. 1863. 

John Yetter, enlisted June 22, 1863. 

George C. Yowell, enlisted July 15, 1863. 

George Yetter, enlisted June 32, 1863, 

Corporal David W. Gibbs. discharged June 1, 1865. 

Corporal Lafayette Billings, discharged Jun^ 1, 1864. 

Artificer, Chelon H. Young, discharged October 35. 1864. 

Milton L. Andrews, discharged May 30, 1865. 

Samuel L. Armstrong, discharged March o, 1864. 

Alfred F. BIy, discharged November, 1, 1864.- 

William H. Blair, discharged June 20, 1865. 

George W. Coit. discharged June 30. 1865. 

James E. Heuron, discharged May 21, 1865. 

James Harding, discharged June 37, 1865. 

William M. Knowlton, discharged March 30, 1864. 

George Lamkins, discharged June 30, 1865 

George B. Nickle, discharged June IS, 1865. 

Henry O. Place, discharged June 26, 1865. 

William Perry, discharge.l May 18, 1865. 

Preston Palmer, discharged :May 20, 1865. 

Bamett Rowe. Jr.. discharged June 20, 1865. 

Peter Ryan, discharged November 31, 1864. 

James Ryan, discharged May 27, 1865. 

Edwin F. Smith, discharged June 20, 1865. 

John N. Simmons, discharged June 20, 1865. 

Simeon Snyder, discharged May 24, 1865. 

George H. Sharp, discharged May 18, 1865. 

Thomas Tildon, discharged May 13, 1865. 

Wilham H. Van Horn, discharged May 22, 1865. 

Isaac H. West, discharged June 20, 1865. 

Lafayette Whittinger, discharged November 14, 1863 . 

Evans P. Williams discharged November 14, 1863. 

Lucius A. West, discharged July 10. 1863. 

Philander S. Abbott, transferred to Company C . 

Hulbert L. Williams, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Francis Taylor, transferred to Non-Commissioned Staff. 

Wesley J. Andrews, transferred to Non-Commissioned Staff, 

Jackson Ryan, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps , 

Thomas Williams, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Edward C. Wiles, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Alvin M. Woolson, transferred to Non-Commissioned Staff. 

Corporal Charles Bailey, died at Covington, Kentucky, November 17, 1863. 

Artificer, James Murfit, died at Madison, Indiana, December 8, I8W. 

Thomas Germon, died at Kno.xville, Tennessee, July 10. 1864 

Thomas Harding, died March 17, 1864. 

Christian Marsh, died Februaiy 18, 1864. 

Malcom G. Niles, died July 21, 1864. 

Stillman S. Nichols, died August 5, 1864. 

Miner Powell, died July 28, 1864. 

James Peterson, died November 17, 
Henn- A. Smith, died April 7, 1864. 
Virgil Stevens, died May 7, 1861. 
Leslie E. Sparks, died June 2, 1864. 
William Waterman, died April 4, 11 




Mustered into service October 8, 1861. Tliis battery re-enlisted and was 
finally mustered out of service Julj- 28, 1865, at Camp Cleveland 


Sergeant Elislia D. Parljer, discharged for disability (Date not Icnowu). 
Corporal Silas H. Judson, promoted Sergeant: commanded the battery 

as Second Lieutenant: assigned to Battel y F. 
Artificer, William C. Hodge, died December r, ISJl 

Jeremiah Arndt, veteran volunteer: mustered out with company. 

Joseph Binehower, discharged June 16. 1865 

David K. Bailey, died December 17, 1861. 

John L. Barnes, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company 

Jerome Boiee, transferred to Batteiy K . 

James Baker, died in hospital at Nashville, Tennessee. (No date). 

■William B. Carey, died at Nashville. Tennessee, November 6, 1868. 

John David, promoted to Corporal March 1, 1S63; wounded at Chicka- 

mauga: died from same Octobers, 186:5. 
John Elliott, killed in battle of Stone River December 31. 1863 
Samuel Earl, veteran volunteer; promoted Corporal; mustered out with 

James H Fash, vetei-an volunteer; promoted Corporal: musteied out 

with company . 
Martin P. Fiudley discharged May 17, 1863. 
Thomas M. Hunter, discharged March 34, 1664. 
Rodman Harb. discharged June 16, 1865. 

Joshua R. Krebs, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company 
John Lepper, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company, 
William Leary, transferred to Battery K. 
Charles H. Millis, discharged January 9. 1863 
Andrew J . McLaughlin, discharged June 16, 1865. 
Thomas C. Potter, had both arms shot off in battle of Chickamauga 

October 20; died October 21, 1863. 
Emanuel M. Peet, wounded at Chickamauga ; veteran volunteer; mus- 
tered out with company . 
A. B Peet, died April 10, 1865 
Alexander Stratton, discharged March 22, 1863. 
John A. Shukers, promoted Corporal: mustered out with company. 
Adam Sprinkle, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 
William H. Singer, veteran volunteer; promoted Corporal; mustered 

out with company. 
Sherwood W. Shankland. 
Benjamin H. Searls, veteran volunteer: promoted Corporal; mustered 

out with company 
William Twerrell, veteran volunteer: mustered out with company 
Jacob Wolf, transferred to Battery K, April 6, 1864. 
Daniel White, veteran volunteer: mustered out with company. 
Frank M, Yeckley. veteran volunteer; promoted Sergeant March 11 



Brevet Major Frank B. Hamilton, graduated at West Point June 14, 1863, 
as Second Lieutenant; breveted First Lieutenant in Third United 
States Artillery, September 17, 1862, for '-gallantry and meritorious 
service at the battle of Antietam, Maryland ;" appointed First Lieuten- 
ant June 1, 1865; breveted Captain August 20, 1866, "for gallantry at 
the lattle of Gettysburgh, Penns.ylvania, July .3, 1863;" appointed 
Captain in the Fourteenth Regiment United States Infantry March 15, 
1867; breveted Major and now serving as Captain in the Second Reg- 
iment United States Artillery, at Fort Ontario, Oswego, New Y"ork. 
This officer is the second son of James Hamilton, at present and for 
some years past postmaster at Momoeville 


Musteied into service December 11, 1861, for three years, at the expira- 
tion of which the Regiment re-enlisted, and was finally mustered 
out August 4, 1.S65. 


Colonel Lewis Zahm, mustered September 27, 1861 ; resigned January 6, 
musteied September 27, 1861; re- 

Cliaplain, Reverend E. Y. We 
signed August 1, 1862. 

Adjutant Lewis R. Zahm, mustered September 27, 1861; resigned De- 
cembers, 18«3. 

chief Bugler. William Hinnian, promoted from Company H. 

Chief Bugler. Jerome R. Graham, mustered December 11, 1881. 


Jlajor John H. Foster, mustered September 13, 1861; resigned February 

14, 1863. 
Adjutant William S Foster, mustered December 9, 1861 : mustered out 

as supernumerary. 
Quartermaster George C, Probert, mustered.December9, 1861; mustered 

out as supernnmerary, March 30. 1864. 
Ser!.'t-;uit Major J, Ransom Hall, promoted to Second Lieutenant May 21, 

- — ^ i l: -bert H. Bliven 


Major James W. Paramore mustered September 27. 1861 : promoted to 
Colonel January 5, 1863; dismissed July, 1863 

Quartermaster. William R. Jackson, mustered November 4, isoi; pro- 
moted to Captain November 1, 1861. 

Commissary Sergeaut, James H. Johnson. 

Hospital Steward, John C. Grafton. 

Saddlery Sergeant, James M. Burg, musteied at expiration of term of 
enUstment, Octobers, 1864 

Vetermary Sergeant, Artemas Richards 


Quartermaster Sergeaut, Frank Wilham 
Commissary Sergeant, C. R. Hipkius, 
Hospital Steward. Horace B. White. 
Veterinary Sergeant, James B. Page 

This regiment re-enlisted January 4, 1861. The muster out rolls of 
this date are not on file in the ofiflce of the Adjutant General of Ohio ■ 
thus rendering it impossible to give a perfect record of the enUsted men 
prior to that date . 


Mustered September 4, 1861, 


Captain Dew-itt C. Doane, resigned November 12, 1862. 

Captain William B. Gates, musteied out with company. 

First Lieutenant Thomas D. McClelland, promoted to Captain, Septem- 
ber 4, 1861 

Second Lieutenaut Harrison Terry, promoted to Captain, February 14, 
1863; resigned July 5, 1864. 


Quartermaster Sergeant George Milliman. 

First Sergeant James Ransom Hail, promoted Second Lieutenant, May 

21, 1362; resigned March 21, 1863, 
Sergeant Edwin Clark, 
Sergeaut Edward S Hurlburt, 
Sergeant John W. Ward 
Sergeant Charles B. Bennett. 
Corporal Jacob Bauman 
Corporal William E. Akers . 

Corporal Anson E. Hitter, promoted to First Sergeant. 
Corporal Siberia Keis 
Corporal William McMaster. 
Corporal J ohn T. Woodford . 
Corporal Henry M. Meacham. 
Corporal Martin V. McCrillis, 
Bugler, Ralph N. H. Osborn 
Bugler, Eugeue A. Osborn . 

Farrier, Joel F. Smith, discharged October 3, 1864. 
Farrier, John B. McFadden. 
Sadler, Edward Morton 
Wagoner. George Carlisle 

Harrison Ames 

Silas M. Adams, 

Ira Blackman, 

Daily Benuet 

Joseph Ball. 

Homer W. Brooks, discharged October 3, 1864. 

JohnN. Buich. 

Alfred C. Broughtou . 

Hiram C. Burch 

William Conley, discharged June *l, 1865. 

Samuel C. Currie, promoted Second Lieutenaut. 

John Carpenter. 

David H. Crippen, 

William Crouse . 

Joseph Dolph. 

Henry Drage. 

Silas Eugles. 



Curtis Frost, discharged October 8, 1861. 
Norman T. Foster. 

Stephen French, discharged October 3, 1864. 
Isaac W. Ford, discharged October 3, 1S64. 
Henr}- Glenn. 

Harrison Green, promoted Quartermater Sergeant. 
Enos Griss. 
Franlilin Hart . 

Silas H. Hopkins, discharged Octobers, 1864. 
Thomas W. Hicks. 
William Himberger. 
William H. Horton. 
Michael Hughes 
Isaac Hunt. 
Lewis Johnson 

Charles C. Jewell, discharged October 3. 1864. 
Joseph S. Keeler. 
George Letherer. 

Samuel Lingo, promoted to Corporal . 
Boston Lidurf. 

John W. Lai-ge, discharged October 3, 1864. 
Allen McPherson, discharged October 3, 1864. 
Levi Miller. 
John Monaghan . 
Robert E. Morton. 
Richard Meredith. 
Albert McMaster. 
George W, Noggle. 
JohnG. Oats. 

John Parkason, discharged October 3, 1S64 
Jay A. PoUey, discharged October 3, 1864. 
Charles Payne, promoted to Cori'oral. 
Patrick Parcel. 
Horace Reynolds . 

Ezra H. Root, discharged October 3, 1864 
Theodore Rickey.discharged October 3, 1864. 
George Smith. 
Isaac Skillman. 
Joseph Sekinger. 

Pitt Simons, promoted Commissarj* Sergeant . 
Jasper Strong, died March 10, 1865. 
Lewis B. Tooker. 
Thomas TuUey. 
Marshall M. Turner. 
George N. Veader. 
John W Willoughby. 
James Weldon. 
George W Wright. 

Thomas C. Wright, discharged October 3, 1864. 
Charles A. Waite, 
Benjamin F. Welch 
Richard Wilson. 
James O. Williams. 
Henry Young 

This company served three years, re-enlisted, and was Anally mustered 
out of service at Edgefield, Tennessee, August 4, 1865 . 

Mustered into service September 4, 1861. Mustered out August 4, 1865. 


Captain Leonard B. Chapin, resigned March 5, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Elisha M. Calver. promoted Captain June 16, 1863; 

resigned September ie, 1864, 
Second Lieutenant Alonzo B. Eunis, promoted First Lieutenant June 16, 

1862; mustered out July S, 186->. 


Quartermaster Sergeant Martin E. Ellis. 

First Sergeant Addison H. Pearl, promoted Captain November 30, 1864; 
mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Jesse A. Squires, promoted Commissary Sergeant First Bat- 

Sergeant Judson Willard. 

Sergeant John Bartlett. 

Sergeant Henry N. Porter 

Corporal Charles P. Joliuson 

Corporal Horace B . Porter 

Corporal George W. Surges. 

Corporal John J. Cowles. 

Corporal Morgan J. Carpenter. 

Bugler, Ransom CoUonwood. 

Bugler. QK'Mge B. Squires, veteran volunteer; mustered out with com- 

Farrier, William D. Chaffer. 

Blacksmith, Elihu Jenkins. 

Cornelius Ellis, promoted Sergeant; mustered out October 3, 1864. 
Hiram C. Reed. 
Byron L. White. 

Orrin Adams, promoted Corporal. 

Samuel B. Bassett, promoted Sergeant; mustered out October 3, 1864. 

Philip Bangle, promoted First Sergeant. 

Theodore Barber, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Simeon Blackman. 

James Brooks. 

Isaac Brown, mustered out on expiration ot original enlistment. 

Charles Brown 

Henry Brown. 

Frank Buckley. 

George W. Cole, mustered out of serWee Octobers, 1864. 

Jerred Calvin. 

Anson dinger. 

Jude Corbon. 

Luther Camfield, discharged in hospital (no date). 

Benjamin F. Drake. 

Avery Edwards, veteran volunteer; mustered out with compan7. 

William Eastman. 

Franklin Fay. mustered out at expiration of original enlistment. 

James W. Fay. 

William Fisar. 

James Fairfax. 

Eli S. Hardy. 

Heman Hickok. veteran volunteer; mustered out with company . 

Jesse HoUister. veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Edwin Hollister, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Ambrose Haws, promoted Seconed Lieutenant and transferred, Decem- 
ber 2, 1864, to company H , 

Garrett Hawley. 

William Hay se. 

Lewis Harding. 

Benjamin B Hillman. 

Mendile Henry. 

Lorenzo Ingles. 

William Jenkins, mustered out June 17, 1865. 

Conrad Keim. 

Flavins Kilburn. 

Henry E. Kress. 

John H. Lawrence. 

Mortimer Lawrence. 

Henry C. G. Lane. 

David C. Lipke. 

Amos A. Morris. 

Charles M. McGloan . 

James Malki 

Almon Mason. 

Jeremiah Mason. 

Norman Mason. 

Thomas McKini . 

JohnG. McFale. 

James C. Ronk. 

Simon Roberts . 

Arthur Rogers. 

Rodney Rice, mustered out October 3, 1864. 

Myron Rice . 

Orlando Starr. 

Hiram Sexton, promoted Sergeant; mustered out October 3, 1864. 

Willard Spurrier, mustered out April 30, 18H5 . 

Myron Sweet . 

Albert C. Smith. 

Conrad Shillenburger, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Garner Stimpson. 

John H. Smith, veteran volunteer; discharged from hospital. (No 

Henry H. Scott. 

Edmond Tripp , 

Parmer Tracy. 

David E. Tyler. 

Edwin D. Tyler. 

Robert Welch, discharged in hospital. (No date). 

George S. Wilson, died of gun-shot wound August 16, 1864. 

Peter Wets. 

David C. Fields, died from wounds July 4. 1864. 

Lester Case. 

Mustered October 8, 1861. Mustered out with Regiment. 

William Crorapton, veteran volunteer; mustered < 
William H. Foster, mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Albert L, Williams, not on muster out roll. 


coil PA XY D. 

Mustered September 10, 1861 . Mustered out with Regiment 


First Lieutenant Richard B. Wood, promoted Captain June 20,1862: 
killed in action February 23, 18&4. 


Corporal Michael Farmer. 


Edward W. Ausden, mustered out September 10, 1864. 

Robert Benfer, mustered out September 10, 1864. 

John Britzer. 

Christopher Deleware. 

Philip Ehman, mustered out September 10, 1864. 

John H( Hand. 

Edward P Lehi. 

Edward Morse. 

Abraham Moyer 

Obed C. Russell, discharged November 23, 1864. 

Isaiah Stout. 

Alexander Tittle. 

Thomas Warren 

Mustered November 4, 1861. Mustered out with regiment. 

John Griffln 

Thomas Grant. 

Levi Hipoug 

William B. Kerr, promoted First Sergeant; mustered out with company. 

Mustered December 11, 1861. Mustered out with regiment. 


Captain Oliver G. Smith, honorably discharged, September 11, 1862. 
First Lieutenant George C . Roberts, promoted to Captain, September 

11, 1862; resigned April 17, 1863. 
Second Lieutenant Elihu Isbel, promoted Captain, August 12, 1663; 

mustered out with company. 



Sergeant James Johnson. 

Nuuan, promoted Second Lieutenant; mustered 

Sergeant L. La Charles. 

Corporal Samuel S. Hoy t . 

Corporal George G. Holliday, promoted Sergeant; mustere 

vember 4. 1864. 
Corporal Richard H. Reed. 
Corporal Alfred Washburn 
Corporal Dudley W. Post. 
Corporal Asher W Coon 
Corporal Albert Fox . 
First Bugler, James Hanley 
Second Bugler, I. A. Locher 
Farrier, A. Richards 

Saddler, Thomas S. Cromwell, died April 18, 1863. 
Wagoner, Frank Rogers 

Barkdall Arnott 

James Arnott. 

James H. Bailey. 

David Beardsley 

Malon J. Bassett, promoted Second Lieutenant of Company j 

volunteer; mustered out with company 
,Tacob Beckerstock. 
Lawrence Blily 
Ira Crow 

John Duxberry, mustered out November 4. 18t>4. 
Llewellyn French 
Albin Farley 

L. D. Fisher, mustered out January I, 1865 
Charles Hayne. 
Isaac P. HaskiDs. 
Nicholas Houghton. 
Alexander Houghton. 
Edward R Holliday. 
Amasa Heath. 
John King. 
Hayburn King. 
George Kedwell. 
Hiram Lynn, promoted Corporal ; killed August 20, IfO-l. 

MelvinS. Lynn, mustered out November 4, 1864. 

William P. Lee. 

Lyman G. Lloyd, mustered out November 23, 1864. 

Daniel Le Clear. 

John Myers, mustered out November 4, 1864. 

Thomas Martin, promoted to Sergeant, and Second Lieutenant Com- 
pany K; veteran volunteer: mustered out with company 

William Morrison. 

James H. Mann. 

Albert P.Noble. 

Theodore L Prosser. 

Edwin S. Prosser. 

John Peacock, 

Samuel Riggs. 

Martin Rowe. 

Lewis A. Rounds. 

William Sheldon. 

Richard Sheldon. 

Royal Sikes. 

William Setchel. 

Abraham Sinfield. 

George F. Sherwood . 

Louis Shreck. 

Byron Spencer . 

William Tappin , 

William Vauscoy, mustered out November 4, 18ft4 

Almond Vincent , 

James Watson . 

JohnB. Young, promoted to Sergeant: veteran volunteer: drowned at 
Macon, Georgia, July 18, 1865. 


■ December 11, 1861. Mustered i 

PhiloSt. John. 

Frank J. bmith, discharged December 1, 1864. 
John J. Watterman, veteran volunteer; mustered < 
Frederick Warren , 

: of service with 

: December 11, 1861. Mustered out of service with 

Captain Henry B. Gaylord, resigned May 2, 1864. 

First Lieutenant Clark Center, honorably discharged January 21. 1863. 

Second Lieutenant William Goodnow, died May 30, 1862. 

Sergeant James Merroe, promoted to Second Lieutenant April 8, 1865 . 
Sergeant Daniel C. Lewis, promoted to First Lieutenant and transferred 

to Company M . 
Sergeant Chauncey B. Wheeler. 

Sergeant Robert H. Spaulding, discharged October 3. 1864 . 
Corporal Thomas Hoffmire 
Corporal James B. Page. 
Corporal Roswell Robbins. 
Corporal Albert Sweatland . 
Corporal Amos S. Waltermire . 

Corporal Cyrus K. Livermore, discharged October 3, 1864. 
Corporal Thomas Saltzgaber, discharged June 5, 1865. 
First Bugler, Henry L. Bingham. 
Blacksmith. Jacob Howk. 

Blacksmith, Adam M. Rock, discharged October 3, 1864. 
Saddler, Thomas D Stevenson 
Wagoner, Frederick F. Drake, transferred to Company B, April 17, 1865. 

Henry H.Allen 

William F. Allen 

John W Blackman. 

Lewis M. Brightenstine 

Solomon Baker 

Charles B. Benham, promoted Quartermaster Sergeant; discharged in 

James D. Benham, promoted Sergeant July 1, 1865; mustered out with 

Harmon L Breneman, killed in action at Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, 

June 15, 1864 
William Bolster, died March 18, 18tB 
John S. Banks, discharged May 24, 1805. 
Frederick Bloom 
Heary Broadman 
Seymour B Coe. 


Frank Cobban, died February 4, 1865. 

Napoleon B. Downing. 

Adam Fetter. 

Henry B. Gaylord. 

William L. Goodnow. 

Clark Center. 

Anson P. Green . 

Lewis Heraminger. 

Jacob Hammal. 

Martin C . Johnston 

Edmon Kiser. 

Vernon Kellogg. 

George Kreider. 

Henry Libe 

William D. Leak. 

Pat Louber. 

Charles McMaster. 

Charles Mason. 

James Mitchell. 

James H. Mann. 

Dexter McMaster. 

Christian Nagiann. 

Edwin Niver, captured Nov. 15, IStiS; starved to death in Andersonville 
Prison June 19, 1864. 

Warren W. Parsons. 

Burr P Parks. 

Otto N. Rogers. 

Henry Rogers, discharged October 3, 181U. 

David T Selance. 

Charles A. Sanders, discharged October -3, 1864 

Henry Sweatland. 

Gaylord Saltzgaber. veteran volunteer: mustered out with company. 

William Saltzgaber, mustered out at Macon, Georgia, (no date). 

Joseph Stephens, captured at Frog Springs SeptemberSO, 1863; in prison 
when company was mustered out. 

William Spencer, mustered out at Macon. Georgia, (no date). 

Samuel Stuke, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Christian Summers. 

Henry Thomas. 

Curon Thomas 

Hyatt Travis, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Francella VanHorn . 

Wilson VanHorn, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company. 

Joseph M. Wilcox, mustered out at Macon, Georgia, (no date). 

George Watson, promoted to First Lieutenant and transferred to com- 
pany M . 

Richard Waggoner. 

Mustered into service December 11, 1861. Mu.stered out with regiment 


First Lieutenant Darius E. Livermore, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel 
April 8, 1865; mustered out with regiment. 


Sergeant B. Walter Burr, discharged December .30, 1864. 
Sergeant John Maloney, discharged December 30, 1864. 
Corporal Hiram Barnes. 
Bugler, Henrj- Trott . 

Blacksmith, William G. Swart, discharged May 30, 1865. 
Saddler, Robert Dutchman, transferred to company M; veteran volun- 
teer; mustered out with company. 
Wagoner, Charles Yance, discharged December 30. 1864. 


Howard Bowman. 

George Cummings. 

Peter M. Chilson. 

James Druery. 

Benjamin Grow . 

William Gowitze. 

William Grow. 

Samuel Grow. 

(ieorge Heslel^ 

William Heslet. 

William Jones. 

Robert O Kennedy, promoted Corporal; veteran volunteer; mustered 

out with company 
John Kelley. 
James Morrison. 
James McCormick, promoted Corporal; veteran volunteer; mustered 

out with company 
Jonathan R. Reed. 
John Reynolds. 
William Rose 

Francis Shares. 
Jacob Trott. 
John Toomy . 

Cornelius Vandenburgh, discharged December 30, 1864 
Lewis Wright, discharged December -30, 1864. 
I. W. Wilson. 
James Wildon. 
George Leitherer. 

Robert E. Morion, promoted Corporal December 31, 1864. veteral 
teer; mustered out with company. 

Mustered into and out of service wittf the Regiment 


Sergeaut John T. Woodford, transferred to Company A, September 


William T Guinn. 

Ezra Guinn . 

Jacob Rush, discharged Jlay 18, 1865. 

Jacob Snider. 

William E. Thitcher, veteran volunteer: mustered out with comps 

John W. VVilloughby. 

Musteied with the Regiment. 


Farrier. Andrew Maxwell. 


Napoleon B . Benedict, died of disease at home in Ohio. 

Daniel dinger, promoted Corporal; mustered out October 1:3. 1864. 

Michael Moulet, mustered out November 33, 1864. 

James Maxwell. 

Francis Ora. 

Samuel Simons. 

JohnB. Viele. 



Veterinary Sergeant, George W. Dimick, transferred to Third Ohio Vol- 
imteer Cavalry. 


Franklin Pallailay, 

Mustered into service in October, November and December, 1861 . Mus- 
tered out of service August 7, 1865 at Petersburg, Virginia. 


Quartermaster Sergeant Isaac W. Kirk, promoted to First Sergeant; 
veteran volunteer; wounded April 6, 1865. 

Sergeant Jacob B. Templin, promoted to Second Lieutenant October 16, 

Corporal William P. Cox, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, Janu- 
ary 1, 1865. 

Corporal Madison Ti ail, discharged October 25, 1862. 

Corporal David A. Musser, discharged October 30, 1S63. 

Farriei, Nelson R. Gunder, discharged November 4, 1664. 

Farrier, John 6. Carson, promoted to Quartermaster Sergeant October 
1, 1863. 

Bazil Brooks, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, March 31, 1864. 

Jeremiah Culler, discharged November 4, 1864 

Daniel Crist, died September 8, 1863. 

David B. Cox. discharged for disability August 33, 1863. 

David Elliott, promoted to Corporal; veteran volunteer: mustered out 

with company. 
Thomas E. French. promAted tn Commissary Sergeant, February 10, 

1865, veteran voluiiti-f; Tini^T-t-fii out with company. 
Henry J. Heisler, vfi.-raii \ -luiit.-r ; iimstered out with company. 
Thomas P. Hillnian. ili^ch.ut;rcl .\ugust 17, 18(!3 


James A. Hughes, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company ; pro- 
moted to Corporal. 

Jeremiah Hileman, veteran volunteer: mustered out in hospital. 

David Harman, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, May 13, 1864. 

Jacob Ipes, promoted Corporal: veteran volunteer; discharged June 
10. 1S65, by reason of wounds. 

James P. Jenkins, discharged June 28, 18G5 

George K. Mead, discharged November 4, 1S64 

Harmon Minard, discharged August 18. 1862 

George Minard, veteran volunteer; mustered out with company 

William D. Oswald, discharged December 11, 1804. 

John Pyle, died August 16, 1862. 

John S. Regal, discharged February 23, 1S63 

John Ripley, discharged June 7, 1862 

John White, discharged February 3;!, 1863. 



Mustered into service October 30, 1863. Mustered out 
1865, at Lexington, North Carolina 

Clark E. Caligan. veteran volunteer: mustered out with c 
William H. Hurlburt, mustered out with company . 
Gregory K- Winegardner. discharged from hospital. 

olunteer; mustered 

Mustered into service December 4, 1863. Mustered o 
2il, ISe.i, at Lexington, North Carolin 

Harrison Ames, promoted First Sergeant; veterans 

out with company 
William A. Blandon discharged May 23, 1863 
Joseph Jopp, promoted Corporal; captured July 16 
Julius Shruch, discharged in hospital; veteran. 


rvice March 3. 1804 . Mustered out c 
1863, at Lexington. Norih Carolina, 

1 July 24, 


John Battey, died August 18, 1863. 

Martin Golden, paroled prisoner, at Annnpolis, Maryland. 

Henrj- Hewitt, prisoner; surrendered January 3, 1863. 

William Nash, promoted Corporal; mustered out with company. 

Benjamin E. Parker, discharged from hospital, (no date). 

William E. Ring, transferred to Veteran Reserve Coi-ps, April 26, 1864. 

William C. Siegling, bugler; transferred to Company E. 

George Slaokford. killed September 10, 1864. 

Cook Smith, paroled prisoner when company was mustered out. 

Frank Smith, promoted Sergeant; mustered out with company. 


Towns and Villages in Huron County, 



In 1640, the Indian title to the hind upon which 
Nonvalk, Connecticut, now stands, was purchased of 
the natives in two tr;icts. 

The bounds of the east tract purchased l)y Roger 
Ludlow, as described in the ancient records, were 
"From Norwalk river to Sawhatuc (Saugatuck) 
river, from sea, Indian one day walk into the coun- 
try." For this tract the following articles were 
given, to wit: Eight fathum wampum, six coats, ten 
hatchets, ten hoes, ten knives, ten scizers, ten juse- 
harps, ten fathom tobacco, three kettles, three hands- 
about. ten looking-glasses. 

The tract on the west side of the river, sold to one 
Captain Patrick, is described as follows: "From Nor- 
walk river to Five Mile river, from sea, Indian one 
day in country." For this the following articles 
were given: " ten fathom wampum, three hatchets, 
three hoes, when ship comes; six glasses, twelve 
tobacco pipes, three knives, ten drillers, ten needles." 

The northern bounds of the lands purchased were 
to be from the sea one day's north walk into the 
country, hence the name Norwalk. 
. The above explanation of the origin of the name 
is, in substance, given in Barbers Historical CoUec- 
tions, Hall's Historical Records of NorivcdJi:, and 
Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of the Revolvtion, 
and, perhaps, should be accepted as conclusive; but 
it has always been a query with the writer, what tlie 
name of ".Norwalk river " was at the time of the pur- 
chase? If it was then Norwalk river, the name Nor- 
walk could not have been derived from terms used in 
describing that purchase; if it bore some other name, 
it would appear singular that the "ancient records" 
should describe the lioundaries as beginning "From 
Norwalk river." 


On the 9th day of November, 1808, Philij) B. 
Bradley, of Ridgetield; Taylor Sherman, oi Nor- 

walk; Isaac Mills, of New Haven; William Eldridge, 
of New Loudon; Jabez Fitch, of Greenwich; Ebenezer 
Jessup. Jr., of Fairfield; Guy Richards, of New 
London; Ebenezer Avery, Jr., of Groton, all of the 
State of Connecticut, met as the Board of Directors 
of "The proprietors of the half million acres of land 
lying south of Lake Erie, called the Sufferers' Land," 
at the court house, in New Haven, Connecticut, 
and among other business transacted that day, passed 
a resolution naming all the townships in the "Fire 
Lands;" in and by that resolution, township num- 
ber four in the twenty-second range was named Nor- 

Taylor Sherman was the only member of that 
board from Norwalk, Connecticut, and probably stood 
sponsor at the christening. He was the grandfather 
of Gen. W. T. Sherman who led that magnificent 
column of American veterans on its memoralile march 
from "Atlanta to the sea," and of John Sherman, 
secretary of the treasury, who, to-day, stands befoi-c 
the nations, as first of financiers. 


July 11, 1797, Norwalk, Connecticut, was burned 
by the British and tories under Governor Trvon. A 
committee of the general assembly estimated the 
losses by the inhabitants at one hundred and sixteen 
thousand two hundred and thirty-eight dollars and 
sixt3'-six cents. Half a million acres of land in 
"New Connecticut'-' was approprLated for the benefit 
of those sufferers^ and those of other towns which had 
suffered a like calamity. 

The left hand column in the following table shows 
the name aud amount of losses, in pounds, sliillings 
and pence, of each Norwalk sufferer. The right hand 
column shows the names of the persons, to whom 
tlieir claims were paid in land. For a more full and 
particular account of the classification and jjayment 
of those claims, see the general county history. 



Classification No. 1, Section 

Hannah Hooker 211 
James Fitch 319 

Haynes Fitch, two 

losses 89 

Jacob Jennings 23 
Edward Wentworth 80 
Ebenezer W hitney 108 
Benj. Betts. Jr. 3 

Michael ^lorehouse 

Jr. 7 

Michael Morehouse 4 
Andrew Morehouse 1 
Elizabeth Gaylord 5 
Samuel Bunal 30 

Nehemiah St. John 89 
Samuel Comstock 2 
Ephraim Stewart n 
Thaddeus Keeler 2 
Elizabeth Dunning 7 
Silas Hickoek 3 

Nathan Hickoek 2 

Nathaniel Street .33 
Jesse Burchard 7 

John Benedict 172 

David Jackson 53 

Samuel Keeler 30 

Benjamin Peck 23 

James Brown 15 

Anna Reynolds 22 

John Dovey 

Moses Dickinsons 

Hannah Dickinson 
Piatt Townsend 
Daniel Thatcher's 

Jacob Jennings 
Stephen Wood 
Sam'l Middlebrook 

Sarah Dickinson 

Deborah Dickinson : 
Hannah Dickinson & 
Eliza LiUibridge 
Daniel Thatchers 

James Smith 21 13 Committee 

Footing of Classification No. 1, 
Classification No. 2, Section 2. 




Stephen Lockwooo 




Thaddeus Betts, 

two losses 







James Cr owley 






Gershorn Hyatt 




Simeon Raymond 



Thomas Comstock 




Thomas Benedict 




Thomas Benedict 




John Rich 




John Rich's heirs 






No. 3, Section 3. 







Nathan Jarvis 



Stephen Lockwood 219 


Daniel Hanford's 

two losses 







Gold Hoyt 



Thomas Comstock 195 


James Hoyfs heirs 26 




Thomas Benedict 



Thomas Benedict 




Matthew Keeler 



Isaac Keeler 




Jesse Ben-diet 



Jesse Benedict 




Matthew Keeler 




Jonathan Riggs 



Josiah Marvin 







Obediah .Siseat 


Rebecca Smith 






Isaac Waring 





James Hitchcock 






Thomas Hayes 





Deborah Ricket 



Samuel Kiteham 




Joshua Rogers 






• r 

Mary Avery 








f Cla 

ssification No 3, 




No. 4, Section 4 







Capt. Josiah Starr 




Josiah Starr 



Joshua Starr 
Josiah Starr 
Ezra Starr 
Fara Starr 
Dr. John Wood 

Comfort S. Mygatt 400 
His heirs 262 

Wni. Taylor in right 

ing of Classification No. 4. 


At tlu' coniiiieiicei 
foniiud jMi't i>i tlu' 
towij.-liJi) of niin.ii. 

)f the year 1817, Norwalk 
(irv of the tlieu e.xtensivc 

Early in that year, a i^etition for a 
organization was drawn up and signed by a number 
of citizens, but how many, or whom, cannot now be 
ascertained, the writer having made a diligent search 
for the original paper, among the public files, without 

In pursuance of that petition, at a meeting of the 
Commissioners of Hiiron county held on on the 18th 
day of February, 1817, the following order was made: 

On the petition of David Gibbs and others, we set off the townships 
of Bronson and Norwalk (being numbers three and four in the twenty- 
second range of townships in Huron county) from the township of 
Huron, to be organized into a separate township by the name of Nor. 
walk. By order of the Commissioners, 

J Attest : Frederick Fally, P. 'I. 

Frederick Fally, Ebenezer Merry and Bildad 
Adams were then the county commissionrt's, and 
Frederick Fally was acting as clerk for tlie commis- 
sioners "P. T." {jjro fern.) 

The two townships remained in that state of or- 
ganization until on the 8tli of March, IS'20, when at 
a meeting of the county commissioners, — present, 
Joseph Strong and Lyman Farwell, — it was 

Ordered, That towns numbers one and two, in the twenty-second 
range, be and the same is hereby annexed to the township of Norwalk. 

And that state of organization continued until at 
a meeting of the commissioners of Huron county, • 
held on the 4th day of March, 1823: present, Eli S. 
Barnum, Robert S. Southgate and Amos Woodward, 
commissioners, it was 

Ordered, That township Bumber one, in the twenty-second range 
(called Ripley), be and same is hereby annexed to township number 
one, in the twenty-third range (called New Haven), fo:- township pur- 

Ordered, On the petition of Edward L. Cole'and others, that townships 
numbers two and three, in the twenty-second range (the first Bronson, 
the second Fairfield.) be organized with township privileges, and that 
the same be known by the name of Bronson. And notice of township 
meeting on the first Monday of April next, given according to law. 
Attest : MosES Kimball, 

Clerk and Auditor, Huron County. 

Of the townships here named in parenthesis, the 
first should have been Fairfield, and the second, Bron- 
son, but the record stands as cited. 

Thus it will be seen that from February 18, 1817, 
to Alarch 8, 1S20, Norwalk embraced a territory five 
miles wide and ten miles long, and from March 8, 
1820 to March 4, IS'i'i, its territory was five miles 
wide and twenty miles long; forming an election pre- 
cinct which polled sixty-two votes at the first elec- 
tion, as appears by the certificate attached to tlie tally 
sheet of that election, now on file in the county 
clerk's office, which is as follows: 

At a regular election of the electors in the township of Norwalk, at 
the house of Daniel Tilden, in said Norwalk, on the third Say of April, 
1820, for two justices of the peace: 

We do hereby certify, that Enos Gilbert had sixty -one votes: Samuel 
B. Lewis, forty-flve; Luke Keeler, one: Abijah Comstock, seven; Asher 
Cole, one; and Joseph Pierce, three, for the offices of justices of the 
peace. Platt Benedict, 

Attest : Wm. Gardner, Euphalet W. Day, 

Enos Gilbert, Robert S. Sovthgate,' 

Clerks. Judges of Election. 

At an election for slieritf on Deoenilier (;, 18-20, (at 
winch Enos (Jilhert, of Norwalk. was elected) 
seventy-two votes were polled. 


At iin election for justice on the "^d day of April, 
1821, (at which Timothy Taylor was elected) seventy- 
six votes were polled. 

At the election for county otticers. October 9, 1831, 
ninety-two votes were polled. 

At the State election in 1877, the same territory 
polled for governor: Fairfield, 303"; Bronson, 22o; 
Ripley, 312; Norwalk, 1,34-4. Total, 3,08-1:. 

After Ripley, Fairfield and Bronson were detached 
from Norwalk, and'at the State election of October 8, 
1831, only fifty-one votes were polled in NorAvalk. 

{.\bstract showing Norwalk.) 
Duplicate of taxes laid in Huron county for the year 1815, by the 
county commissions of said county. 
Eli S. Barnum, Caleb Palmer and Charles Parker, Con 
Tax bill for the county of Huron in the year 1S15: 


Dillingham John SSHO 

Reed. Hanson 

Wilson, .James 

Comstock, Abijah . . 
Lewis, Samuel B . . 
Newcomb, Benjamii 

Total for Wheatsborough aSO 
Total for Til 60 

Huron i 5600 

Vermillion 2480 

Total for Huron County, 8192.40 

The townships of Wheatsborough. Huron and 
Vermillion appear to have constituted the whole 
county, for purposes of taxation, at that time. 

This duplicate was probably made out in the early 
part of the year 1815. In August, of that year, 
there was an entirely different arrangement of town- 
ship lines established, as appears by the following 
extract from Volume I, page 1, of the Commissioners' 
Joui-nal of Huron county: 

Commissioners' office, at county seat, August 1, 1815. First meet- 
ing held at David Abbott, Esq. 

Caleb Palmer, Charles Parker and Eli S. Barnum, Commissioners. 

Ichabod Marshall, Clerk, appointed pro tern. Abijah Comstock, 
appointed County Treasurer. 

The new townships following are set off, viz: 

1, Wayne's Reserve, at Lower Sandusky, to be known by the name 
of Lower Sandusky. 

a. Vermillion— comprising the following tract, viz: The whole of 
the twentieth range of the Connecticut Western Reserve, together with 
all the tract of coimtry belonging to the county of Huron, east of said 
twentieth range. 

3. Greenfield— comprising townships numbers two and three, in the 
twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third and twenty-fou]fh ranges of 
the Connecticut Western Reserve. 

4. New Haven— comprising number one in the twenty-first, twenty- 
second, twenty -third and twenty -fourth ranges. 

By order of the Commissioners, 
Ichabod Marshall, Commissioners' Clerk, pro tern. 


(Extract showing Norwalk.) 
County tax assessed on the residents of Huron county for the 
year 1819: 

Xorn-alk Towntihip. Horses. Cattle. Houses. 

Abbot, Ezra 450 $2 25 

*Ammerroan, Simeon 3 — 30 

Benedict Piatt 2 8 ... 140 

Boalt, Eben 4 ... 40 

Boalt, John 2 .... 20 

Brunson Hosea 1 — 10 

Cole, Levi 2 9 ,... 150 

Comstock, Abijah 3 3 ..,. 140 

♦Clark, Lestor 1 .... 10 

*Clark,Jabez 1 4 .... ro 

•Cole, David 4 .... 40 


yoriralk Tou-nship. Horses. Cattle. Houses. 

*Cla;k, Halsey 1 4 .... 70 

''Crawford, Joseph 2 20 

Cole. Thomas 2 — 20 

■•Demmg, Jabez 3 .... 30 

Forsythe, Fi-ederick 1 1 350 2 15 

Fay, Lucius 4 .. 40 

Gibbs, David 1 3 .... liO 

Gibbs, Samuel R 1 K . ■ ■ ■ 90 

Gilbert, Enos 1 .... 10 

*6uthrj,Eben 1 8 .... 110 

■^Herrick, Ezra 1 2 .... .50 

■►Herrick, Ezra Jr 1 30 

'Hoskins, John 3 .... 30 

''Hagerman, Thomas 5 — .50 

Houk, Henry 2 2 .... 80 

*Herrick, Lott 4 ... 40 

Isham, Epaphroditus 4 40 

Isham,Seldon 1 ... H) 

Iiiman. Malvara 3 .... 30 

•Kellogg. Jlariin 1 4 .... TO 

Keeler. Luke 1 4 TO 

Keelei-.John 2 2 .... 80 

tLoekwood. George 2 60 

Lockwood, Henry 1 3 ... 110 

Laylin.John 1 1 -. -10 

Laylin, Charles 1 10 

Lewis, Samuel B 1 4 .... TO 

Marshall, Ichabod 1 30 

Mason, Cornelius 1 10 

Myre«,Adam 2 1 .... TO 

Odway, Nehemiah 1 30 

*Pixley, Reuben 2 1 ... TO 

Powers, Abraham 2 — 20 

*Rundle. Abijah 1 4 — TO 

Reed, Hanson 1 4 ... TO 

"Reynolds, Job T 3 ... 30 

'SutlifE, Nathan 3 ... :» 

♦Southgate, Robert S 1 5 .... 80 

*Sypher, Peter 1 4 .... TO 

Strong. Silas G 1 ... 10 

Tice,Peter , 1 1 :J00 1 90 

Tice & Forsythe 200 100 

*Taylor. Benjamin 2 .... 20 

*Terry, Henry 1 ... 10 

*Tanner, Nathan 4 ... 40 

tUnderhill, Jasper 2 .... 20 

Wheeler, Edward 1 1 ... 40 

Wells. Ezekiel 1 4 ... TO 

''Welch, John 5 ... .50 

White,John 1 3 .... 00 

Wilson, James 1 4 TO 

Todd, Manning S 1 30 

David Underbill. Levi Cole, Piatt Benedict, 
Peter Tice, Frederick Forsythe and 
Daniel Tilden, own all the town of Nor- 
walk, assessed at $1,400 7(10 

Total for Norwalk 42 174 .... $43 10 

Total amount of the tax 81,217 75 

Note.— Total names on this duplicate 63 

''Lived in Bronson, then attached to Norwalk 19 

tLived in Milan 1 

tLived in Ridgefleld 1 — 21 

Residents of Norwalk 42 

To Hallet Gallup— .Sir.'— The taxes herein contained, assessed on 
the residents of Huron county for the year 1819; you are by the Com- 
missioners of Huron county, authorized to collect, you will, therefore, 
proceed to 90lleet the said taxes, and pay the amount to the Treasurer 
of Huron county as the law directs. 

By order of the Commissioners, 

Benj Abbott, Clerk. 


(Extract showing Norwalk.) 

List of Taxable Property in Norwalk Tow.vship. 

Proprietors^ Xames. Homes. Cattl?. 

■"Ammermon. Simeon 1 5 80.80 

Bronker. John 2 1 70 

Brunson, Hosea 2 20 

Bangs. James 2 20 

Benton William 1 10 

Baker, Timothy 2 2 80 

•Beckwith, William .3 30 

Bangs, Theodore 2 flO 



Benedict. Piatt 

•Baker, Spencer 

*Baker, ^\ illiam 

•Brownell \bel 

Boalt. John 

Boalt. Eben 

•Clark, Daniel L 

•Crawford Joseph 

•Clark, LestPi 

•Cl.irk, Jabez 

Cole, Da^id 

•Conger David 

Cole. Thomas 

Case. Samuel 

Carver, Mdnch 

Cole, Ashei 

Comstoc k \bi]ah 

Denit, Zurich W 

•Day, Ehphalet 

Decker, Elick 

Dimick, John 

Dillingham John 

•DemmiQg Jai)ez 

Dillingham Heur\ 

•Ervin, Thomas 

Fnrsjthf iiedenek 

Finney. Eravtus 
■ Foster, beth 
Fay. John 
Fay. Lunub 
Gallup, Hallett 
Gardner \\ ilham 
Gibbs, DaMd 
Gibbs. Samuel R 
•Guthrie Eben 
Gilbert, Enos 
Huyck, Henij 
Hutohinb Elias 
•Herrick Lott 
•Hoskinb John 
•Hagarman Thomas 
•Herrick Ezra 
•Herrick Ezid Ji 
Inman, Mulvery 
Isham, Ep-iplii oditus 
Isham, Selden 
•Johnson Bi vant 
Jerolomon Thomas 
•Kellogg Mai tin 
Keeler, Lewis 
Keeler, John 
Lewis, SainueJ B 
Laylin, C hailes 
Laylin, .J ohn 
Lockwood Henr\ 
Lane, Ebeiie^er 
Ma.:on, ( ornelia 
Marshall Ichabod 
•Mofflt, Pbihp 
•Pi.icley, Reuben C 
Pratt, John 
Pierce, Joseph 
Porter, W illiam 
•Rundle, Abioah 
Raymond Lemuel 
•Reynolds Job T 

Reed. Hanson 
•Sutliff, Nathan 
•Southgate Robert S 
•Sample John 
Sifort, Fetei 
Sifori, Peter Jr 
•Tanner, Nathan 
Tice, Peter 
Tilden, Daniel 
Todd, Manning S 
•Terr}-, Henrj 
•Taylor, Benjamin F 
•Warren, Daniel 
Welch, John 
Wilson, James 
White, John 
Wlieeler Levi 
Western Jonathan 
Wells, Roswell 

Horses. Cattle. 

Proprietor^i' Names. 

Wilson, Thomas C.^ 

Ordway , Nehemiah 

Amount of Town Plat 

gSi 10 



Benedict, Piatt ' 5 72}^ 

Benton, William 35 

Bangs, James , 35 

Bangs, Theodore » 30 

tButman, John S .30 

Cole Levi 4.50 

Finney Erastus 1.35 

Fay, John 1.68^ 

Forsythe Frederick 2.85 

Gallup, William 1.50 

Henry, Samuel 50 

Lane, Ebenezer 1.50 

Mason, Cornelia 2 00 

Tice, Peter 5.75 

Tilden, Daniel 8.00 

tUnderhill. David 3.75 

Williams. James 1.25 

Whittlesey and Benedict 6.60 

Total amount of page footings of this duplicate 81.14-2 U 

To David W. Hinman, Esi^., 

Sir;— The county levies liereiu contained, assessed on the inhabitants 
of Huron County, for the year 1820, you are, by the Commissioners of 
Huron county, authorized to collect, you will therefore proceed to col- 
lect the same and pay to the Treasurer of Huron county as the law 
directs By order of tlie Coramissitners. 

For Lyman Farwell, Clerk, 

Ichabod Marshall. 

Note . Total names on this duplicate, including lot owners . . 101 

•Lived in Bronson, then attached to Norwalk 33 

tLi%-ed in Milan 1 

tLived in Ridgefleld 1-35 

Residents of Norwalk 66 


(Extract siiowing Norwalk.) 

Duplicate of the county tax levied on the personal and town propei-jy 
of Huron county for the year 1822. 



Arnold. Alfred 

Bangs, Theodore S., lot 60, 1820, 30c; 1821, $1.25: 1822, 


Butman, Jno. S., lot 58, 1820, 41c; 1821, 79}^c; 1822,37^c; . . 

Boalt, Eben 

Boukee, John 1 

Baker, Timothy, 1 house $400 3 

Benedict, Piatt, 1 house ¥400, half No. 1 2 

lot 14, 1821, 87Hc; 18^, 50c 

" . lot 15, 1821, $4.40; 1822, 50c 

lotl8, 1821, 63^0 ; 1822, 50c 

Iot33, 1821, 62Hc; 1822, 50c 

Benton. William 

Boalt. Jolin 1 

Comstock. Abijah 1 

Cole, Asher, 1 house S250 2 

Norwalk lots 4, 11, 19, 21, 27, 29 

Cole, Asa, lot 22, BOc 

lot 30, 1820, 52.18; 1821, 80.81H; 1^ 50c 

Drake, Benjamin F 1 

Drake, William, lot 26, halt 1820, 81.09^; 1821, JO.SIH; 


Dounce, John 

Dillingham, John, 1 house f 2.50 

Forsythe, Frederick, 1 house J8.50 1 

% lot 9, 1821 and 1822 

Finny, Erastus, 1 house -200, !^ lot 24 

Fay, Lucius 

Fay, John, deUnquent, 1820, 1 house, lot 16 

same same for 1822 

Gardner, William 1 

Gallup, Hallet, lot 61 1 

Gilbert, Enos 1 

Gibl).s, David 1 












Norwalk. Horses. 

Gallup, William, lot 62, 1S20, '31, '82 

Gibbs, Samuel R 

Hurlburt, Henry 

Henrv, Sanauel lot ir, 1820, -21, '22 

Hoskins, Thomas • 1 

Huyck.Henry 3 

Isha'ii, Epaphroditus 

Isham, Selden 1 

Inman, Malvery 

Kimball, Jloses, half 28. 

Keeler, John » 1 

Keeler, Luke 1 

Keeler, Lewis 

Latimer, Pickett , 1 

Lockwood Henry 

Laylin, Charles 

Lane. Ebenezer, 1 house :200 1 

Lewis, Samuel B 1 

Laylin, John 2 

Merryman, Enoch B 1 

Marshall, Ichabod 1 


Mason, Cornelia, lot 34 ". . 

JIarvin, Zaehariah, lot 35 

Odway. Neheniiah, delinquent of 1S2I 

Pratt, John 

Pearce, Joseph, delinquent of 1820 .. 

Reed, Hanson 1 

Richmond Everett, lot 66. 1821, '22 

Straiten, Daniel 

Tice, Peter, }s lot 9 2 


lots 6, 8, 1831, '22 

lots 35, 33, 1821, '22 

Tilden, Daniel 

half lots 12, 26, 1820, '21, -22 

Underhill, David, lots 23, 88 

Underbill, Benedict &. Cole, lots 2, 3, 10, 20 

Williams, James, lot 64, 1820, -21, '22 1 

Wells, Ezekiel 

Wells, Roswell 

Woodward, William 

Wilson, James 1 

White, John 

Wheeler, Samuel 

Wood, Andrew 

Wheeler, Edward 2 

Whittlesey, Elisha, lots 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44. 45, M, 

55. 56, 57, 59, 63 and 63, 1821 and 1823 . 

Unknown, lots 7 and 31, 1821 and 1822 

Totals 47 

Auditor's Office, Huron Co., Aug. 1, 1822. 
I, Moses Kimball, certify the foregoing to be a correct duplicate of the 
county tax for 1822. Moses Kimball, C. .4. 

Note.— The total tax for the county, including Brownhelm, Black River 
and Elyria. is tooted up $1,659.36. 

It will be remembered that Norwalk and Brouson 
were set off into a township by the name of Norwalk on 
February 18, 1817, and that Bronson was set oif from 
Norwalk on March 4, 1822. This, then, is the first 
personal property tax duplicate for Norwalk town- 
ship proper, and shows a list of sixty-six taxable per- 
sons; but Butman, Underhill and Whittlesey were 
not residents, leaving the actual resident tax payers 
only sixty-three. 

(Extract showing Norwalk). 
Resident proprietors' land tax, in the year 1815, for the counties of Cuy- 
ahoga and Huron. State of Ohio. 





2 S'g «£ 



-■imount of 


Amount Due 

$ 'cts. mills'200 

8 cts.'mills300 

Frink, William § 
Wood, Standish 

.....145022 4 
..200. ...22 4 
..200. ...22 4 

4 : do 





25l 81 00 OO 
5, 37 5 ... 
.^|37 5 ... 

I have compared this duplicate with the original, and find it correct. 
George Pease. 
The charge for drawing off Ihe within duplicate is cne dollar and 
fifty cents. Received payment of Charles Parker.J George Pease. 

*There is one name on this duplicate for Portage < ounty. £r.d one for 
Cuyahoga, with forty-seven other names for Huron county, the three 
above given being all there are for Norwalk. 

i Charles Parker was one of the county commissioners in 1815. 

§ William Frink was a resident of Ridgefleld in 1812 and 1813. and of 
Sherman in 18-20. and probably never resided in Norwalk. 

TAX IX 1816. 

(Extract showing Norwalk). 






Amount ot j^^^^'o^^'lj,^^^ 


17 50 
27 75 

4 50 

mills, i S 
5 '... 4 

5 ::: ,? 

. ;27 

cts. mills 

Beaty, John 

Buii,Epaphrusw:.:: : 


Frink, William 



21 5 

t 5 



Total am't tax (with i est of county), sl.lSo.C 

CoMMissioxERs' OFFICE. Hurou County, Ohio, June 8. 1816. 

We hereby certify that the within and foregoing is a duplicate of the 
State tax. for the County of Huron, for the year 1816. 

Frederick Fally, | „„ ■,„-,,. 

Attest: Ebenezer Merry, iji-ommissioneis. 

Frederick Fally, Clerk. 

t There are in this duplicate one name from Portage county, two 
names from Medina county, four names from Cuyahoga county, one 
hundred and seven names from Huron couty,— four being from Nor- 
walk, and Comstock the only actual resident. 

TAX IN 1817. 

(Extract showing Norwalk). 

Resident proprietors' land tax, for the year 1817, for Huron county. 


Proprietors' Names. 

C'olwell and others. 

Bull, EpaphrusW 

Comstock, Abijah 

Fay, Aaron 

Frink, William 

Gibbs, David 

Lockwood, Henry 

Second Rate (for county) 
§ Third Rate (for a 


22 4:4 
"" 42&3 

22 4i 
" 43 
22 43 

t'i339 87H 

Commissioners' Office, Huron County, Ohio, April 3, 1817. 
We hereby certify that the within and foregoing is a duplicate of the 
State tax, for the county of Huron, for the year 1817. 

§ There are in this duplicate one name from Portage county, two 
names from Medina county, two names from Cuyahoga county, one 
hundred and twenty.fhree names from Huron county, — seven being 
from Norwalk. 

+ These figures are the total for the county. The total for Norwalk is 

TAX IN 1818. 

(Extract showing Norwalk). 

Resident proprietors' land tax. for the year 1818. for Huron county. 

Frink, William 

Gibbs, Pavid 

Lockwood, Henry. 

3 5^11 


...•22! 43 

280 •22; 4 2 


There are ia this duplicate one name from Portage county, one name 
from Medina county, one hundred and eights'-eight names from Huron 
county,— nine being from Norwalk. 

Tliere is no certificatp attached to this paper, but it is authentic, and 
forms part of the oflicial record in the Auditors' office of Huron county. 

TAX IX 1819. 
(Extract sliowing Norwalk) - 

The following Collector's duplicate, for the tax of 
the year 1819, found amoung the papers of the late 
Hallet Gallup, is the earliest one that the most 
thorough search has brought to light. None are on 
file in the Auditor's office. 

and tax of tlie residents of Hur 

imly. fo 
















t'onistock. Abijah 
Fav \aroii 







Friuk William 



Gibl«, David 

Lock wood, Henry. 
Lewis, Samuel B.. 
Marvin, Zachariah 


John S. Reed says, the tax against Cornelius Reed was paid for last 

To Hallet Gallup: 

You are, by the commissioners o Huron county appointed collector 
of the foregoing taxes, of the residents, on land in the county of Huron. 
Ton are. therefore, hereby authorized to collect the same, and make 
returns as the law directs. 

Joseph Strong. I ,^„,„,„v, ,.•„„„,.. 

TAX IX 1820. 
(Extract showing Norwalk). 

Benedict, Thomas . 

Benedict, Elijah, .. 

Beatty, John. 



Benedict Piatt, 

for Salley and 

Mary Pettit 

Boalt, Eben I 200 

Benedict, William 800 
Comstock. Abijah. 1160 

Curtiss, Ira . . 
Cole, Asa * Thomas 
Crawford, Joseph 
Cole, Levi, heirs of 

B-rink, William + . 
Gibbs, SamuelR . 
Gibbs, David . . . . 
Huyck, Henry. . 
Inman, Melvery. 
Jennings, Seth . . 

Lewis Samuel B.. 
Lockwood, Henry 

;Lane, E 

iMeers. Moody 

Uarrin, Zachariah 


Tax in 1830-continue 







,!s 1 

? cts. 

Middlebrook.SamT 1 

rS^^c ...' 
Riggs, Jonali. heirs of 

Townsend, Jacob 



4.33 ■ 







4 1 

4! 3 

4 3 

4 4 


4 A.'.'.'.... 


Reed, Hanson 








Tice Peter 

White, Moss, / 
E.Tweedy, & others \ 

Whitlock, Thadeous 
Whittlesey, Elisha. . . 
Wood, Steplien 

Wilson, James 

Keeier, John '.'.'.'.'.. 


Newcomb, Jabez. 



Total for Norwalk. 

I hereby certify that the above and foregoing is a correct dupli< 
the land tax in the county of Huron, for the year 1820. 

Asa Sanford, 
Uiditor of Huron County. 

I resident of Sherr 


The present County Auditor, H. W. Owen, Esq., 
has kindly furnished the writer with a statement of 
the several footings of valuations and taxes for the 
township and corporation of Norwalk in tne yeaf 

btate proportion 

County proportion 

Township proportion. X orwalk township . 

State proportion 

County proportion 

Corporation proportion 

Total for township and corporation. 

37,804 75 
S61,096 67 


Of the first election ever held within the limits of 
the present township of Norwalk, Samuel B. Lewis 
says (see Fire-lands Pioiieer of June, 1858, page 33) : 
"During the summer and autumn of 1815, I built a 
house on the farm I have so long dwelt upon, and in 
that house, in the spring of 1816, was formed a town- 
ship organization, just after which was held, in my 
house, the first Norwalk township election. I do not, 
at this distant day, recollect all who were present at 
that election, but can only name, among others, pre- 
sent: Judge Southgate, David Gibbs, Esq., Henry 
Lockwood, James AVilson, Hanson Reed, Abijah 
Comstock, Esq., mj-self and some fifteen or twenty 
others. Judge Southgate, Abijah Comstock, Esq., 
and Samuel B. Lewis. Esq.. constituted the board at 
this election. 

Martin Kellogg says (see Fire-hiiuh Pi(i)u-i-r of 
March, 1859, page 41): "The first election in Norwalk 
town.ship was held at the house of Hanson Reed in 
April, 1817. Norwalk and Bronsou were at this time 
organized as an election district. There was no jus- 
tice of the peace or otlier officer who could lawfully 



qualify the election board before entering upon the 
duties for which they were chosen. 

'"Abijah Comstock had been justice of the peace, 
but his commission had expired previous to this elec- 
tion. After the electors had met and the board was 
formed, they had to send to Ridgefield for Esquire 
Littlefield to come and qualify the board." 

"On the 6th of April, 1818, (Norwalk and Bronson 
being together as an election district,) R. S. South- 
gate was elected justice of the peace. Number of 
votes at said election, twenty-two, of which Mr. 
Southgate had twent_v-one votes. On the 28th of 
ilay, he was qualified by James Williams, Esq., 
county clerk. On the 13th of April. 1818, an elec- 
tion was held at the house of Samuel B. Lewis, in 
Norwalk township, (Bronson and Norwalk together.) 
At this election fifty-six votes were given. S. B. 
Lewis, Lott Herrick and Martin Kellogg were judges, 
and Reuben Pixley and Dr. Joseph Pearce were clerks 
of election." 

• "Norwalk and Bronson were together as an election 
district from 1817 (the time of their first organiza- 
tion) to 1822. For a part of this time Fairfield was 
included in the same organization, making an election 
district five miles wide and fifteen miles long, the 
same being called Norwalk; and while so together, all 
the elections were held in the- jiart called Norwalk 

Mrs. Elizabeth Miuu, formerly Reed, says (see 
Fire-lands Pioneer of March, 1859, page 48): "The 
first town meeting was held at our house, as near as 
I can remember, in 1818. The officers I do not re- 
member except Reuben Pixley. He was town clerk." 

The foregoing statements are all in conflict with 
each other, and leave the question as to date, in 

Mr. Lewis is undoubtedly mistaken in fixing the 
date in 1816, for Norwalk was not set off from the 
township of Huron until February 18, 1817. 

Mr. Kellogg evidently speaks from memory in fix- 
ing the date as April, 1817, and does not give the 
names of any of the officers ofliciating at the election 
he describes, nor the names of any of the officers 
elected. He speaks by the record in his account of 
the election of April 6, 1818, but puts them in a 
little thick when he gives us another election on April 
13, 1818, only seven days after that of the 6th. lu 
the number of votes and names of officers officiating, 
he exactly describes the election for governor and 
other officers held on October 13, 1818. There is 
no official record in any of the county offices, from 
which an inference could be drawn, that any election 
Avas held on April 13th; so he is probably incoi-rect in 
that statement. 

He is, in part, correct in stating that part of the 
time between 1817 and 1832, Fairfield formed part 
of the election district "called Norwalk." From 
February 18, 1817, to March 8, 1820, Bronson and 
Norwalk were one organization named Norwalk; at 
the latter date, Ripley and Fairfield were attached to 

Norwalk, and the four townships constituted an elec- 
tion district, five miles wide and twenty miles long, 
from that time until March 4, 1822, when Bronson 
and Fairfield were set oft' into an organization by the 
name of Bronson, and Ripley was attached to New 

No poll l)ook, nor certificate of election can be 
found in any of the county offices, relating to an 
election in Norwalk in 1817, but in volume one of 
the "Commissioners' Journal" of Huron county, 
showing the disbursements by the County Treasurer 
for 1817, appears the following entry: 

Voucher 258. 

1*17 — June 4. — To Abijah Comstock, for making returns of 
Justice elect SI 00 

Voucher 258, now on file in the Auditor's office, 
reads as follows: 

I hereby certify that Abijah Comstock made return of the election of 
a justice of the peace for the township of Norwalk, and that by said 
returns he was a judge of the election. 

May 20, 1S17. David Abbott, Clerk Common Pleas. 

In the probate judges office, at Norwalk, is a little 
old record book containing a medley of official memo- 
randa of estrays, store, -tavern and ferry licenses, 
marriages, certificates of the organization of dif- 
ferent religions societies, and official qualification of 
justices of the peace; among which is the following: 

June 4. 18ir. David Gibbs sworn ii 
for Norwalk township, before me. 

The foregoing entries and voucher fully corroborate 
and establish the correctness of Mr. Kellogg's state- 
ment, that the first election was held in 1817, and it 
is undoubtedly true that April was the month, and 
Hanson Reed's house the place, when and where it 

Hanson Reed's house was situated on the east side 
of the road leading from near the water works to the 
Fairfield road, and about thirty rods from the latter 

No poll-l)0ok can be found of the election of April 
6, 1818, but an official certificate of an "abstract of 
the votes cast at that election is on file in the county 
clerk's office, and is as follows : 

Whereas, By poll-book transmitted to me, and opened in the pres- 
ence of David Abbott and David W. Hinman, two justices of tlie peace 
in and for the county of Huron, it appears that at an election in and for 
the township of Norwalk, on the Cth day of April, 1318, the number of 
votes amounted to twent}--two, and that Rjbert S. Southgate liad twenty- 
one votes and Samuel B. Lewis one vote, consequently the said Robert 
S- Southgate was duly elected a justice of the peace, in and for the 
township of Norwalk, in the county aforesaid. 

■We, the undersigned, do hereby certify that the above is a true 
abstract of the above mentioned poll-book opened by us . 

Dated this 13th day of April, 1818. David Abbott, 

David W. Hismas, 

Jinstii-es of the Peace. 

Ill the Commissioners" Jounuil, account of disburse- 
ments for the year 1818. appears the following entry 
under date of May 27: 

To S B Lewis for election return .... 

Voucher No. 360, for that . 

I do hereby certify thit Samuel B Lewis made a return of tlie poll- 
book of the election of a justice of the iieace. in and tor the township 
of Norwalk, whereby it appears that Robert S. Southgate was elected a 
justice. 'Jas. Williams, C. Pleas. 

reads : 



Tlie foregoing certificates and commissioners' entry 
form the onlj- official recognition of the election of 
April 6, 1818. They fully corroborate Mr. Kellogg 
as to his statement of that election. It is probable 
that Samuel B. Lewis, Lott Herrick and Martin Kel- 
logg, were the Judges, as stated by Mr. Kellogg, and 
Eeuben Pixley one of the clerks, as stated by both 
Mr. Kellogg and Mrs. Minn. 

The poll-book of the State election of October 13, 
1818, (which Mr. Kellogg so exactly describes as hav- 
ing been held April 13,) is the first and oldest one 
found on the files in the county clerk's office. This is 
probably the election referi-ed to by ]\Ir. Lewis and 
Mr. Kellogg as the one held at the house of the former. 
The following is a copy: 


■TOBEK 13, 1818. 

Poll Book of the election held in the township of Norwalk, in the 
county of Huron, on the thirteenth daj of October, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighteen. Martin Kellogg, Sam- 
uel B. Lewis, and Lot Herrick, judges; and Reuben Pixley and Joseph 
Pearce. clerks of this election, were severally swore as the law directs, 
previous to their entenng on the duties of their offices 


i of Electors. 

Levi Cole. 
*Eben Guthrie. 
Mulvery Inman. 
Ezra Abbott. 
Burwell Whitlock. 
*Stewart Southgate. 
Asher Cole. 
Edward Wheeler. 
Hanson Read. 
.Joseph Pearce. 
John Laylin. 
Charles Laylin. 
*William W. Beckwith 
'Joseph Crawford. 
*Job T. Reynolds. 
Carlton Hoskins. 
Piatt Benedict. 
*Lot Herrick. 
*5Iartin Kellogg. 
'Daniel Warren . 
Lucius Fay. 
Samuel B. Lewis. 
♦Roberts. Southgate. 
*Jabez Uemming. 
Jasper Underbill. 
John Welch. 
♦Reuben Pixley. 
David Underbill. 

Reibe.n Pixley. 
Jo.sEPH Pearce, 


^of Names of Electors 

29. Peter Tice. 

30. Simon Timermon. 

31. Reuben C. Pixley. 
82 James Wilson. 

33. 'Lester Clark. 

:J4. *Nathan Sutlifl. 

35. Thomas Cole. 

36. Truman Rusco 

37. John White. 

38. Eben Boalt. 

•39. Asa W. Ruggles. 

40. *Nathan Tanner. 

41 . Seth Jennings. 

42. David Cole. 

43. Abraham Powers. 

44. *Abioah Rundell. 

45. John Boalt. 

46. Jabez Neweomb. 

47. Luke Keeler. 

48. John Keeler. 

49. Henry Lockwood. 

50. Louis Keeler. 

51 . 'Daniel Clark. 

52. Seth Keeler. 
.53. *Halsey Clark. 
54. James Mead. 

.55. Abijah Comstook. 

56. Charles Taylor. 

uber of electors 

this election 

Samuel B. Lewis 
Martin Kellogg, 
Lott Herrick, 

Judges of Election. 

Oil the reverse side of the half sheet of unruled 
foohscaj) paper upon which the foregoing "Poll 
Book " is written, an abstract and certificate of the 
votes cast at that election are entered, as follows: 

kamks of persons voted for. a.nd for what offices, containing the 
nl-mber of votes for each person. 


Thomas Worthinginn, number of votes 2 

Ethan A. Brown, number of votes .53 

Representatives in the State Leoislatitie— 

Senate— John Campbell, number of votes 49 

Representative— Alfred Kelley. number of votes 49 

•Lived in 

then part of Norwalk . 

Representative in Congress — 

Peter Hitchcock, number of votes 6 

John Sloane, number of votes 49 

CovNTV Commissioners— /~ 

Erastus Smith, number of votes '. 5 

Bildad Adams, number of votes 50 

We hereby certify that Ethan A. Brown had fifty-three votes for Gov- 
ernor, and Thomas Worthington had two votes for Governor: John 
Campbell had forty-nine votes for Senator in the State Legislature; 
Alfred Kelley had forty-nine votes for Representative in the State Legis- 
lature; John Sloane had forty-nine votes for Representative in Con- 
gress, and Peter Hitchcock had six votes for representative in Congress; 
Bildad Adams had fifty votes for County Commissioner, and Erastus 
Smith had five votes for County Commissioner. 

Sami-el B. Lewis, 
Attest: Martin Kellogg, 

Rei-ben Pixlet. Lott Herrick, 

Joseph Pearce. Judges of Election. 


POLL BOOK. APRIL 5, l82-i. 

Poll-book of the election held in the township of Norwalk, in the 
county of Huron, and State of Ohio, this fifth day of April, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty -four. Piatt Bene- 
dict, Eben Boalt and Asher Cole, judges: and John Tice and Abel 
Tracy, clerks, were severally sworn, as the law directs, previous to- 
their entering upon the duties of their respective offices. 

Andrew Woods. 
Ammi Keeler. 
John Tice. 
Hallet Gallup 
Lucius Fay . 
Erastus Fenney . 
Richard Huyk 
John G. Taylor. 
Abimel Dodge. 
Thomas Buchannan 
John Dillingham . 
Pickett Latimer. 
Malavery Inman . 
Samuel Preston. 
JohnT. Hdton. 
Asa Cole. 
Henry Lockwood . 
Frederick Forsythe. 
Thomas Holmes. 
Daniel Sani'iveslane 
Daniel G. Raitt 
Enos Gilbert. 
Benjamin Junkins. 

names of electors. 
Cyrus Butler. 
Matthew W. Junkins. 
Perry G. Beckwith. 
Piatt Benedict. 
Isaac Herrick. 
John White. 
Edward Wheeler. 
James Wilson . 
Luke Keeler. 
Erastus Butler. 
Henry Hurlbutt. 
Samuel Henry. 
Ebenezer Lane. 
.A.lexander Dickson. 
John La.ylin . 
Henry Huyck. 
Roswell Wells. 
Oliver Day. 
Epaphroditus Isham 
Seldon Isham. 
Zachariah Mai-vin. 
Josiah Wells . 

Joshua Drake. 
Alvin Barton. 
Abijah Comstock. 
Ruluf Andrus. 
Jabez Clark. 
Ichalod Marshall. 
David Gibbs. 
Abel Tracy. 
Eben Boalt. 
Theodore Baker. 
Ezekiel Wells 
John Dounce. 
Charles Laylin. 
Har^-ey G . Morse . 
Timothy Baker. 
George Springsted. 
Hanson Read. 
Daniel Whitney. 
John Keeler. 
Asher Cole. 
Benjamin Hoj-t. 

hereby certified that the number of electors at 

?N Tice, 
EL Tracy, 


Platt Benedict. 
Asher Cole, 
Eben Boalt, 

Judges of Election. 

Enos Gilbert, was elected Justice of the Peace. 

Samuel Preston, was elected Township Clerk. 

Eben Boalt, Piatt Benedict and Asher Cole, were elected Trustees. 

Timothy Baker, was elected Treasurer. 

CENSUS OF 1819. 

age of twenty-one yeai 

Abbott, Ezra. 
Ammerman, Simeon. 
Ammidon, Daniel. 
Arnold, Alfred. 
Benedict, Piatt. 
Beckwith, Perry. ^' 
Beckwith, William. ' 
Boalt, Eben 
Boalt. John . 
Brunson, Hozeah. 
Baily, Hyram. 
Brownell, Abel . '•' 
Betts, John 
Cole, Levi. 
Cole, Asher. 

Gallup, Hallet. 
Guthra, Eben." 
Gurley, M. 
Herrick, Ezra.» 
Herrick, Ezra, Jr.- 
Hurlbutt, Henry. 
Hoskins. John. ' 
Hoskins, Carleton . '■' 
Hagerman, Thomas." 
Houk. Henry. 
Herrick, Lott." 
Inman, Matvara. 
Isham, Epaphroditus. 
Isham, Seldon. 
Kellogg, Martin." 

Potter, Thomas 
Prentice. Oliver." 
Pettet, Edward. 
Raitt, Daniel G 
Rundle. Abijah." 
Reed, Hanson. 
Reynolds. Job T." 
Sutliff. Nathan." 
Southgate, Robert S.' 
Sypher, Peter." 
Sypher, Peter, Jr." 
Smith, John. 
Strong. Silas G. 
Sypher, Henry." 
Stone, Joel. 


Carpenter, John L. Keeler, Luke. Sanders, Stephen, 

Com^tock, Abijah. Keeler, Ami. Soles, Charles. 

Cherry, Henry.* Keeler. Lewis . Tice, Peter 

Clark, Lester.'' Keeler, John. Taylor. Benjamin.'' 

Clark, Jabez. " Keeler, Setli. Terry. Henry." 

Cole, David. Lockwood, George. Tanner, Nathan." 

Clark. Holsey." Lockwood, Ralph. Underhill, Jasper. 

Crawford, Joseph." Lockwood. Henry. Underhill, David. 

Cole. Thomas. Laylin, John. Wheeler, Edward. 

Cole, Asa. Las'lin. Charles. Wells, Ezekiel. 

Carver, Aldrich. Lewis. Samuel B. Wells, Roswell. 

Dickerson. Alexander. Loomis, Almau. Welch, .Tohn. 

Demming. Jabez." Marshall, lohabod. Warren, Daniel W.» 

Davis, Joshua. Myre^, Adam. White, John. 

Forsy the. Frederick. McLin, John. Wilson, James. 

Fay, Lucius. Neweomb, Jabez. Todd, Manning S. 

Fay, Pollus, Nims, Slaham. Shaddock, Joseph. 

Felt, Joshua Odwa}-, Nehemiah. Ru,?gles, Asa. 

Gibbs, David. Pearce, Joseph. Rusco, Armon." 

Gibbs, Samuel R. Pixley, Reuben." Southgate, Stewart. 

Gilbert, Enos. Pixley, Reuben, Jr. ' 

Gallup. William. Powers, Abraham. 

I do hereby certify the within to be a correct enumeration of the white 
male inhabitants of the township of Norwalk, in the county of Huron, as 
taken by me. Ebex Boalt, Lister. 

XoRwALK, May 24, 1819. 

This enumeration shows a total of 109 

Lived in Bronson, attached to Norwalk 34 

Total for Norwalk proper 75 

CENSUS OF 1823. 

The eiuxnieratioii of the white male inliabitants of 
Norwalk above twentv-oue years of a^'e, in 18".33. 

John Keeler — 1 

Abijah Comstock 1 

Nehemiah Odway 1 

Ezekiel Wells ... 1 

Roswell Wells 1 

Seldon Isham 1 

Epaphroditus Ishara 1 

Samuel R. Gibbs 1 

Daniel Stratton 1 

Andrew Woods ... 1 

Samuel B. Lewis 1 

Henry Hurlbutt I 

Eben Boalt 1 

Henn,- Huyck. 2 

John Dillingham 1 

• Buck 1 

Daniel Sowers 1 

John Dounce 1 

John Layland 1 

Edward Wheeler 3 

Joslah Wells 1 

Asa Cole 2 

James Wilson 1 

Malvery Inman 1 

Charles Laylin 1 

John White 1 

Hanson Reed i 

Lemuel Raymond 1 

Thomas Holmes : 1 

Asher Cole 3 

• Lucius Fay 1 

The whole amount of the white male inhabitants of the 
Norwalk is eighty. Attest by Luke Keeler 

Peter Tice 2 

Frederick Forsythe 3 

Daniel G. Raitt 1 

Edward Pettit 1 

Harvey G. Morse 3 

Cyrus Butler 1 

Erastus Finney 1 

EnosGilbert 1 

Daniel Tilden i 

Henry Buckingham . 1 

Moses Kimball i 

Piatt Benedict 1 

Samuel Preston 2 

Samuel Henry i 

William Benton 1 

Ichabod Marshall 8 

Zachariah Marvin 1 

Hallet Gallup 1 

Theodore Bangs 1 

Nathan B. Johnson i 

Ebenezer Lane 1 

Pickett Latimer 1 

Timothy Baker 3 

Luke Keeler 2 

Lewis Keeler 1 

David Gibbs i 

Henry Lockivood 3 

Thomas Buchannon I 

Alfred Arnold. 1 

John T. Hilton 1 

nship c 
Lister for the Township of Xorwalk. 

It is to be regretted that the foregoing "eiiumera- 
tiou" was not more explicit in naming the inhabi- 
tants; nineteen person are counted without being 
named. It is probable the list is imperfect. Wil- 
liam Gallup, the head of a family, and within the 
class called for by the enumeration, does not appear. 
He did not belong iu any of the families containing 
more than one person given above; the same is true of 
Benjamin Taylor, James Williams and some others. 

CENSUS OF 1837. 

County Assessors returns of the white male inhabitants, above the 
age of twenty-one years iu Huron county, agreeable to an act regulat- 
ing the mode of taking the enumeration of the white male inhabitants 
above the age of twenty-one years, passed January 10, 1S27 

Levi Wilson. 
Samuel R. Gibbs. 
Oliver Day 
Seldoa Isham. 
David Sutton. 
Epaphroditus Isham . 
Roswell Wells. 
Josiah Wells. 
Ezekiel Wells. 
Ezekiel Wells, Jr, 
Lewis Keeler, 
Jacob Tetter 
Andrew Woods. 
Thomas Philips. 
Obadiah Jenney. 
John V Buskark. 
John V. Buskark, 2d 
Richard Numsin. 
Joseph Wilson. 
ThaddeusB. Sturgis. 
Thomas Adams. 
Jacob Wilson. 
H. G. Morse. 
Aurelius Mason . 
Benj. Carman. 
Ebenezer Lane 


Ichabod Marshall. 
Zachariah Marvin. 
Benjamin F. Harman. 
Daniel Tilden. 
Moses Kimball. 
Timothy Baker. 
Theodore Baker. 
Picket Latimer, 
David Gibbs 
Enos Gilbert 
Augustus P. Tower. 
Gilbert Brightman. 
Samuel Preston. 
JohnP. McArdle. 
William F. Kitterage. 
Daniel G. Raitt. 
John G. Tailor. 
Nelson Haughton. 
Horace Howard. 
Asahel W. Howe. 
Isaac Wilson. 
William Benton. 
Samuel Henry. 
James Springstead 
Levereti Bradley. 
John Tice. 
Lewis Curtiss. 
Joseph C. Curtiss. 
Thomas Holmes. 
James Wilson 
Malavara Inman. 
Thomas Buchannan . 
John White. 
Union White. 
John W, Haughton. 
Asa Cole 

William Haughton. 
Edward Wheeler. 
Samuel Wheeler. 
.John Laylin. 
John Dounce. 
John Dillingham. 
Jesse C. Brayman 
Henry Huyck. 
Michael F. Cisco. 
Seth Jennings. 

Josiah Botsford. 
Samuel Barnes. 
Samuel Sherman . 
Luke Keeler. 
Ami Keeler 
Jonathan Jennings. 
Andrew Millburn. 
Thomas Millburn. 
Lucius Fay. 
Asher Cole. 
Levi Cole 
Miner Cole. 
Abel Brownell 
John Keeler. 
Dr. Joseph Pearce. 
Abraham Powers. 
Jacob Morton. 
Piatt Benedict. 
Jonas B . Benedict . 

I. George Sheffield, Assessor of Huron County, certify that the fore- 
going is a correct list of the white raale inhabitants above the age ot 
twenty one years, taken by me agreeable to an act of the Legislature of 
the State of Ohio, passed January 10, 182T. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and official signature 
this 4th day of June, 1827. George Sheffield, A.sses3or. 

The "poll-book" of an election held in Norwalk on 
the 2d of April, 1827, shows that the following per- 
sons voted at that election, whose names do not ap- 
pear in the foregoing "enumeration:" 

Matthew W. Junkins. ' , 
Frederick Forsyth. 
Oliver Woodhouse. 


Caleb Gallup. 
Barnet Carkhuff. 
AsaH- Beard. 
Abraham Emmitt. 
Ery Keeler 
Henry Hurlbut. 
John Miller. 
Cyrus Butler. 
William H. Hunter. 
William W. Nugent. 
JohnV. Vredenburgh. 
Mathew Callaway. 
Hallett Gallup. 
James Williams, Esq. 
Joseph Wilson, Jr. 
Charles L. Curtis. 
William Gallup. 
John V. Sharp. 
Henry Buckingham. 
Henry Rider. 
James Jlinshel. 
Carlton B. Gane. 
Lewis M . Howard. 
John Ebert.Jr. 
Jabez^A. B. Calkins. 
Daniel Stratton. 
Charles Laylin. 
Perry G. Beckwith. 
Samuel B. Lewis. 
George Powers. 
Nathan Parks. 
Jonathan Brown. 
Ruluf Andrus. 
John T. Hilton. 
Norwalk 131. 

[The returns of other 
towns omitted as not 
connected with Norwalk 
history ] 

David Lawrence. 
Sylvester Pomeroy. 
Isaac M. Marvin. 
Seth Keeler. 

Stephen V. R. Bogert. Burrell Keeler. 

Eben Boalt. David H. Sutton. 

Alpheus Buchannan. William Miller. 

Nelson Horton, John Huyck. 

William Buck. Robert Morton. 


At the time Nm-walk. Connecticut, wa,-; burned 
(■July 11, 1707) by (Tcneral Tryon. iu tiic ■•Rcvolu- 
tiouary War," Thomas Comstock, of New Canaan, ex- 
tended .shelter, and such assi.stance as his means per- 
mitted, to many of the Norwalk sufferers. Not having 
the means of repaying his kindness, Simeon Raymond 
and Gold Hoyt proposed to, and did release to him 



any claims tliey might; have against the government 
on account of their lot'ses. As a result, he afterwards 
became the owner of a large tract of land in sections 
two and three of Norwalk, Ohio. 

1806. — In this year, his son, Nathan S. Comstock, 
in company with several others, started on an explor- 
ing expedition to "spy out the country" where their 
new possessions lay. They spent some time in look- 
ing over the country, but not being provided with 
suitable maps or guides, were not certain they found 
the particular land they were in search of. 

1809.— Early in the spring of this year, Nathan en- 
gaged the services of Darius Ferris and Elijah Hoyt 
to accompany him on a second expedition to Norwalk 
with the intention of making a permanent settlement. 
They started witli a span of horses and wagon and 
such tools as would be necessary in clearing and build- 
ing. At Buffalo they found it impracticable to proceed 
further with their wagon, so a small boat was pur- 
chased, into which their goods were packed, with the 
addition of a barrel of whisky. Two of them manned 
the boat, and proceeded up the lake, keeping near 
the shore, while the other took charge of the horses, 
and traveled overland, keeping near the lake. In 
this manner they reached the mouth of Huron river. 

There were at that time quite a number of Indian 
settlements along that river, the largest of which was 
where the village of Milan now stands, and was called 
Pequatting. They were Moravians, in charge of a 
missionary named Frederick Drake, and had a mission 
house. Being very friendly, they offered the new 
comers the use of their mission house until a struc- 
ture could be erected to shelter them. A site was 
selected for the new house in section two, near a 
spring, and in the immediate neighborhood of the 
fine brick residence erected a few years ago by Philo 
Comstock. Esq., and now occupied by John Ran- 
dolph, Esq., in section three of Norwalk. After cut- 
ting the logs, the few white men then in the country, 
of whom F. W. Fowler, of Milan, was one, were 
invited to assist in ])utting up the house. 

This was the first house erected by white men, in 
the township of Norwalk. of which any record can be 
traced, and was, most probably, the pioneer house. 
It was not covered by a mansard roof; the windows 
were not set with crown-plate glass; the front door 
was not of carved walnut, nor mahogany; the back 
door did not exist; its floor was not covered with a 
brussels carpet; there was no piano and no sewing 
machine within its walls; upon the marble-topped 
center table (which was not there) lay no daily morn- 
ing paper containing the latest telegraph news and 
the last time card of the Lake Sli<n-e i*c Michigan 
Southern Rail Road, nor even that nf the Wheeling & 
Lake Erie Railroad Comi)any. In fact, it was no 
palatial residence, but rough and strong, and made 
for service like the strong-willed, iron-handed men 
whe l)uilt it. Its roof was nuide of "shakes;" its 
walls (if rough logs; its floor was the face of mother- 
earth, carjieted with the mo.'s of the growth of ages; 

the bedsteads were "bunks" with poles for springs, 
and their mattresses were sacks filled with leaves and 
mosses; its cooking range was a brass kettle hung on 
a pole supported by two crotched sticks driven into 
the floor, and its chimney was a hole left open in the 
roof. Rough, uncouth, homely, yet it was a home, — 
the first home of Norwalk. 

The house having been erected, they next com- 
menced a clearing of about ten acres which they com- 
pleted, in a manner, and sowed to wheat that fall. 

Nathan was a genuine Yankee, and possessed of 
the same fertility of genius that invented "wooden 
nutmegs." The Indians had got a taste of his w^hisky, 
and became frequent visitors; he improved the quan- 
tity of it by the addition of three gallons of water to 
each gallon of spirits, and the color and quality by 
adding burned maple sugar and wild cherries. This 
"doctored" compound he sold readily to the Indians 
as "French brandy" at one dollar a quart. It would 
be fortunate for the "red-nosed fraternity" of 
the present generation if they indulged in no worse 
brandy than was sold by Nathan S. Comstock in 1809. 

^V^hile making their clearing, the three kept "bache- 
lor's hall," and a common dish with them was pork 
and beans. One morning they set their pot of beans 
and pork over the fire, so as to have their dinner 
ready cooked when they should come in at mid-day, 
and then went to their work. When the sun marked 
noon, they returned in time to see two or three 
sneaking wolves disappear down a neighboring rapine, 
and found their fire burned out, their dinner gone, 
and the unlucky brass kettle much the worse from 
having been used as a platter by several wolves instead 
of one. It is probable those hungry men then in- 
dulged in a few remarks, not complimentary to the 
four-legged tramps. 

The clearing having been made, and the wheat put 
in, they returned to Connecticut. Nathan intended 
to return the next spring with his family, and remain 
a permanent settler, but his health had become so 
poor in consequence of exposures and hardships ex- 
perienced on his return in the fall of 1809, and his 
wife being unwilling to risk the hardships and priva- 
tions of a frontier life, he resigned his interest in the 
west to his brother Abijah. 

Nathan S. Comstock was the father of Philo Com- 
stock, Esq., now living in Milan, Ohio, and grand- 
father of E. A. Comstock, of this village, and Mrs. 
John Randolph, of this township, and an uncle of 
Giles, Stephen and Augusta Boalt, of this village. 


Abijah Comstock was born at New Canaan, Con- 
necticut, September 2, 1T81, and in 1810 came to 
Norwalk, and by arrangement Avith his father and 
brother, Nathan S., took the interest of Nathan S. 
in the Norwalk land, and becoming an actual resi- 
dent. — in the house built by his brother the year 
previous, — harvested the crop of wheat which had 
been put in by Nathan and his two hn-ed men. 


In the latter part of 1810 or fore part of 1811, he 
married Esther Iseft, sister of Hosmer Merry's wife, 
at that time living at the place which became what is 
now known as the "Old County Seat." 

He brought with him from Connecticut two yoke 
of oxen, a wagon and the supplies necessary for his 
permanent sojourn, and was accompanied by a lad 
named Alfred Arnold, who is yet living in Townsend 
township, well advanced in years. 

In 1812, his first child, Thomas, was born. When 
the child was only a day or two old, Alfred Arnold, 
who had been away on an errand through the woods, 
met, on his return, an Indian named Omick,* who 
stopped him and made very particular in([uiry as to 
"How Comstock? How squaw? How pappoose?" 
The fact of the Indian being aware of the birth of 
the child, which had so recently occurred, surprised 
young Arnold, but he was quickly cured of that sur- 
prise by a greater one. The Indian seized him by 
the hair of his head and said, "Arnold no be fraid, 
Arnold good boy; Indian no scalp Arnold." He 
then released his grasp and plunged into the woods. 

Arnold was so impresse'd by the questions, manner 
and actions of Omick, that he hastened home and 
told Comstock that they must leave at once, or they 
would be murdered. His warning was acted upon, 
the oxen and wagon got ready, and the whole family 
sought safety in flight toward the Vermillion river. 
Soon after, their house was burned by the Indians, 
probably by the same band that destroyed Benjamin 
Newcomb's house. 

While Norwalk was yet attached to, and part of, 
the Township of Huron, Mr. Comstock was elected 
a justice of the peace. And he was also elected and 
served as the first county t)-easurer, but this position 
proved unfortunate for him. He was of a generous 
disposition, and could not refuse to grant a favor 
asked by one who came to him in need, or in the 
character of a friend, and locked upon all men as 
honest and meaning just what they said. No sooner 
had the taxes been collected and returned to him 
than he was successfully beseiged by numerous appli- 
cants for temporary loans of money, each and all 
assuring him of their certainty of returning it to 
him before he should be called upon to account for 
it. The usual result in such cases followed, and he 
found the time for settlement at hand, but no funds. 
In this dilemma he hastened back to Connecticut, 
mortgaged all his interest in the Norwalk lands to his 
brother Nathan S., in exchange for money sufficient to 
meet his deficit; returned to Huron county, and fully 
paid up all his liabilities as treasurer, and from that 

•Mr. Arnold's recollection is, that it was Omick, but in this he is 
probably mistaken, for the incident related, is not likely to have occur- 
red before the commencement of the war of 181'3, Congress passed 
the act declaring tliat war en June isth, and it was proclaimed on the 
next day. In .\pril, isi'2, Omick and another Indian, Semo, murdered 
Michael Gibbs and a Mr. Bviel near -Ogontz Place" (now Sandusky 
City), and were soon after arrested, when Semo blew his own brains out 
with a gun, and Omick was taken to Cleveland, tried, convicted, and on 
June i(i. 1812, executed. 


time to his death, remained a comparatively poor 
man, but always honorable and respected. 

Tlie mortgage was never paid, and the property 
eventually passed to Nathan, who, in 18-28, sent his 
son Philo out to look after it, and so faithful has been 
his stewardship that he has remained looking after it 
to this day. 

He died February 1, 1857, at the house of Stephen 
Boalt, whose mother was a sister to Nathan and 


Benjamin Newconib was born in Durham, Connecti- 
cut. He there married, and afterwards with his wife 
and two sons, Samuel S. and Benjamin C, removed 
to Kinsman, Trumbull county, Ohio. From there at 
some time previous to the war of 1812, he removed 
to Norwalk township, and located in the southwest 
corner of section four on the farm now owned and 
occupied by Miner Cole. He probably took the land 
under a contract from Comfort S. Mygatt, but never 
obtained a deed. His name appears on the tax dupli- 
cate of personal property for 181.5, but not on the 
real estate duplicate. 

1815. — In the summer of this year, he transferred 
whatever interest he had in the land to Josepli Pierce, 
who afterwards, in 1816, sold it to Levi Cole who 
obtained a deed from Mv'gatt. 

1816. — On July ith, Mr. Newcomb was instantly 
killed by the kick of a horse. 

While residing in Norwalk, he had occasion to go 
to Huron, and while there had an altercation with 
an intoxicated Indian who took offence at something 
Mr. Newcomb said or did. The Indian attacked him 
with an axe, but Mr. Newcomb took the axe away 
from him, and then knocked him down with his fist. 
The next day the Indian on horseback passed Mr. 
Newcomb near his house, and watching his oppor- 
tunity, hit him a severe blow with a club. Mr. New- 
comb sprang forward, seized tlie "red-skin" ))y one 
foot, dragged him from his pony, and gave liim so 
severe a beating that he was thought to be dead, and 
was put in the fence corner, and the children covered 
him up with sticks and leaves, but the next morning 
he was gone. 

Soon after Hull's surrender in August. 1812. John 
Laylin. then of Berlin township, while on his way to 
Greenfield to notify his uncle, Hanson Reed, of the 
danger from the Indians, called in the night, and 
gave the alarm to Newcomb that the Indians were 
. coming, and they must at once iQjive the country. 
Very hastily such things as were necessary for a long 
tedious tramp through an almost trackless wilderness, 
were packed up, and the family, consisting of father, 
mother, two boys and an infant,. Mary,* less than two 
years of age, started for the older settlements east. 
By day-break, they reached tiie "old State road," and 
at a place since called Purdy's Corners, met other 

• Mary Newcomb married Philo Comstock February ."). 18-il, 
died in September following; aged a little over twenty years. 



refugees from Huron. Together they kept ou to Ter- 
milliou river, where a halt was made, and Mr. Xew- 
conib returned to reconnoiter, and reached his phice, 
two or three days after leaving it, in time to see, from 
a safe cover, his house burned by the Indians, and he 
supposed they must have been led there by the one 
he had so severely punished some time before, as it 
was the only house burned so far away from the lake. 
After crossing the Vermillion river, they directed their 
course to the "portage" of Cuyahoga river, from 
there to Charlestown, and from there to Vernon, and 
from there Mr. Neweomb entered the army as a 
teamster. In preparing for flight, Mr. Newcomb hid 
his log-chains and some other property in a hole he 
dug in the ground, but upon his return after the 
war, could not find where he had made his deposit, 
and the articles have never been found. 

Towards night of the next day after Newcomb and 
family had left their house, several persons from the 
township of Wheatsborough, now Lyme, fleeing from 
the dreaded Indian incursion, reached the" deserted 
house, and detei-mined to camp there over night. 
They "hoppled" their horses by tieing their front feet 
so near together that they could not step more than 
about a foot at a time, and let them loose to feed; 
then commenced to prepare their supper, which they 
soon had ready, and were about commencing, to eat 
when they were startled by the much dreaded and 
unearthly Indian war-whoop. Stricken with horror, 
they stood not upon the order of their going, but preci- 
pitately sought safety in the darkness of the unbroken 
forest; their horses, goods and tempting supper were 
left behind; even their guns were abandoned, so com- 
plete and bewildering was their surprise; life, or 
torture and death hung upon the action of moments; 
property, resistance, the means of protection were 
unthought of, in the dire necessity for immediate 
escape and shelter from the merciless foe who tortured 
for pleasure, and murdered for revenge. 

They all escaped successfully, and hour after hour, 
all night long, hurried southward through the swamps, 
thickets, and over the fallen logs of the trackless 
wilderness; at day-break, they were near the south line 
of the county, some of them so nearly exhausted that 
they wanted to halt and rest, but others of the party 
insisted the Indians could follow their track like a 
pack of wolves, and so the weary, famishing flight, 
kept on during the long, long hours of the day, until 
the weaker ones were ready to fall out of line, abandon 
the escai)e, and submit to their fate. But there were 
warm hearts and strong hands in that party. A long 
light pole was secured, each person took firm hold of 
it, aud thus, the strong supporting the weak, the 
weary march dragged ou, and did not stop until 
Mansfield and safety were reached. 

The day this party passed through the township of 
Ridgefield on their Avay to Newcomb's house, Reuben 
Pixlcy, Sr., then living in Ridgefield townshij), heard 
in some way that there was no danger to be appre- 
hended from the Indians, and started after the party 

to induce them to return. On his way he met Seth 
Brown who lived in the fourth section of Ridgefield, 
and consented to accompany Pixley in search of the 

They arrived i>ear Newcomb's place, just as the 
party were aljuut to commence eating their supper, 
and thinking to have some sport, tried their ability to 
counterfeit the hideous war-whoop of the savages. 
The success of- their powers of imitation was greater 
than they had anticipated, aud although they made 
strenuous efforts to overtake the frightened people, 
and explain their little joke, were totally unable to 
do so. They remained at Newcomb's house that 
night, fared sumptuously, and in the morning re- 
turned with the abandoned projierty, and soon sent 
word on to Mansfield explaining their miserable i)i-ac- 
tical joke. This story was recently related to the 
writer by Miner Cole, Esq., of this township, who 
says he has heard it many times from the lips of 
Reul)en Pixley, Sr., one of the practical jokers. 

The Newcomb house, burned by the Indians in 
1812, stood on the east side of the creek, close under 
the hill, aud but a few rods from the town line 
between Norwalk and Bronson. There are now 
standing near its site a stately poplar and an old 
descrepit apple tree planted there liy that early 
settler nearly seventy years ago. 

A military road or trail then existed upon the 
town line, just south of his house, which Mr. New- 
comb had assisted in opening, and it was while at 
work on that road that he was attracted by the beauty 
of that particular location which afterwards he settled 
upon as related. 

At the close of the war, he returned to his place, 
aud erected another log house on the west side of the 
creek, on a gravel bluff overlooking the valley. From 
that bluff the gravel was taken that filters the water 
used by the citizens of Norwalk from the water 
works, and West Main street was graveled partly from 
the same source. 

Yesterday, May 2, 1879, the writer and his little 
daughtei-, in company with Miner Cole, visited the 
spot; the old house is gone; its site is marked ])y an 
indentation where the cellar used to be, and the old 
hearthstones yet remain in pl&ce. Standing upon 
that memento of the first steps of civilization, and 
looking forth in the bright sunlight of the balmy 
May afternoon, over the beautiful valley at his feet, 
upon which a flock of sheep and lambs were grazing, 
busy fancies In-ought to him echoes of the scream of 
the panther and howl of the wolf, followed by the 
inging sound of the woodman's axe, and the voices 
of children playing at the creek, then by screams and 
shouts of terror-stricken fugitives, soon followed by 
the dim vision of a stealthy band of half-naked, painted 
savages, quickly made distinct in all their wild orgies 
by the lurid light of a burning home: then another 
sound broke in, gentle, sweet and pleading — "Papa, 
please buy me a little baa-baa-lamb?" 

The contrast was too great; the fancies took to 


Among the pioneers of the Fire-Lands, whose long residence 
and active labors have made them conspicuous, none occupy 
a more prominent position, and deservedly so, than Ashbel G. 
Post. Coming here at a time when the then infant settlement 
was devoid of all those improvements that now add to the 
convenience and comfort of the people ; when the present 
county of Huron was almost without roads and bridges ; when 
it required hard and persistent labor, toil, and care to make 
the soil produce enough for the bare necessities of life, — he 
has lived to witness all the various developments now existing, 
and in his life and character has assisted in this great work of 

Ashbel G. Post is the second child and only son of Ashbel 
Post, the latter of whom was born in Old Saybrook, Conn., 
in the year 1767, and died in Huron Co., Ohio, Aug. 14, 

His mother was Betsey Phelps, who died May 26, 1796, in 
the nineteenth year of her age. Ashbel G. Post was born in 
Greene Co., N. Y., May 20, 1796, and is consequently in the 
eighty-third year of his age. His father and uncle. Col. Ezra 
Post, were among the pioneers of Greene Co., N. Y. The 
latter had been in the Kevohitionary war, and also held a 
colonel's commission in the army during the war of 1812, and 
was a mi'mber of the Legislature of the State of New York 
during the palmy days of De Witt Clinton. 

Ashbel Post was a man of a somewhat changeable disposi- 
tion, but of great personal integrity. For seven years he was 
master of a sailing vessel out of Boston. He subsequently 
married again and settled on a small farm in Middlese.\ Co!, 
Conn., and afterward was proprietor of a hotel in the village 
of Cromwell. In 1821 he came to Ohio, and located between 
six and seven hundred acres of land in Fitchville. He erected 
a log cabin, and proceeded to make the necessary improve- 
ments preparatory to moving his family, and had nearly com- 
pleted his arrangements to go East for them when, on the 14th 
of August, 182.3, he died. He left behind him a reputation 
for industry and perseverance which, had he lived, would 
have resulted in much happiness and comfort for his family 

It was in July, 1823, that Ashbel G. Post first came West- 
He was then a young man, ardent in his desire to succeed, and 
willing to assume the arduous duties of the pioneer. After 
visiting his father and looking around some, with the inten- 
tion of coming out to settle, he returned East and soon received 
the melancholy intelligence of his father's death. In Novem- 
ber following he returned to the Fire- Lands, and obtaining his 
share of his father's estate he went to work, paid ofi" the re- 
maining incumbrance, and from that time all through his 
active business life succeeded well. In 1830 he removed to 
Berlin township (now Erie County), where he purchased four 
hundred acres of land, of which he made the best farm in what 
now constitutes the two counties of Huron and Erie, and for 
several years he took the first premium for the most highly 
cultivated, the best improved, and the neatest farm, thus de- 
monstrating his ability as a good, practical farmer. 

Mr. Post has been three times married. His first wife was 
Tamia Palmer, with whom he was united Nov. 15, 1824. 
She died April 1, 1836. They had five children, namely: 
Sanford G., now resides in Nevada; Fanny P , married and 
lives in Michigan ; Eleanor, married and resides in Vermil- 
ion ; Wesley (deceased) ; William H., now resides at home. 

For his second wife, Mr. Post married Ellen S. Parmenter, 
who died March 28, 1855, leaving one daughter, Louisa P., 
who now resides in Wood Co., Ohio. They had also one son, 
James A., who died young. For his third partner in life, Mr. 
Post married Mrs. Fanny M. Piatt, of Connecticut, Sept. 24, 
1855. In 1829, Mr. Post'was elected to the office of justice of 
the peace, and re-elected in 1832. He is a Democrat in politics, 
and in religion liberal. 

In 1855, Mr. Post sold his six hundred acres in Erie County, 
and after traveling and visiting his Eastern home, in 18.59, he 
settled in his present residence in Norwalk. 

The main characteristics of his long and eminently useful life 
are his industrious habits, his indomitable energy, and his 
uncompromising personal integrity. These good qualities he 
will leave as a worthy example for future generations to fol- 
low, and as an imperishable legacy to his children. 

Residence of A.G. POST ,/Vo.77 WcsTpm St.,|^orwalic,0. 



flight, else the writer to tliis hour might liuve stood 
on tiiat ancient hearth, listening to echoes from the 
remote past. 


ISl-t. — Mr. Lewis was born in South Salem, West- 
chester county, New York, in 1T90, and died at 
Norwalk, July 14, If^TO, in the eighty-first year of 
his age. 

In 181-i, he purchased two hundred acres of land 
about one and a half miles south of the present loca- 
tion of the village of Norwalk, paying for it two dol- 
lars per acre, and in the spring of that year came on 
to make preparation for a jjermanent settlement. He 
made some clearing, and put in a small piece of 
wheat, then returning to New York. 

1815.— On the fifteenth of February, 1815, he 
started with his family, then consisting of his wife 
and a little daughter, named Angeline, (who died at 
Norwalk, September 1, 1817), for the new home in 
the West. The journey was made in a covered wagon 
drawn by a span of horses, and required forfy-i'i.i: 
days to complete. They arrived at Norwalk, April 
2, 1815, or rather, they arrived at their new home on 
that day, for Norwalk was yet to be; only an " Indian 
trail" marked the crest of the "sand ridge" where 
Main street now is. 

Soon after arriving w-ith his family, he sold the 
land upon which he had commenced his improve- 
ments the year before, to Hanson Reed, for five dol- 
lars per acre, and purchased another tract of two 
hundred acres, in section one, for one dollar and fifty 
cents per acre. 

During the summer and autumn of 1815, he built 
a house on his new purchase, and in that house the 
election for State officers, of October, 1818, was held. 

In an article written By Mr. Lewis, and published 
in the Fire-lands Pioneer, of June, 1858, and from 
which most of the foregoing facts of his history have 
been taken, he says: 

"When I first came to Ohio, provisions of all 
kinds were scarce, and prices high. Wheat was sold 
at two dollars per bushel, also the first oats I sowed 
cost me two dollars per bushel; I bought them of 
Judge Meeker, on the lake shore, as I came into the 
country; and at another time I paid him five dollars 
for a common axe, and went tioelve miles for it; how- 
ever, upon the cessation of the war of 1813, people 
having turned their attention more to clearing their 
lands, and to agriculture, when soon field was added 
to field, and farm to farm, and, rich in their virgin 
soil, they sent forth their luxuriant harvests until 
plenty filled the land. Then produce fell to an 
extremely low price; so low that the year previous to 
the opening of the New York and Erie canal, the 
most that I could get offered for a fine tjuality of 
wheat, was twelve and a haJf cents 2)er hiisheU and 
haul it a distance of six miles to market, which was 
then at Milan." 

In tliose early days, wild turkeys were very plenty. 

and did great damage to wheat and corn crops. Mr. 
Lewis relates that in 18-27, they were so numerous as 
to endanger his wheat crop. He built a rail pen about 
eleven feet square, with rails laid near together on 
top. A trap-door was provided, and grain freely 
scattered around and within the pen. The turkeys 
came, entered the ti-ap, and his first catch was nine 
fat birds, but one got away. Two or three days after- 
wards, twelve more fell victims to the trap, and this 
put an end to their depredations, for no otiiers came 
around that season. 

During the infancy of the settlement of Norwalk, 
Mr. Lewis' house was always open, free of charge, to 
the new comers, who sought his hospitality, and on 
one occasion, from the frequency of such calls upon 
him, his stock of breadstuffs ran very short. There 
were no mills in the country, and no flour market 
nearer than Mansfield, and no road practicable for a 
wagon to that place; so he went there on horseback, 
and constructing a rude rack to fit the back of his 
horse, loaded a barrel of flour on that, and in that 
manner transported it home. 

On another occasion he was called back to the east, 
and performed the whole journey from Norwalk to 
Jersey City, on foot. 

Mr. Lewis, with another pioneer, named William 
Marshall, a surveyor, traveled over and surveyed 
many of the lands in Huron county. These two 
went days and sometimes weeks together through the 
wilderness, camping out nights, while they were sur- 
veying farms, and running out public roads. 

He held at different times the office of justice of 
the peace, township trustee, assessor, and lister. 

The maiden name of his wife was Amy Ferris. 
She was born at Newtown, Fairfield county, Con- 
necticut, and until her death, in October, 185G, bore 
her share of the privations of pioneer life cheerfully, 
and with courage. 

In those early days, they were surrounded by the 
dense wilderness, the home of thousands of savage 
men, bears, wolves and panthers. 

On one occasion, when there was no one at home 
but Mrs. Lewis and her little daughter, there came 
on horseback to the house two Indian women, or 
squaws, who wanted flour, which v;as kept in the 
house up stairs. Mrs. Lewis went up, and was get- 
ting the flour, when the two squaws followed, and 
commenced impudently lifting the lids of boxes and 
barrels, to see what they contained. Mrs. Lewis 
shook her head at them, and they shook their heads at 
her. When the floor was put up, they all descended, 
and one of the squaws seized the little girl, then 
nearly two years old. and the tAvo hastened to their 
horses, mounted and galloped away with the child 
before Mrs. Lewis fully realized what they were at. 
But the mother's heart (juickly took the alarm, and 
desperation nerved her to an almost superhuman 
effort for the recovery of her little one. The route 
taken by the sfiuaws would compel them, at the dis- 
tance of about one mile, to pa.'s the house of another 



settler,* but before that was leached, the mother was 
so close after them, aud screaming so lustily, that 
they dared not pass the settler's clearing, ahead of 
them, with the child, for fear of being captured, so 
the child was put down on the ground, the squaws 
scampered off with all" the speed they could get out 
of their ponies, and the mother returned home with 
her child and a heart full of thankfulness. 


1815. — Dr. Joseph Pierce came to Norwalk in 1815, 
in comjjany with Major David Underbill, Timothy 
Baker, Levi Cole and Horace Morse. That summer 
be purchased of Benjamin Newcomb all the interest 
held by the latter in lot number one of section four of 
Norwalk, being the Newcomb place, now Miner Cole's 
farm, and, in 1816, transferred his interest to Levi 
Cole, but continued, with his sister Rhoda, to make 
it his home with Mr. Cole for a number of years. 
He was the first practicing physician in Norwalk 
township, and the first postmaster, of which more 
particular mention is made under the head of "First 
Post Office." Dr. Pierce was from Herkimer county. 
New York. He remained here until about 1825, and 
then removed to New Ha\ en and remained for some 
time, and then removed U> Indiana. 

Levi Cole was born in Windom county, Connecti- 
cut, November 20, 1T66, married November 25, 1790. 
and died February 11, 1820, at Norwalk, Ohio. His 
wife, Hannah Kinney, was born in AVindom county, 
Connecticut, July 2-1, 1770, and died at Norwalk, 
Ohio, February 27, 1840. They had seven sons, as 
follows: Jeremy, born March 17, 17115; died July^ 
30, 1818; came to Ohio in 1815. Asher, born April 
23, 1707; died November 4, 1830; came to Ohio in- 
1816. James, born April 25, 1799; now living in 
Norwalk township; came to Ohio in 1816. Levi, 
born March 23, 1801; now living in Ridgefield town- 
ship; came to Ohio in 1816. Miner, born July 26, 
1803; now living in Norwalk township; came to Ohio 
in 1816. Manly K., born February 11, 1807; now liv- 
ing in Bronson township; came to Ohio in 1816. 
Lyman, born March 10, 1810: died October 10, 1843; 
came to Ohio in 1816. 

In 1814, Mr. Cole was living in Herkimer county. 
New York, aud, that year, in company with Major 
David Underbill and Timothy Baker, came on to look 
at lands held by Mr. Underbill in Ridgefield township. 
He was pleased with the land and bargained for a 
piece this side of the present farm of Sidney Brown, 
aud then returned home. 

In 1815, he came out again, accompanied by his 
son Jeremy, Horace Morse, Dr. Joseph Pierce and 
David Underbill, put up a house on the land, com- 
menced a clearing, and otherwise prepared for bring- 

♦Thls was probably Captain John Boalfs place, on the corner of what 
i8 now Medina street, and the "Old State Road," where the sexton's 
house stands, on the grounds of Woodlawn Cemetery. 

iiig bis family out the next year. In the Fall, leaving 
Jeremy to look after the place and continue the im- 
provements, he returned liome again. 

During this visit, and on the 16th day of July, 
1815, he. Major Underbill and Dr. Joseph Pierce, 
brushed out a "trail," or road, from Abijah Cum- 
stock's place to the "Sand Ridge," as it was tiien 
called (now Norwalk), and at night returned and 
stayed at Comstock's until the next day, and then 
started out and com])leted their work through to 
UnderhilTs place on the 17th. Tliis was the first 
highway labor ever done on Main street. It was not 
done in pursuance of an ordinance, and no street com- 
missioner "bossed " the job; perhaps that will account 
for its rapid completion. They followed the old " In- 
dian trail," which came out on to the ridge some- 
where between Milan and Chatham streets. 

In January of 1816, Mr, Cole and Major Under- 
bill started with their families and such goods and 
supplies as they might require in their new homes, 
with six teams and sleighs, three to each family. The 
party contained twenty iiersons, to-wit: Mr. and ilrs. 
Cole and six of their boys, Mr. and iMrs. Underbill 
and six children. Jasper Underbill (a nephew of the 
Major), D.iniel Warren, :Marks Rosbeck, Rboda 
Pierce, sister to .Tosejih Pierce, and a person l)y the 
name of AVilcox, 

After spending six weeks upon the road (five days 
resting at Avery, the old county seat,) they reached 
Major Underbill's on the 22d day of February, 1816. 
The Huron river was then so high that Mr. Cole 
could not cross with bis family and teams to bis own 
house, so he took them to Dr, Pierce's house (the 
Benjamin Newcomb jilace), and soon after purchased 
that place, and remained there so long as he lived. 

1818. — In this year Mr. Cole took a prominent part 
in the movement which culminated in the removal of 
the county seat to Norwalk, of w-hicb a more particu- 
lar account is given in another 2)art of this history. 

On the 9th of February, 1820, Mr. Cole was en- 
gaged hauling a large saw-log, to which four yoke of 
oxen were attached, by a chain, into Underbill's saw- 
mill yard; finding it was likely to strike another log 
which projected partly over the road, he attempted to 
jump over the chain, and in doing so one of bis limlis 
was caught between the logs, and so terril)ly crushed 
that he died two days afterwards, 


David Gibbs and Henry Lockwood were natives of 
Norwalk, Connecticut, and were brothers-in-law. Mrs. 
Gibbs being Lockwood's sister. 

In the summer of 1815, Mr. Gibbs, I\Ir. Lockwood, 
his father, L. Lockwood, and Stephen Lockwood. left 
Norwalk, Connecticut, to look up homes in Ohio. 
After visiting and examining several places they at 
last, after ten week's travel and prospecting, arrived 
at Aliijab Comstock's place in Norwalk. Ohio, on the 
16th day of July. 1815. There they met Major David 
Underbill, Levi Cole and Dr. Joseph Pierce, wlio bad 



been at work that day clearing out a road to the sand 
ridge, on which Norwalk now is located. 

After spending about a week in examining lands 
belonging to L. Lockwood, in Norwalk township, 
they selected a site for a home on the hill just south 
of the first creek, on the section line road going north 
from tlie present "Alliug's Corners," and on the east 
side of that road. During the months of August, 
September and part of October, they cleared off and 
put into wheat about six acres of land, and put up a 
large double log house. 

There were then three families living in the town- 
ship, those of Abijah Comstock, Benjamin Newcomb 
and Samuel B. Lewis. Gibbs and the two Lockwoods 
boarded at Comstock's while engaged in making their 
improvements. Provisions were scarce. Salt was not 
to be obtained, for there was then none in that part of 
the country, and as a consequence the family and 
boarders frequently were compelled to use meat tliat 
was more odorous than palatable. Bread, milk and 
potatoes was their only other reliance. 

When the walls of the house were up ready for the 
roof, they let to Benjamin Newcomb a contract for 
its completion, and started back to Connecticut. 

At this time, the sand ridge from Alling's or Gibb's 
Corners to Major Underhill's place (the present Isaac 
Underbill farm) was covered sparsely by oak trees, 
forming what was called an "oak opening." Whor- 
tleberry bushes and columl^o grew in abundance, the 
root of the latter being used by the inhabitants as 'a 
tonic in bilious diseases. The oak trees were of the 
scrub variety, specimens of which may yet be seen 
both in the east and west ends of the village. 

On the 24th day of January, 1816, they left Nor- 
walk, Connecticut, with their families, and arrived 
at their new home in Norwalk, Ohio, on the 30th of 
April, having been ninety-five days in making the 
journey. The party consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Gibbs, 
their daughter Eliza (now Mrs. Pruden Ailing, yet 
living in Norwalk), then five years old; their son 
David, three years old; Mr. Jlenry Lockwood, his 
wife and their little child Henry; and Lewis Keeler, 
who came along as a teamster in charge of the bag- 
gage wagon, drawn by two yoke of oxen. 

Mrs. Gibbs and Mrs. Lockwood, with their chil- 
dren, were provided with a substantial wagon, covered 
with oil-cloth, lined with blaukets, carpeted and pro- 
vided with spring seats ; very comfortable and decent, 
and drawn by a heavy span of bay horses. They were 
well clothed, and provided with abundant blankets 
and a foot stove. Their provision chest contained 
cold chickens, hams, hard biscuit, pies, dough-nuts 
by the bushel, tea, coffee, pickles, dried fruit, pre- 
serves, and all the necessary etceteras, so they were 
"well-to-do" in the world. 

On the 20th of February, in crossing Cattaraugus 
creek, west of Buffalo, on the ice, their baggage 
wagon broke through near the west shore. One yoke 
of oxen, a horse which they had purchased on the 
way as a leader for the ox team, and many of their 

house-keeping articles, were lost. In this dilemma 
they were assisted by some friendly Indians, who, by 
diving and fishing with poles, brought up most of 
the lost articles, among them a box of log chains, 
axes, plow-shares, kitchen ware, etc. They were paid 
for their services thirty or forty dollars. They also 
brought up the bodies of the two oxen, gave uji the 
hides and shoes, but eagerly accepted the carcasses for 
food. This mishap caused a halt of about a week, 
during which little Henry Lockwood sickened and 
died. Soon afterwards, at Fredonia, little David Gibbs 
was taken severely ill, and after lingering twelve days 
also died. The trouble was "camp dysentery," and 
several others of the i)arty were also attacked, but all 

The expense of this enforced sojourn at Fredonia 
was over five hundred dollars, provisions being scarce 
and high, codfish fifty cents per pound, and other 
things in proportion. 

Their house was built double, with a hall through the 
center open at both ends; the window sash were slats 
fastened together, and set with greased paper instead 
of glass; the doors were rough slabs split out of logs; 
and the first table was a square one, with no leaves, 
hewed out of a black-walnut log. 

After the privation and sufferings and sorrows of 
their long, exhausting march, this homely two-roomed 
house seemed to these weary travelers a very palace 
and haven of rest; and not only to them, but to 
many who came after. At one time, for some days, 
their families were increased to forty souls. Among 
them were the families of Piatt Benedict, seven per- 
sons; and Captain John Boalt, father of the late 
Charles L. Boalt, thirteen persons, of whom nine were 
down with the ague. 

For all this numerous family Mrs. Gibbs did the 
cooking, baking, etc., with rude and limited utensils 
designed for less than one-fourth of that number; 
whilst Mrs. Lockwood ministered to the sick with 
means for their comfort equally limited. But they 
had strength given them for the task, and were Ijlessed 
and happy in their laliors of love. They were at one 
time short of provisions, and had to send to Cleveland 
for flour and pay twenty-five dollars per barrel, and 
for pork about the same; the families in the mean- 
time subsisting, for a week, on milk and jiotatoes 

Mr. Lockwood remained in Norwalk only a few 
years, and then removed to Milan. Mr. Gibbs was 
elected the first justice of the peace in Norwalk town- 
ship in April, 1817, and was appointed county clerk 
in 182.5, and continued to hold that office until his 
death, at Norwalk, March 16, 1840, aged fifty-one 
years, nine months and twenty-four days. His wife, 
Elizalieth L. Gibbs, died at Norwalk October 4, 1873, 
aged eighty-two years, six months and eleven days. 
They were the parents of ten children, viz: An in- 
fant, died in Connecticut; David, died at Fredonia in 
1816; a little daughter, died in 1832, aged one year, 
seven months and twentv-two days; James B., died 



August 3, 1850, aged twenty-eight years, two months 
and thirteen days: Rali)h M., died August IC, 1854, 
aged thirty years and sixteen days (of cholera); Mrs. 
Eliza Ailing, now living at Xorwalk, the only sur- 
vivor of 1816; David, now living at Le Mars, Iowa; 
Roswell, now living at Troy, Miami county, Ohio; 
Charles (Rev.), now living at Cedar Falls, Iowa; Mrs. 
S. L. Adams, now living at Clarksfield, Huron county, 


In Vol. I. of Marriage Records of Huron County, 
on page nine, appears the following entry: 

William Gallup and Sally Boalt were joined in marriage on the ad day 
of M.iy, 1S19. by DA^^D W. Hixman, 

Justice Peace. 

Upon a (."ireful examination of the record of mar- 
riages, the foregoing is found to be the first one in 
which the marriage was solemnized in the township, 
between parties, both residents. And Heni-y Lock- 
wood, Esq., in an article published in the Pioneer of 
May, 1859, on page twenty-eight, says: "About the 
marriages we are uncertain. Hallet and William Gal- 
lu]) were among the first." 

William Gallup was born at Kingston, Luzerne 
county, Pennsylvania, in 1794, and, in 1816, in com- 
pany with his brother Hallet, came to Ohio, but not 
to Norwalk until 1818. He built the old frame block 
of stores now occupied by Link's grocery, James 
Seeley's shoe store, and the Casper Brothers. It was 
one of the first ventures in the new village to provide 
business rooms for renting. The second stoi'y was 
used by him as a cabinet shop and furniture ware- 
room. He was the contractor who built the "Old 
Court House," now Central Hotel, on Whittlesey 
avenue. He died at Tiffin, Ohio, January 15, 1858. 

Sally Boalt was born in Norwalk, Connecticut, and 
came to Norwalk, Ohio, with her father's family, in 
1817. She was a sister of Charles L. Boalt and 
daughter of Captain John Boalt, who made his first 
settlement in this townshiji upon the present ceme- 
tery property. And there in their new double log 
house she was married. 

Her death occurred at Osborn, Greene county, Ohio, 
January 26, 1871. Her husband's remains were then 
taken from Tiffin, and, with hers, brought to Nor- 
walk, and, side by side, laid away to rest within 
about twenty rods of the site of the log house where 
they were married. 


Soon after Hull's surrender at Detroit in August of 
1812, Thomas, son of Abijah Comstock, was born on 
section two of Norwalk. When he was cmly a few 
days old, his parents liad to flee from their home to 
escape the Indians, which they did just in time, tak- 
ing him and their other valuables with them, for the 
night after their departure their house was burned. 
This was the first white child liorn in NorAvalk, 
and that pioneer is yet living, a resident of Hidgeville, 
Loniin county, Ohio. 


In all the researches made by the writer after data 
from which to compile the history of Norwalk, the 
first death of which he has found" any record, was that 
of Angeline Lewis. She was the daughter of Samuel 
B. and Amy Lewis; born at South Salem, Westchester 
county, New York, probably in the fall of 181-1; was 
brought by her parents to Norwalk in the spring of 
1815, and died September 1, 1817. She was probably 
the child stolen by two squaws, and rescued by her 
mother, of which an account is given in the history of 
Samuel B. Lewis. 


In the spring or summer of 1815, Hanson Reed, 
then living in Greenfield, purchased of Samuel B. 
Lewis, the place upon which Mr. Lewis had erected a 
house the previous year. 

He soon moved in with his family, and in 1816 or 
1817, commenced building a saw mill on the creek 
which runs through the present L. B. Mesnard and 
S. J. Rogers farms, on the north side of the Fairfield 
road, and a few rods to the west of the stone bridge 
over that creek. In erecting this mill, he was assisted 
by his father-in-law, Mr. Abraham Powers, Soon 
after its completion, it was destroyed by fire. The 
two men then made a worksho]) of the house, and 
commenced work on the machinery of another mill, 
and in about five weeks had it completed, running 
and doing a good business, but when the fall rains 
came on, a freshet swept away tlieir dam. They 
were now without funds, all having been put into 
building and re-bnilding, but were not discouraged; 
the dam was soon replaced, and then they began to 
plan for a grist mill attachment to the saw mill, and 
carried their plans into execution in a year or two 

These were the first mills erected in the township. 
The old frame was taken down several years ago, but 
the old dam is destined to remain, perhaps, for cen- 
turies, for it forms part of the road embankment 
across the ravine. 



Early in Ajnil, 1819, John Wood, a married man, 
keeping tavern at Venice, (ieorge Bishop, a sin- 
gle man, by occupation a sailor, living in Danbury, 
Abiather Shirley, and Barnabus Meeker, organized a 
hunting and trapping expedition to the " Peninsula," 
now part of Ottawa county. 

They made their camp in a little cabin near the 
bank of the Portage, then called •'Carrying River," 
about twelve miles from its mouth. About the mid- 
dle of April, Meeker and Shirley left the camp, and 
returned to their homes, Wood and Bishop still re- 
maining to prosecute their enterprise. Being well 
supplied with traps, ammunition, and camp equip- 
inige, and being expert in hunting and trapping, they 
were (piite successful, and had accumulated quite a 


The subject of this sketch was born at Moira, Franklin 
Co., N. Y., Jan. 20, 1810. He was the oldest of twelve 
children, six sons and six daughters, of Charles and Betsey 

His father, Capt. Charles Stickney, was born at Corn- 
wall, Addison Co., Vt., May 17, 1785, and his mother, 
whose maiden name was Pierce, at New Salem, Franklin 
Co., Mass., April 11, 1790. They were married in the town 
of Dickinson, Franklin Co., N. Y., April 11, 1809. Both 
are now dead. They were of English descent. His father's 
earliest ancestor in America was William Stickney, who 
came to this country, in 1637, from Hull, Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, and settled with his family at Rowley, Mass. From 
him it is believed that all bearing the name of Stickney 
in America are descended. 

Mr. Stickney's early years were required by his father on 
his farm, where he remained until his twenty-first year, 
engaged in hard work, and receiving only a district-school 
education, when he was 
given his time, $5.50 in 
money, and the blessing of 
his kind parents, with which 
he started forth to seek his 

He entered the academy 
at Potsdam, St. Lawrence 
Co., N. Y., then in charge 
of Rev. Asa Brainard, 
where he remained nearly 
four years, supporting him- 
self in the mean time by 
teaching school winters. 

His health having be- 
come impaired from close 
application, he reluctantly 
left the academy and came 
to Ohio. He reached Ash- 
tabula County, where he 
was taken sick at the house 
of his maternal uncle, Jesse 
Pierce, in the town of Say- 
brook, his sickness contin- 
uing for nearly six months. 

Recovering his health 
somewhat, he adopted the 

teaching of penmanship as ^^ \ 

a means of livelihood, and ^ 

taught in different places ''^i,- 

in Western Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, and Southern 

In the year 1841 he visited his brother, Hon. E. T. 
Stickney, at Scipio, Seneca Co., Ohio, and, meeting with 
a former fellow-student of Potsdam Academy, the late 
Jairus Kennan, Esq., who was then practicing law at 
Norwalk, he was induced to enter his ofiice, and commence 
the study of law. He arrived at Norwalk, Nov. 13, 18-H, 
and pursued his studies with Mr. Kennan. Was admitted 
to the Bar Aug. 1, 1841, and subsequently to practice in 
the Federal Courts, at Cleveland, April 12, 1860. 

During his term of study he was associated with the 
late Ezra M. Stone in the preparation of a large number of 
cases in bankruptcy, under the then existing bankrupt law 
of the United States. 

After he commenced practice he was several times a can- 
didate for prosecuting attorney, always running ahead of 
his ticket, but not being able to overcome the party odds 
against him. 

The new constitution of Ohio created the Court of Pro- 
bate, and upon its going into operation, in 1851, Mr. 

Stickney was nominated on the Democratic ticket for the 
new ofiice of judge of said court, and was elected over his 
competitor, Hon. F. Wickham, by thirty-one majority, 
having run ahead of his ticket about five hundred votes. 
He performed the duties of his oflBce faithfully and satis- 
factorily to all for the term of three years, and was again 
nominated in 1854. The newly-formed Republican and 
Know-Nothing p.'irties swept the field, the general majority 
of the party in Huron County being about sixteen hundred, 
but the majority for his competitor, Hon. P. Sears, was cut 
down to about eight hundred. 

He has served several terms as a member of the com- 
mon council, and in April, 1874, was elected mayor of 
Norwalk, and served two years, being an acceptable and 
popular oflicer. 

He was for several years school examiner for Huron 
County, and a member of the Board of Education of the 
Union School for four years, during which time he was 
clerk of the Board. He 
has at all times taken a 
deep interest in educational 
matters. He is also a 
member of the Whittlesey 
Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences, of which he has been 

He became a member, by 
initiation, April 30, 1845, 
of Huron Lodge, No. 37, 
I. 0. 0. F., and has been a 
prominent and respected 
member of the order, hold- 
ing many of its important 

On Feb. 20, 1856, he 
was elected Most Worthy 
Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of Ohio, serving one 
term with distinguished 
ability. For his fixithful 
and efiieient services in 
this ofiice he received 
from the Grand Lodge 
its beautiful and costly 

In 1858, Judge Stickney 
was appointed assistant ad- 
jutant-general, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
on the stafi' of Maj.-Gen. 
James A Jones, 17th Division Ohio Volunteer Militia, and 
was commissioned by Gov. Chase. He also acted as in- 
spector-general of division. 

Judge Stickney, on coming to Norwalk, became a boarder 
at the Mansion House, then kept by Obadiah Jenney, Esq., 
and, to the surprise of all, has remained unmarried, and 
a constant boarder at one hotel, now over thirty-seven 

Though not a communicant he has long been an attend- 
ant at St. Paul's Episcopal Church at Norwalk, and has 
served several years as vestryman and clerk of the vestry, 
yet charitable and liberal in his religious views toward all 
church organizations. 

Judge Stickney has always had an extensive law practice, 
and been especially successful as a collection lawyer, and, in 
the settlement of estates and matters of guardianship, he 
has been, through his professional life, regarded as an 
upright man. He is a gentleman of taste and culture, kind 
and benevolent, esteemed by all who know him, and is an 
eminently popular member of society. 



stock of skins of the fur-bearing animals, then numer- 
ous in that wild, unsettled region. 

At that time there was a camp of Ottawa Indians 
on the bank of the " Miami of the Lakes," (now Mau- 
mee River). About the middle of April, three mem- 
liers of that tribe, named Negosheek, (Ne-go-sheek), 
Negoneba, (Ne-gon-e-ba), and Negossum, (Ne-gos- 
sum), the last a boy of about seventeen j-ears of age, 
started on an expedition to the mouth of the Portage 
river, and while passing down the river in their 
canoes, discovered the trapper's camp, and, no doubt, 
with their usual cunning, became fulh- posted as to 
its valuable contents. Thej- stayed around the mouth 
of the river a daj' or two, "loafing," and the two old- 
estdrinking whisky, the boy doing what he could to 
prevent their getting drunk. On their return up the 
river, Negosheek jjlotted the murder of Wood and 
Bishop, and the plunder of their camp. Negoneba 
consented and agreed to assist; the boy, Negossum, 
remaining passive from fear of Negosheek, who was 
a ''bad Indian" when drunk. On the morning of 
Wednesda}', April 21, about two hours before daylight, 
they reached the cabin of the trappers, and, stealthily 
approaching, Negosheek and Negoneba drew aside 
the blanket which hung as a curtain over the door- 
way, entered, and finding the trappers asleep, each 
singled out liis victim, and with their ever present 
tomahawks, quickly sent the two white men to a hap- 
pier hunting ground. Then calling in Negossum, 
the boy, who had remained outside, Negosheek com- 
pelled him to strike the legs of one of the dead men 
with the handle of his tomahawk, so that he should 
feel that he too was a party to the crime, and from 
fear of the consequences as to himself, keep it a 

They now plundered the camp of its contents, con- 
sisting of a gun, tea-kettle, spider, some tlour, a 
blanket, tow-shirt, a handkerchief, two powder horns 
and powder, nine traps, three dozen muskrat skins, 
some pork, and from one of the men three dollars in 
silver money. They hid the kettle, spider, flour, 
traps and gun on the west side of a small stream 
called Crane Creek, and selling the skins to a French 
trader, named Guy. who was stationed a few miles 
away, then immediately started for their camp on the 

The testimony taken at the subsequent trial siiows 
that they soon very indiscreetly divulged their secret 
to a half-breed Indian, named Chazee, (Cha-zee), 
who on going down the river, found the murdered 
men still lying in their cabin where slain. He went 
on to the mouth of the river, and informed one 
Charles C. Tupper, a constable, of the facts, who at 
once obtained a warrant from Truman Pettibone, a 
justice of the peace for Danbury township. 

Armed with this warrant, and accompanied by An- 
son Gray, Peter Mauminin, (and perhaps others, 
though it is not possible at this distant day to ascer- 
tain whom, or how many), he at once went to the 
camp of the Ottawas, on the Maumee, and made 

known his errand to a friendly Indian, named Sac-e- 
saw, who at once pointed out the three implicated 
Indians, and they were promptly arrested, the chief 
informed of the charge against them, and the long 
and tedious return march commenced. 

On April 30, Tupper returned the warrant to the 
justice, with the three prisoners, and an examination 
was at once held, the result of which was the holding 
of the accused for trial in the court of common 
pleas. At that examination John B. Flammond, 
a French trader, acted as interpreter. 

Negossum, the boy, was first examined, and con- 
fessed that he was present with the others when they 
committed the murder, but j^i'otested his innocence. 
Negoneba was next examined, and confessed that he 
wiis one of the men who committed the murder on 
Portage river nine nights before; claiming that Ne- 
gossum, the boy, struck one of the men they were 
murdering, with the handle of his hatchet; and that 
Negosheek first plotted the murder, and struck the 
first blow. He also confessed the taking and secret- 
ing the property, and the sale of some of it. Nego- 
sheek was next examined, and confessed the crime. 
He said when sober he had no idea of committing the 
murder, but on getting drunk, he plotted the attack, 
and assisted in executing it. 

The prisoners were then shackled, and in charge of 
Tupper and his assistants, started for the county seat, 

The party crossed Sandusky Bay on a ferry, kept 
by a man named Luther Chapin, at ''Ogontz Place>" 
now Sandusky City. They stayed from the evening 
of April 30th to May 3d, at an inn kept by Cyrus 
W. Marsh. Their bill of fare, afterwai'ds allowed 
by the county commissioners, and now on file in the 
auditor's office, is as follows: 

Voucher 577. 
ism. Huron County, Dr. to C. W. Marsh. • 

By Mr. Tupper. 
April 30. To 1 pt. wy and seven suppers tor Indians on guard . . .S3 87^ 

To 1 pt. of whisky 25 

To 3 suppers for the prisoners 1 12 

May 1. To .51^ pts. of w'y fioj^ 

To 7 breakfasts for the Indians 2 63i4 

To 3 breakfasts and 2 suppers for himself 1 50 

3, To 414 pts. w'y and I lodging (i2^<; 

To 31^ days' board for 2 prisoners .3 50 

To 1 day's board for 1 i^risoner 50 

3. To breakfast for 3 Indians I Vi]4 

To 31^ pts. Wy and 1 lodging 50 

To 1 day'? board for Tupper "5 

Tupper. SI5 .tO 

May 17. To entertainment on his return with the prisoner 1 Siy 

Capt. Burt's bill, by Tupjier's orders . . sri^ 

AVhile at Sandusky oiu' of the Indians was taken 
back to the scene of the murder, in ordfr to point out 
the precise locality of the liidden prii]H'rty, wiiich he 
did, and nearly all was recovered. 

On arriving at Norwalk, there l)eing no jail tlieii. 
they were all confined in a log cabin owned by Daniel 
G. Raitt, which tlien stood on the lot the ''Newman 
block " now stands on (nortliwest corner of Main and 
Hester streets), and a few rods back from Main street. 



In this cabin they were kept, with tlie sliackles on, 
under the guard of Daniel G. Raitt, Charles Sonles, 
Charles C. Tnpper, J. 0. Thayer, Calvin Bates, and 
perhaps others whose names are now lost to history. 
These guards wefe not all on duty at the same time, 
but served at different times as a relief to each other. 

After. being in confinement a short time the Indians 
planned an escape, and Negoneba and Xego^^suin .suc- 
ceeded in removing tlieir shackles, hiding tlu-m liehind 
a log, and by keeping covered up with their blankets 
and feigning sleep escaped the suspicion of the guards. 
Eaitt was on guard the night of their escape, but at 
midnight was relieved by Soules. Not long afterward 
Negosheek asked him to remove his shackles and 
accompany him outside the building a few steps. 
Soules removed the shackles from one leg, leaving it 
fast to the other, and, supposing tlie two others sound 
asleep, left the door open as they went out; very soon 
after he saw the two Indians running away, and at 
once realized that he had been made the victim of 
misplaced confidence; he called to them, and also to 
Eaitt, for the purpose of arousing him, and as he did 
so Negosheek jumped up and started to run. Soules 
had his rifle witli him and, as he gave chase, fired at 
the retreating savage, and before losing sight of him 
loaded and fired twice more. Satisfied that he had 
wounded the fellow, and all having escaped, lie re- 
turned to town. 

On the 15th of April, John Hawk, a young man, 
while out hunting along Pipe creek, near the west 
boundary of the county, discovered Negosheek in a 
swamp along the border of the creek, hunting for 
"craw-fish" (the river lobster or crab), upon which, 
with roots, he had lived since escaping. The shackle, 
which was fast to one leg when he ran away, had 
stuck to him like a brother, though rather an incon- 
venient appendage in his case. After watching him 
for a short time. Hawk became satisfied that the 
Indian was suffering from wounds, and concluded to 
investigate his discovery more closely, and upon ap- 
proaching nearer saw the shackles which the Indian 
vainly tried to conceal; he then captured the fellow 
and took him to an old hunter named John Pum- 
plirey, who brought him back to Norwalk. Pumphrey 
afterward, on behalf of Hawk and himself, filed a 
claim for the reward of one hundred 'and twenty-five 
dollars which the sheriff had offered for the recapture 
of the three Indians, of which claim the commis- 
sioners allowed twenty-five dollars. 

Dr. Daniel Tilden was called in to attend to tlie 
wounded prisoner, and examination develojied the 
fact that Soule was good ;it a niniiing .■^lint, for tliere 
was one wound in the .-ilKnililer, one in the hip. and 
one in the leg. 

Raitt undertook the position of nurse to the 
wounded and half-famished ])risoner, and" tui-ned him 
over fully healed before he was hung. From that day 
to his death Raitt bore the pre-fix of " Doc." 

Soon after the cscaiie of tlip Indians. ('a])taiu John 
Boait, tlic father of \hv latc> ('. L. I'.oalt. ('iiptain 

Heniy Hurt, nf Monroeville, and the Frenchman, 
John H. Flainniond, started for the Ottawa camp on 
the Maumee river, with the expectation of finding 
and re-capturing the fugitives; they arranged among 
themselves that Captain Burt, who was dressed in 
"regimentals" (military uniform), should be presented 
to the Ottawa chief as the governor of Ohio, and that 
as such he should demand the surrender of the mur- 
derers. The plan proved a success, and Negoneba 
was immediately delivered up to them, searched, de- 
prived of his weapons, his hands bound behind him, 
and with a rope fastened around his body as a leading 
string, placed in charge of Captain Burt and a guard 
of friendly Indians, and conducted to Norwalk. 
The chief insisted that Negossum, the boy, was inno- 
cent, but upon being assured if that were true, he 
would not be injured, promised to send him on to 
Norwalk in a few days. Captain Boalt and Flam- 
mond remained to see that the promise should be ful- 
filled; it was, to the letter, and in due time they re- 
turned the boy to the custody of the .sheriff at Nor- 

Captain Burt, with his prisoner and Indian guards, 
made their way directly for the shore of Lake Erie, 
The first night they camped in the woods; it was wet 
and uncomfortable; Burt wanted a fire; upon being 
promised a quart of whisky, one of the guards 
gathered some dry leaves upon which he emptied some 
powder from his horn, and bending over the pile, 
struck sparks of fire into it with flint and steel; an 
explosion followed, and the Indian, taken by surprise, 
jumped high in the air, but the fire was started, and 
the whisky was forgotten by the faithless "pale-face," 
He, however, was reminded of the promise the next 
day, by the Indian performing in pantomime what he 
had acted in earnest the night before; the whisky 
was delivered, and faith was kept. 

At the lake shore the Indian guards turned back, 
and Burt leading his prisoner by the roi)e, proceeded 
on his journey. Once Negoneba thought his chance 
had come to escape, and with a sudden spring, made 
a bold and desperate strike for liberty, but Burt, who 
was a large, muscular man, in the prime of life, gave 
him some vigorous jerks with the rope; and then 
seizing him by the shoulders, shook him so severely 
as to effectually quell all thoughts of further resist- 

They arrived at Marsh's tavern on the ITthof May, 
and from there Tupper accompanied them to Nor- 
walk. Here Negoneba was again searched, and a 
knife, probably given him by his squaw just before 
the commencement of the journey, was found se- 
creted on his person. Had Burt been less watchful 
and determined, he probably would have followed 
Wood and Bishop to the happy hunting ground, on 
a free pass from the hand of this desperate savage. 

On Tuesday, the ISth of May, 1819, the court of 
common pleas commenced its session in the old 
court house, wliich then stood where the present court 


to the east side of "Enterprise Road," afterwards 
"Mechanic street," now "Whittlesey avenue," and 
is the "Central Hotel" building, kept by A. H. 

Hon. George Tod, father of Ex-governor Tod, was 
presiding judge; Hons. Jubez Wright, Stephen 
Meeker and Ezra Sprague were the associate judges. 
The late James Williams, of Norwalk, was clerk; 
L3'nian Farwell, then of Norwalk, since for many 
years of Watertown, New York, sheriff; Ebenezer 
Lane, then of Norwalk, and for many years since 
chief justice of Ohio, was prosecuting attorney, and 
was assisted by Peter Hitchcock, of Cleveland, after- 
ward for many years a judge of the supreme court 
of Ohio. 

The indictment returned by the grand jury against 
these Indians charges the crime to have been com- 
mitted "at Lower Sandusky, in the said county of 
Huron." It will be seen by reference to Chase's 
Statutes, vol.' 3, page 2,110, that Huron county was 
set off, February 7th. 1S09, as the five western-most 
ranges of the Coniiecticut AVestern Reserve; being 
that part called the Fire-lands: By act of January 
31st, 1815 (Chase's Statutes, vol. 3, page 2,120), a 
portion of the unorganized territory west of the 
Reserve and north of its south line, reaching about as 
far west as the present western boundaries of San- 
dusky and Ottawa counties, was attached to Huron 
county for judicial purposes; Lower Snndusky was 
within this attached territory. 

A copy of the indictment found against the three 
parties charged, taken from the first volume of "Law 
Records " of Huron county court of common pleas, 
is as follows: 

Pleas before the honorable, the president, and judges of the court of 
common pleas, holden at Norwalk, in and for the county of Huron 
and State of Ohio, in the term of Jlay, A.D., 1819. 

NO. 6— MAY TERM, A.T>.. 1819. 

State of Ohio, County of Huron. 

At a court of common pleas begun and holden at the court house in 
Norwalk, within and for the county of Huron, on the eighteenth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, 
before the honorable George Tod. president, and Jabez Wright, Stephen 
Meeker and Ezra Sprague, Esqs., associate judges holding said court. 
The grand jurors of the State of Oliio, in and for said county of Huron, 
to-wit: Henry Jeffry, Tinker R. Smith, Isaac Powers, Elihu Clary, John 
Drewry, Augustus R. Demick, Daniel Curti-, Ezekiel Barnes, James 
Forraan, Charles Hubbell, Reuben Pixley, Heni-y Barney, Silas G. Strong, 
William Gallup and Eli HoUiday, good and lawful men of said county, 
then and there duly returned, tried, impanneled, charged and sworn to 
inquire for the body of the county of Huron, do, upon their oaths in the 
name and by the authority of the State of Ohio, present and find that 
Negosheek, an Indian of the tribe Ottiums, Negoneby, an Indian of the 
said tribe, and Negossum, an Indian of the same tribe, at Lower San- 
dusky, in the said county of Huron, on the twenty-first day of April, in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, not having the fear 
of God before their eyes, but moved and seduced by the instigation of 
the devil, with force and arms in and upon the body of John Wood, in 
the peace of God and the State of Ohio, then and there being feloniously, 
unlawfully, willfully, purposely and "f il.-IihejatH and premeditated 
malice, did make an assault: and the snid X.-gnsh.-t-k. with a tomehawk 

in his right hand then and there held, of th.- vali f imt- dollar, the said 

John Wood, in and upon the head of him the said Wood, behind the left 

ear of him the said Wood, and also in and upon the left side of the head 
over Che left shoulder of him the said Wood, then and there feloniously, 
unlawfully, willfully, purposely and of his deliberate and premeditated 
malice, did strike, cut and penetrate, then and there giving to him the 
said John Wood, wilh the tomehawk aforesaid, in and upon the head 
behind the left ear of him the said John Wood, and also in and upon the 
left side of the head and over the left shoulder of him the said John 
Wood, two mortal wounds, each of the breadth of three inches and of 
the depth of three inches, of which said mortal wounds the said John 
Wood then and there instantly died; and the said Negoneby and tlie 
said Negossum, at the time of the committing the said felony and mur- 
der by the said Negosheek in the manner and form af.jresaid, unlaw- 
fully, feloniously, willfully, purposely and of their delibei-ate and pre- 
meditated malice, were present aiding, assisting, abetting, counselling, 
procuring, helping, comforting and maintaining the said Negosheek the 
felony and murder aforesaid in manner and form aforesaid to do, com- 
mit and perpetrate: and so the jurors aforesaid, upon their oaths afore- 
said, do further say that the said Negosheek and the said Negoneby 
and the said Negossum, him, the said John Wood, then and there, in 
manner and form aforesa d, feloniously, un'awfully, willfully, pur- 
posely and of their deliberate aud piemediiated malice, did kill and 
murder, contrary to the form of the statute, in sudi case made and pro- 
vided, and against the peace and dignity of the State of Ohio. 

And the jurors aforesaid, at the tei m aforesaid, and on their oath 
aforesaid, in the name and by the authoiity'aforesaid, do further pre- 
sent and find that the said Negotheek, the said Negoneby. and the said 
Negossum, at Lower Sandusky aforesaid,ron the twenty-flist day of 
April, aforesaid, not having the fear of God before their eyes, but 
moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil, with force and arms 
in and upon the body of George Bishop, in the peace of God and of the 
State of Ohio, then and there being feloniously, unlawfully, willfully, 
purposely, and of their deliberate and premeditated malice, did make 
an assault, and that the said Negoneby, with a certain tomehawk, of 
the value of one dollar, in his, the said Negoneby 's right hand, then and 
there hit the said George Bishop in and upon the head of him, the said 
George Bishop, and also in and upon the breast of him, the said 
George Bishop, then and there unlawfully, felonious^ly, wilfully, pur- 
posely, and of his deliberate and premeditated malice, did strike, cut, 
and penetrate: giving to the said George Bishop, then and there with 
the tomehawk aforesaid, in and upon the head of the said Geoige 
Bishop six mortal wounds, of the breadth of three inches, and the depth 
of three inches each, and also giving to him, the said George Bishop, 
then and there, with the tomehawk aforesaid, in and upon the breast of 
the said George Bishop two other mortal wounds, each of the breadth 
of three inches, and of the depth oi six inches: of which mortal wounds 
the said George Bishop then and there instantly died. And that the 
said Negosheek, and the said Negossum, at the time of committing the 
last mentioned felony and murder aforesaid, by the said Negoneby, in 
manner and form aforesaid, unlawfully, feloniously, wilfully, purposely 
and of their deliberate and premeditated malice, were present, aiding, 
abetting, counselling and procuring, helping, assisting, comforting and 
maintaining the said Negoneby the felony and nuirder last mentioned 
aforesaid, in manner and formaforesaid, to do, commit, and perpetrate; 
and so the jurors aforesaid, upon their oaths aforesaid, do further say 
that the said Negosheek, and the said Negoneby, and the said Negossum, 
him, the said George Bishop, then and there, in manner and form 
aforesaid, feloniously, unlawfully, wilfully, purposely, and of their de- 
liberate and premeditated malice, did kill and murder, contraryito the 
form of the statute, in such case made and provided, and against the 
peace and dignity of the State of Ohio. 

E. Lane, Pn 


I'pon tiie back of which indictment appears the 
following, to wit: 

"A true bill. Filed May term, 1819. " „ „ „ 

Silas G. Strong, Foreman. 

The trial took place on Friday. May 21st. The 
court-room was crowded to its fullest capacity, and 
many who could not gain access were congregated in 
the front vanl. David Abbott, of Avery (tlie old 
county seat), and Samuel Cowles, of Cleveland, 
appeared as attorneys for the Indians. 

On being arraigned and the indictment re;id and 
interpreted to them, each plead "not guilty," and 
demanded Separate trials. 

Ncgoneba was first put uixm trial, a jury called and 
he informed of his right of challenge, which he at 
once exercised by rejecting every red-headed man on 
the The jury finally selected and sworn were 


Josiali Riimerv, Ezra Abbott, William AVatkiiis, Syl- 
vester Pomeroy, William R. Beebe, Samuel Spencer, 
Moody Mears, Daniel Mack, Royal N. Powers, Daniel 
Warren, AVilliam Speers and Isaac Allen. 

The witnesses for the State were Charles C. Tupper, 
the half-breed Chazee, Abiather Shirley, Barnabas 
Meeker, and some others called on minor matters. 

The prosecutor made no opening argument. 
Cowles, for the defense, read some authorities and 
addressed the jury upon the evidence. Hitchcock, 
for the State, replied, and upon a charge from the 
court the jury retired, and soon returned with a 
verdict of murder in the first degree. 

Xegosheek was next put upon ti'ial Ijefore the fol- 
lowing jury: Anthony Beers, Samuel Cockraue, 
Beekwith Cook, Jacob Hawhn, John Barney, Samuel 
B. Carpenter, Gamaliel Townsend, Samuel B. Lewis, 
Joseph Strong, Jared Ward, Joseph Ozier and Levi 
Cole. The same witnesses appeared for the State as 
in the first case; and a like verdict was rendered. 

Negossum, the boy, was then put upon trial, but 
the testimony was so clearly in his favor that the 
prosecutor declared he would not further prosecute 
the indictment against him, and the court ordered 
his discharge. 

Negoneba and Xegosheek were sentenced Ijy the 
court to be remanded to the jail from whence they 
came, and there remain until the first day of July 
next, and from thence, between the hours of ten and 
twelve o'clock in the forenoon of said day, be taken 
by the sheriff of the county to the place of execution, 
and then and there, by said sheriff, be hanged by the 
neck until they be dead. 

They did not approve of the sentence of hanging, 
and asked that they might be shot, but when they 
fully realized that they should surely be hung, they 
tried experiments upon each other; one would lie 
down upon his back and the other would sit astride 
of him, and with both hands clasped around his neck, 
choke him until nearly gone, and then let go; when 
sufficiently recovered, he would slowly arise and 
sagely shake his head and exclaim, "ugh! no good, 
no good;'' then they would change places, and the 
compliment be returned in kind, with the same result; 
it was still "No good, no good." 

The day of execution was warm and sultry. At an 
early hour people began to gather from far and near, 
dressed in the rude costume of those days; with the 
men, "buckskin trousers" were common; and one 
young man, who in coming from Huron had got his 
(not doeskin cassimere) "breeches" thoroughly wet 
in passing a creek, found them stretching down to an 
inconvenient length; he cut off enough to make them 
right, they continued to stretch, he cut them off 
again and again; on arriving at Xorwalk the hot sun 
began to dry them and they began to shrink, and 
kept on shrinking until the bottoms crawled up above 
his knees, and in that plight he became an object of 
almost as much attention as the two criminals. 

Seven or eight Indians, Ottawas, were present at 
the execution, some of them being the ones who had 
assisted in their cajiture on both occasions. 

The "gallos" (gallows) was erected on tlie sand 
ridge just south of Main street, on the lot and near 
the site of the residence of A. G. Post, Esq., next 
west of the Episcopal cemetery. 

A rifle company formed one or two years before, of 
about one hundred men, under command of Cajitain 
Henry Burt, attended the execution as a guard, and 
to assist the civil authorities. 

They marched to the jail, and the jirisoners having 
been dressed in their shrouds, with rojoes around . 
their necks, were taken out by the sheriff and. placed 
in a wagon, and, escorted by the guard, taken to the 
place of execution, when being asked if they had 
anything to say, Xegosheek spoke a few words in 
broken English, but what he said cannot now lie 

After life was extinct the bodies were placed in 
coffins and buried at the jjlace of execution. The 
civil officers and military company then marched to 
the house of Capt. Boalt, and were furnished a boun- 
tiful repast by him, after which a funeral discourse 
was preached by the Rev. William Hanford, a Pres- 
byterian clergyman. 

Before Xegosheek was executed he confessed the 
murder of six other white men, previous to that of 
Wood and Bishop. 

This was the first -important criminal trial in 
Huron county, and the first execution in Xorwalk. 
Since then there has been only one other execution 
for murder in Xorwalk; that of Bennett Scop for the 
murder of a peddler named Jacolj Goodman in Green- 
field township, on the 9th day of October, A. D. 

The cost of the cajjture and trial of the Indians 
was a heavy tax upon the new settlement, and the 
bills rendered are primitive curiosities. Some of them 
are here given in the original form and spelling: 

Voucher No . 660. 

HcEON County to Jennings, Dasltng & Co., Dr. 

Paid Sasa Sia 00 

Cabian 12 00 

Paqahkemann 9 00 

.James 9 00 

Undeno 9 00 

Measaeka 9 00 

Ogenee 9 00 

Thunder 4 60 

$r3 30 

Goods and provisions to Mr. Tupper for going after pro- 

1 deer skin $150 

12 feet bed cord 19 

28Hlb. bacon 5 35 

H lb . young hyson tea 94 

Paid Indians tor going after property as per order of C. 

Iblacksilk handk'f 1 85 

^yrd. calico 31 

2yrd. ribben 44 

3yrd. plaid 1 30 

1 bandana handk'f 100 

Jenxinos, Darling & Co . , 
Allowed. Per Moses Farwell. 


Voi'cherNo. 656. 

May 22. Huron county to Charles C. Tupper, one dollar and sixty- 
two & % cents. Charles C. Tupper. 
Note.— On the back of the voucher is the following: 

Charles C. Tupper deter to Enos Gilbert, for liqur whlst on gard, 
thirteen shilling &. sixpence. Charles C. Tupper. 

This claim was allowed by the commissioners, and entered on their 
journal as follows: 
To C. Tupper, for services $1 62)^ 

Voucher Wo. 

Huron County to Charles C. Tupper, Dr. 

My services 9 days in apprehending, securing and delivering the 

Indians on the first expedition $-36 00 

Ditto, ditto, 14 days on the second expedition 56 00 

Cash paid for expenses in pursuit of Indians 7 00 

Ditto, to be paid to Anson Gray for 7 Tlays services in apprehend- 
ing and securing the Indians on first expedition 10 50 

Ditto, ditto, to Peter JIauminin for 5 days service in apprehend- 
ing and interpreting on first expedition 10 00 

Ditto, ditto, Thos Demas, 6 days services for ditto, on second 

expedition 10 35 

Ditto, ditto, Wm. Austin, 6 days services for ditto, on second ex- 
pedition 9 00 

3128 73 
Note.— The following addition to the bill is in the hand-writing 
of E. Lane, then prosecuting attorney: 

Two days attending as guard 2 00 

Charles C . Tupper. attending the grand jury tliree days 1 50 

E. Lane, Pros. Att'ij. 51:32 25 


CouNTy OF HuRoir to John B., Dr. 
To eleven days service to pursue, retake and interpret for the 

Indian^risoners, @ S4 per day SH 00 

Norwalk, 22d May, 1819. J, B. Fl.asimond, " 

*Thisis Flammond's own signature and shows the correct spelling; 
in all the records it is spelled wrong. 

Voucher No. 35 (new numbering). 

Dr. The Honorable the Commissioners for the County of Huron to 
John B . Flammond . 

2 days services, :30th June and 1st July, as interpreter 34 00 

Note.— This bill was allowed by the commissioners, and entered in 
their journal as follows: 
To John B. Fleming, for services hanging Indian 34 OO 

Voucher No. 17 (new numbering). 

Swan Creek, llth May, 1819. 
Lieut. Charles C. Tupper Dr. to Matthew McKelvey . 

May 11. To:S0i/4lb bacon, (S 2s -.7 5614 

1 qt. whisky, @ 4s 50 

12. To 1 qt. whisky, @ 3s :j7i^ 

Money paid Mr. Printis, 8s 1 00 

1 pt. whisky, 3s; to Hpt., Is; to I qt., 3s 75 

Whisky for your men, 4s 50 

13 To Iqt. whisky, 3s 

Money paid Capt. Henderson, 9s 1 1214 

Iqt. whisky, 3s 371^ 

Paid Joseph Printis, 8s 1 00 

Rope to bind an Indian, 3s .37J^ 

14. To 2 qts. whisky 75 

314 3154 
Lyman Farwell pay Jlatthew McKelvey the above amount, and 
oblige yours, &.C., it being articles had on our campaign after the runa- 
way Indians. Charles C . Tupper. 

Note.— The use of the "necessaries of life" on the campaign men- 
tioned in the above bill, were in about the following proportion: One 
quart of whisky to four pounds of bacon. Hominy, potatots and lodg- 
ing were either not necessary, or were thrown in as not of sufficient 
> be charged for. 

Voucher No. IS (new numbering) 

Swan Creek, ISth May, 181a. 
Mr. Bolt Dr. to Matthew McKelvey. 

To two gal. whisky 53 (X) 

To two hired hands, three days (j 00 

To use of boat same time j 00 

tlO TO 
Matthew McKelvey 

Voucher 661. 

To charges in hunting Indians. 

Services in hunting 

May 22d, 1819. 

County of Huron, to John Boalt, Dr . 
To nine davs services to Pursue Indian Prisoners, m 4S 36 00 

Norwalk, 22d May. 1819 S27 00 

Voucher 657. 

County of Huron, Dr. 
to nine day s ? ervises on guard over the ingins a dollar a 
day and night . Norwalk, May the 23, 1819 . 

D. G. Raitt. 

Voucher 624. 

Gentlemen Commissioners of Huron Cou.nty : — J. G. Thayer has 
served five days as a Guard during this term of Court . 

Lyman Farwell. Sheriff. 
Norwalk, May 22, 1819. 
S5.00 allowed. 

Gentlemen Commissioners of Huron County:— Calvin Bates has 
served two days in Guarding Prisoners during this term of the Court. 
May 21st. 1SI9. Lyman Farwell. Sheriff. 

200 cts allowed by Commissioners. 

Voucher 63h. 

Huron County to Lyman Farwell, Dr. 

To paying Guard at Portland 4 50 

To transporting Prisoners S 00 

To cash paid Tupper 3 -31— $13 81 

Norwalk, May 22, 1819. 

Voucher 641 . 

I, John Pumphry, do hejeby certify that John Hawk and myself 
did, on the 15th of this instant, take up Negossheek, one of the Indian 
murders and on the 16th Instant delivered said Indian to the Jailor of 
Huron County, for which we the said John Hawk and John Pumphry 
claim the Reward offered by the Sheriff of said county, it being one 
hundred and twenty -five dollars. Norwalk. May 20, 1819. 

John Pumphrey. 
.\llowed on the above 25 dollars . 

Voucher 626. 
The sum of twenty-five dollars is allowed Peter Hitchcock for assisting 
1 prosecuting the pleas of the State in the county of Huron, at the May 
- - - - - ~ . George Tod, Pres't. 

term, 1819 . By 01 der of the Court . 

Voucher 635. 

County of Huron to Samuel C'owles, Dr. 

To assisting on the trial of Naugeshek, Negonebee and Negossum 1 

Counsel for prisoners J2o 00 

May term, 1819. The above amount is allowed by order of the Cotir 
George Tod. Pres't. 

Voucher No. 36 (new numbering). 
Allowed to Ezra Abbott: 

July the 1. 1819 Dr. ■ihe Commissinoers of the County of Huron. 

To building Gallos 14 00 

to two Coffins -'4 each 8 00 

to making Srowd 1 00 

tooneshirt 1 00-324 ( 

Voucher 113. 

Huron Cou.vty Dr. to Alman Loomis. 

Dr to Diging Grave for Indians SI ' 

July 1. 1.S19. Certified by me. Lyman Farwell, Sheriff. 

Voucher 112 (new numberins,). 

May 4th 1819. County of Huron. Dr. 

To boarding 3 Indians six days 18 days. 
They then escaped. 

Afterwards Negasset 11 days. 

Negunneba 7 days. 

Negassum 4 days. 

Rowlin 8 days. 

Downing 6 days. 

To the end of May Court 54days. — 7 weeks 3 days. 

Rowlin two weeks 2 weeks. 

Two Indians five weeks four days 11 weeks 1 day. 

at two dollars p week. 20 weeks li days. 



Two Guards six days 13 days. 

Two " four days 8 days. 

Four •• seven days 38 days 

Five " twodays lOdays. 

5S days. -^ 8 weeks 3 days. 
Three " five weeks three uay.s 10 •■ 3 " 

34 weeks 4 days. 

Three old shirts 1.50 34!4 weeks at 3.50 per week 

1014 lb. candles at 3s. 6d . . . .3.3,S 

Meals (or e.^ctra Guards .5.0(1 j 61 38 

14 mealsfor seven Indians.. 3.50 Criminal 4187)4 

Whisky to dress the wounds 17 53 

of the Indians and extra 

Guards 4)4 Gallons 4.3.i 130 78H 

Ending July 1st 1819. Jir.53 

f 130. 78. for LvuAN Farwell, S^icny, 

Esos Gilbert. 
Note.— For much of the information contained in the foregoing ac- 
c lunt of facts, scenes and incidents attending the murder, capture, 
trial and conviction, the writer is largely indebted to an article pub- 
lished in tne Fire-lands Pioneer of June, IS65, page 43. Also, to official 
records and flies, and to his own memory of conversation between 
"Doc. Raitf and the late Hallet Gallup, in his hearing when a boy 


In September of 1815, Piatt Benedict, then of Dan- 
bury, Connecticut, came west to prospect for a new 
home. He stopped to see his cousin, Eli Boughton, 
then living at Canfield, Trumbull county, Ohio, and 
was there introduced to Elisha Whittlesey. Mr. Whit- 
tlesey was about starting for Huron county with Judge 
Todd, to attend the first court soon to be held at the 
"old county seat." Mr. Benedict joined their com- 
pany and came on with them. 

The first court was held at the house of David 
Abbott, and there was a very general dissatisfaction 
expressed at the location, and the propriety of select- 
ing another site was freely discussed. Some person 
(whose name cannot now be ascertained) suggested 
that there was a fine sand ridge in Norwalk township 
that would make a good location. 

Major Frederick Folly, of Margaretta township, was 
one of the parties present at that court; and after 
the adjournment, he, Mr. Whittlesey and Mr. Bene- 
dict, started to examine the "sand ridge" with the 
intention of ascertaining its desirability as a site for 
the future seat of justice, and no doubt with some 
speculative design in view. On arriving at the place 
of Abijah Comstock, they invited him to accompany 
them and act as guide. After " prospecting" the site 
of the future city which loomed up in their "minds' 
eye," and finding good water (which the oijponents 
of a change of county seat asserted "could not be 
had in that barren sand ridge"), they turned iheir 
steps towards Cleveland, and soon after arriving there, 
drew uj) and signed an agreement, the original of 
which is now in possession of the writer, and is as 

This Agreement, made this the 30th day of October, 1815, by and 
l)etween Frederick Fally, Piatt Benedict and Elisha Whittlesey, wil^ 
nesseth that they have, and by these presents do covenant, and agree 
to and with each other, to purchase so much of the fourth section, in 
the town of Norwalk, in the county of Huron, as is for sale, belonging 
to Eli Starr, Ithamer Canfleld and Betsey Canfield, Win. Taylor and 
Abigail Taylor, John Dodd and the heirs of Ephraphus W. Bull: and it 
the whole of their rights in said section cannot be purchased, then they 
agree to purchase so much of each of the above proprietors as can be 
procured, and to pay therefor at such price, and on such terms of 

payment as shall be agreed on by the person making such purchase, in 
the following proportions, to wit: The said Frederick Fally one-fourth 
of the purchase money, the said Piatt Benedict, one-fourth, and the 
said Elisha Whittlesey, one-half of the purchase money. It is, however, 
mutually agreed that if Mathew B Whittlesey and Moss White, oi- either 
of them if both do not consent and agree to become partnei-s in the 
purchase, may one or either of them be permitted to take one fourth 
of the purchase, which is to be deducted from the proportion agreed 
above to be taken by the said E. Whittlesey, on their agreeing if 
both consent, or on either of them agreeing if only one consents, to 
become part proprietors in the purchase, to be bound by the cove- 
nants which bind each of the above contracting parties, which shall 
be evidenced by expressing the intention in signing these covenants, 
with appropriate and fit words to bind him or them to each of the 
above contracting parties, in which case each of us hereby agree to 
become bound to him or them, as we shall be to each other in these 
covenants. We further covenant and agree to and with each other, 
that on effecting the purchase aforesaid, or a part thereof, in case the 
same shall include a suitable site tor a town, to lay out a plat of ground 
suitable in extent to the object in view; and in case the seat of justice 
is removed from where it is now established in the count.v of Huron, 
on to the lands which may be purchased in said section as above ; or if 
the legislature should appoint a committee to view for a suitable place 
to which to remove the seat of justice to. that such part and proportion 
of said plat shall and maj be offered for the use and benefit of the 
county, for the erection of public buildings as shall hereaf 'er be agreed 
on by a majority of the pn prietors voting by the interest each one may 
have, the least share counting one vote, and to increase in proportion to 
the quantum of interest, in case that quantum shall double to the least 
share, and so on in the same ratio. 

It is further covenanted and agreed, to dispose of right to the plat 
to the best advantage, either at public or private sale, or so much 
thereof as may be thought advisable, to be agreed on in the same 
manner as is above covenanted in case any difference of opinion should 
exist. We further covenant and agree to lay off the residue of the land 
into suitable outlets and farms, and dispose of the same to the best 
advantage for those concerned : and whereas some one or more of the 
contracting parties may wish to reside on some parts of said land, it is 
further agreed that a preference shall be given to such in thfe selection 
of suitable quantity of land, or such lots as he or they may choose, 
paying therefor such price as the same lots would sell for in market; 
and whereas it is doubtful in whose name a deed or contract may be 
given, it is further covenanted and agreed that the pei-son in whose 
name the contract is executed, or to whom the deeds may be given, 
shall, prior to disposing of any of said lands, bind himself in suitable 
bonds, payable to the other proprietors, for the faithful accounting for 
all moneys received, and paying over the same to the other proprietors 
in the proportion they may own whenever thereunto required. Each of 
the contracting parties binds himself to the other, and each of them 
to bear the proportionable part of the expense that may be iucurred in 
procuring an article or a title for the ab':>vf lands, or so much thereof 
as can be purchased. The intention of the contracting parties being to 
erect and build a town on some part of the above lauds, if purchased, it 
is agreed that each one is to render all the assistance in his power to 
procure settlers and promote the settlement. It is further agreed, that 
no one of the contracting parties shall sell out his interest in said pur- 
chase to any person, without the consent and approbation of the other 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals, and to 
triplicates hereof, which are deUvered to each of the contracting par- 
ties the day and year above written, viz: October :30th, 1815. 

FREnERICK Fallet, [l. s.) 

Platt Beseoict, [l. s.] 

E. Whittlesey, |l. .s.] 

Upon the execution of the foregoing contract it 
was arranged that Mr. Benedict should return to 
Connecticut and effect the purchases contemplated, 
upon the best terms attainable; and he at once started, 
taking the following letter, addressed by Elisha 
Whittlesey to his brother, Mathew B. Whittlesey, of 
Daubury, Connecticut, explaining the foregoing con- 
tract, and soliciting his co-operation: 

Cleveland. October 31, 1815 
Dear Brother: You will perceive by contract in the possession of 
Mr. Benedict, that he, Major Fally, and myself, design purchasing a tract 
of land lying in the fourth section of the town of Norwalk. By this 
map you will be able to see the situation of the land among the several 
owners. Mr, Benedict will inform you of the prospect of moving the 
seat of justice. The tract of land is a valuable one and can soon be 
disposed of, even if we should fail in the object we have in view. 

The site on this tract, owned by Starr and Canfleld, is as handsome as 
any one I ever saw. Mr. Benedict will descend into particulars, as also 



of the land adjoining. We should be happy ot having you join, and 
Col. Moss White, if consistent, otherwise the parts reserved will be dis- 
posed of here. We wish vour assistance in making this purchase, and 
leave it for you. BIr. Benedict and Mr. White to devise the most eligible 
plan . If the deed is taken in the names of a part of the proprietors, it 
is expected that suitable covenants will be entered into to secure the 
others in t ^e participation ot the profits of the contracts. It will be- 
come necessarj' that those who reside here have the disposal of the lots, 
and be able to give titles, or otherwise you will perceive the business 
would be much procrastinated and embarrassed. The price of laud in 
the unsettled towns adjoining is from one dollar to two dollars and two 
dollars and fifty cents per acre. We have not proscribed Mr. Benedict 

as to the price, but wish the purchase on the most favorable terms. 
If contract cannot be made with Starr and Canfleld we propose to 
purchase so much as they will sell, provided they come in and are 
bound with' the rest of us, for the building the town. But we do 
not wish to have any thing to do with it, unless the business is so 
arranged that lands can be disposed of with a certainty of having the 
title, when requested, made to the purchaser. Major Fally is a man 
ot respectability, business and honor, and well calculated to be engaged 
in business of this kind. You will perceive that much confidence must 
be reposed in each other until such time as the title is procured and du- 
plicate convenants signed for the security ot each proprietor. Unless 
Starr and Canfleld sell, they need not flatter themselves of the seat of 
justice, for there are other places which will be favored. 

Since writing the above Mr . Benedict and Tally wish the title to be 

vested ultimately in me Of that do as you shall judge best. Mr. Beu- 
edictwill informyouof the health of ray family, lic. In haste. 

Yours affectionately, E. Whittlesey. 

The following memorauda appear on the back of 
this letter, iu the handwriting of Piatt Benedict, 
showing liis disbursements while on the trip to make 
the purchase contemplated by the contract: 

expenses by platt bexedict. 

Nov. 19. 2 days to New Milford, and expense for horse, &c. S3 50 

Jan . 36. i day to New Milford and expense 2 50 

March 27 . To 1 da,v and expenses to New Miiford 2 50 

. To postage of 3 letters 112!^ 

Aprils. Cash paid Col. Taylor 10 00 

do. do. do. do 10 00 

Postage on letter 25 

Moss White paid do 15 00 

M, B. Whittlesey do 19 00 

Moss White paid 19th July 25 00 

59 00 

P. Benedict paid do 15 00 

3 days going to New Milford to complete the business, &c., 

expenses with Mrs. Bull 7 50 

S52 37V4 
Amount of expense and cash paid by P. Benedict as above, 29 87>^ 

Cash paid by P. Benedict 15 00 

do for expense 7 50 

J52 37H 
April 3. 1816.— Contracted with Wm. Taylor for 563 acres in Norwalk, 

Ohio, for «1,210. Paid him SIO. Platt Benedict, Matthew B. Whittlesey, 

Moss White notes as follows : one note on demand to Eli Mygatt, tor 

S13 81— one to Col. Taylor, sixty days, S356— one tori450, one year from 

date— one tor S450, two years from date. 
15th Nov., 1815.— P. Benedict note on demand for S406— one note tor 

S406 payable one year from date— one for S406 payable 2 years from date 

—and one ot $406 payable 3 years from date. 
Matthew B. Whittlesey and Moss White, July 9th.— Paid on the note on 

demand S40— S25 paid by M. White and S15 by P. Benedict. 

Mr. Benedict, having left Cleveland on or aliout 
October 31, on horseback, reached Danbury in eleven 
days, making an average daily ride of over fifty miles. 
and. on the 15th of November, went to New Milford, 
.sixteen miles distant, and commenced negotiations 
with Colonel William Taylor, who, •'• in right of his 
wife," held part of the desired land. After several such 
trips, he at length, on April 3. 1810, concluded a 
contract with him for five hundred and si.xty-two 
acres, for the sum of one thousand two hundred and 
ten dollars. This purchase covered the land upon 

which all of the original town plat of Norwalk east of 
Hester street was afterwards laid out. Eight huu - 
dred and twelve acres were also purchased of Mrs. 
Polley Bull for two dollars per acre. This land lies 
east of the Taylor tract, and all of the east part of 
the present village south of the section line is built 
upon it. The Taylor tract was part of the claim of 
fire sufferer, Ezra Starr; and the Polley Bull tract 
was part of claim of fire sufferer, John McLean. 

In accordance with the suggestion of Mr. Whit- 
tlesey, in his letter to his brother above given, Mathew 
B. Whittlesey and E. Moss White entered into the 
enterprise and Joined with Mr. Benedict iu giving 
notes for the purchase price of the lauds, as fully 
appears by many papers in the writer's possession. 

On April 8, 1816, Colonel Wm. Taylor executed a 
deed of the five hundred and sixty-two acre tract to 
Elisha Whittlesey: and, on June 8, 1816, Mrs. Bull 
executed a deed of the eight hundred and twelve acre 
tract to the same party. The reason of these deeds 
being executed to Mr. Whittlesey is fully explained in 
his foregoing letter. On the e.xecution of the deeds 
they were at once sent on to Mr. Whittlesey, and he 
soon after came on, and, after consulting Major Un- 
derhill, employed Almond Ruggles as a surveyor to 
run out a portion of the land into village lots and plat 
the same. On October 16, 1816, the survey and jjlat 
having been completed, Mr. Whittlesey signed and 
acknowledged the plat before Jabez Wright, associate 
judge, and the same day it was received for record 
and recorded in volume one of records of deeds on 
page seventeen, by Ichabod Marshall, recorder. The 
instrument recorded with the plat contains the fol- 
lowing dedication: "Lot thirteen is given for a site 
to build a court house, lot twelve a meeting house, lot 
one for an academy or college, and lot twenty-four for 
a goal" — evidently meaning gaol, or jail. The court 
house and jail now stand on lot thirteen, the Metho- 
dist Church on lot twelve, Whittlesey Academy on lot 
one, and the Parker Block on lot twenty-four. 

From the fact that the gift of these lots appears 
upon the records in the name of Elisha Whittlesey 
alone, the impression long since sprang up in this 
community that to him only belonged the credit of 
the grant. The foregoing contract and Mr. Whittle- 
sey's letter to his brother with the other facts stated 
in this history, fully disprove the correctness of that 
impression. Mr. Whittlesey, in executing that dedi- 
cation, and having it recorded, acted in fact as a 
trustee for himself, M. B. Whittlesey, E. M. White 
and Platt Benedict, and they deserve the credit 
jointly with him. 

Frederick Falley, living in Margaretta township, 
never fulfilled his part of the contract by advancing 
any part of the purchase money, nor of the exjienscs, 
and was quietly dropped out. 

On September 0, 181T, Mr. Benedict arrived in 

Norwalk township with his family, and finding his 

house, which he had put up iu the sjiring of 1817, 

I burned to the ground, at once erected another one on 



the same site, and on November 4, 1817, commenced 
work clearing, as appears by tlie following entries 
selected from his account book, now in possession of 
the writer: 

1817.— Nov. 4. To 4 days and team clearing out road on ridge. . S5.00 

1818.— May 6. To 1 gall, whisky for hands clearing ground 1.50 

To 4 days clearing ground for county seat -(.00 

Then some change seems to have been decided upon 
in the arrangement and plan of the plat; as a result, 
four of the eight two rod alleys, between the present 
Benedict avenue and Medina street, were vacated, 
and the arrangement of lots changed to correspond, 
and as thus changed, it now /-emrtt^.s; but no record 
was ever made of that change, and as the old plat 
recorded in 1816 is the only one upon the county re- 
cords, title searchers are puzzled, at this day, to ac- 
count for the wide variance between the recorded and 
the actual plat. 

The writer has found among the papers of Piatt 
Benedict, an ancient, much worn map of the present 
actual plat, but there is no endorsement upon it 
showing by whom, or when it was made. A fair copy 
of it is now in possession of E. S. Houghton, present 
recorder of deeds. 

The following entries, also taken from the account 
book of Mr. Benedict, give a little more light upon 
this change: 

1818.— June 15. To 1 day surveying and laying out town plot $1.25 

To boarding surveyor and hand 1 day each 75 

This strange omission in not having the changed 
plat recorded, might, long years ago, have been seized 
upon as a pretext for vexations litigation, but the 
statutes of repose have long since thrown their pro- 
tecting mantle over it. 

In the year 1817, schemes were devised, and plans 
perfected for accomplishing the second step in this 
campaign for the capture of the county seat. Peti- 
tions were circulated, and the result shows they must 
have been quite generally signed. 

In the mean time, a number of men of energy 
and public spirit had come in, and settled upon the 
new town plat, and by the spring of 1818, it began 
to assume the dignity of a village. A subscription 
paper was circulated to raise funds for the erection of 
county buildings, and several hundred dollars were 
raised. Almond Ruggles was employed to go to 
Columbus in January, 1818, with the petitions for 
removing the county seat, and "lobby" a bill through 
the legislature; this he did successfully, and was paid 
for that service as appears by the following receipt, 
the original of which is now in possession of Miner 
Cole, Es.|.: 

Received of Peter Tice and Piatt Benedict, one hundred dollars for 
services rendered in going to Columbus, for the purpose of settling the 
question as to the removal of the seat of justice to Norwalk, at the 
request of those interested. Almond Ruggles. 

The bill passed by the legislature, appointed a 
commission of three persons " to view the present 
and .such oilier sites for seats of justice, as might be 
shown to them in the county of Huron," and also 
cliarged the commission with the duty of ai)praising 

the damage which those who had purchased iirojicrty 
at the old county seat would suffer by the removal 
of it. 

At the time appointed for a meeting of the com 
missioners, only two were present. The following 
places were applicants for the location, viz.: Abbott".^ 
place in Eldridge (Berlin); Milan, Abijah Comstock's 
place on section two of this town; Gibbs and Lock- 
wood's Corners (now Alling's Corners), Norwalk vil- 
lage, Monroeville, Widow Parkers (on the west side 
of Huron river opposite Milan), and Sandusky City. 
The commission proceeded to view all the proposed 
sites, selected Norwalk, and appraised the damages 
of the several property owners at the old site at a 
total of three thousand four hundred and forty dollars. 

Most of the foregoing facts will more fully appear 
by reference to the following bond which explains 
itself, and which was, no doubt, an important factor 
in determining the action of the commission: 

Know all men by these presents. That we. Elisha Whittlesey and 
Piatt Benedict, as principals, and David Underbill. Levi Cole, Peter 
Tice and Daniel Tilden, as sureties, are firmly bound and obligated to 
Abijah Comstock, treasurer of the county of Huron, and his successors 
in said office, and to Ebenezer Merry. Epbraim Quimby, Frederick W. 
Fowler, Lyman Fay, Ichabod Marshall, Richmond Rhodes, Othniel 
Fields and Joseph Kairns. in the penal sum of eight thousand dollars, 
to the payment of which sum we hereby bind ourselves, our heirs, and 
executors, firmly by these presents, signed with our hands, and sealed 
with our seals, this, the eighth day of May, in the year of our Lord, one 
thousand eight hundred and eighteen. In presence of. 

The condition of this bond is such that, whereas the Legislature of the 
State of Ohio, on the twenty-sLxth day of January, one tliousand eight 
hundred and eighteen, passed a law appointing Abraham Tappan. Wil- 
liam Wetmore, and Elias Lee, commissioners to view the present and 
such other sites for seats of justice as might be shown to them in the 
county of Huron, and to take into consideration the necessity and pro- 
priety of removing said seat of justice for said county ; and whereas, 
the said commissioners, by said act. are to appraise the damage that 
each person might sustain who had purchased in the present seat of 
justice in and for said county; and. whereas, the said Abraham Tap- 
pan, and William Wetmore, two of said committee, have attended to 
the duties of their appointment, and have assessed to the said Ebenezer 
Merry, and Ephraini Quimby, damage to the amount of two thn\isand, 
two hundred dollars; to Lyman Fay, damage to tlie amount of one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars; Frederick W. Fowler, damage to the ; 
six hundred and eighty dollars; Richmond Rhodes, damage 
amount of sixty dollars; Ichabod Marshall, damage to the amoi 
one hundred and fifty dollars; to Othniel Fields, damage to the i 
of one hundred dollars ; to Joseph Kairns, damage to the amount of one 
hundred dollars. 

And. whereas, also by said act, the damage so assessed, is to be paid 
to the several sufferers within two years ; and, whereas, also the dona- 
tions heretofore subscribed for public buildings, or a sum equal thereto 
are to be paid within one year. Now, therefore, the condition of this 
bond is such that if the said commissioners shall fix the seat of justice 
on the town plat of Norwalk, and the said obligors do not pay to the said 
treasurer, or his said successor in said office, for the use of Jthe county, 
asimiequalto the present amount of donations for public buildings, 
within one year from this date, or if the said obligors do not pay the 
said Ebenezer Merry, and Ephraim Quimby, the said sum of t wo thou- 
sand two hundred dollars: to the said Lyman Fay, the said sum of one 
hundred and fifty dollars; to the said Frederick W. Fowler, the said 
sum of six hundred and eighty dollars; to the said Richmond Rhodes, 
the said sum of sixty dollars; to the said Ichabod Marshall, the said 
sum of onehun.lred and fifty dollars; to the said Othniel Fields, the 
said sum of one hundred dollai-s; to the said Joseph Kairns, the said 
sum of one hundred dollars, within two years from this date, then this 
bond to be and remain in full force and effect : but if the seveial sums of 
money above mentioned be paid as above stipulated, then this bond to 
be null and void. 

Elish.i Whittlesey. [l.s.] 

Pl.\tt Uenedict, [l.s.] 

Witness- David Underhill. [l.s.] 

David Abbott. Levi Cole, [l.s.] 

Ben.i, W. Abbott. Daniel Tilden. [l.s.] 

Peter Tice. [l.s,] 

Note.— C'oiJied from journalof Common Pleas Court of May term, 1818. 

N Ca/n^CjU/vv <^ 



The subject of this sketch was born in Auburn, Crawford 
Co., Ohio, July 13, 1825. His parents, Erastus and Sally 
Sawyer, were natives of the State of New York. His father's 
ancestors emigrated to tliis country from Lancashire, England, 
and his mother's (whose maiden name was Snider) from Hol- 
land. His parents were pioneers in that then wilderness 
country. He has one brother, Albanus, older, and one sis- 
ter, Mrs. Lucy Kellogg, younger, than himself, who reside 
in Crawford County. 

He remained upon his father's farm until his seventeenth 
year, employed in the hard work of the new country, and 
attending the common school of the neighborhood when there 
happened to be one. In 1843 he was a student at Norwalk 
Seminary, and the next year at Granville College, supporting 
himself during this time, and while studying law, by teaching 
school winters. In 1845 he commenced the study of the law 
at Norwalk, and was admitted to the Bar in 1847, and soon 
had a respectable practice. 

In 1850 he was elected prosecuting attorney, which office 
he held two years, during which time he was successful in 
breaking up a noted gang of horse thieves, counterfeiters, and 
professional witnesses who infested the county. 

In 1854 he formed a partnership with George H. Safford, 
which continued until both threw up the profession to enter 
the army. The firm did an extensive and successful business. 
In 1860, at the instance of Gov. Dennison, Mr. Sawyer 
organized a military company known as the Norwalk Light 
Guards, and on the 16th day of April, 1801, was ordered into 
the service for three months, and reported with his company 
at Camp Dennison as Co. "D," 8th Ohio Volunteers. The 
regiment soon reorganized for three years, and he was pro- 
moted to major, and soon after to lieutenant-colonel. In July 
the regiment went to Western Virginia and participated in 
the campaign of that summer. S. S. Carroll, of the U.S.A., 
was appointed colonel, and toolc the regiment into the valley 
in the spring of 1861, where it fought conspicuously in the 
battle of Winchester. Col. Carroll was there given the com- 
mand of a brigade, and from this time tlic regiment was in 
command of Col. Sawyer. It was then ordered to Harrison's 
Landing, and became part of the 2d Corps. He commanded 
the regiment in the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mine Run, Morton's Ford, 
the Wilderness, and Spottsylvania, and in innumerable 
skirmishes. In most of these battles he was assigned to 
difficult positions, and in every instance was complimented by 
his superior officers for his gallant conduct. At Gettysburg, 
he was ordered to drive out a rebel force posted in an im- 
portant position in front of Hancock's battle-line, which was 
handsomely done with the bayonet, though at a heavy loss. 
This position he maintained for two days unsupported, and 
far in advance of the lino, although three times attacked by 
superior force; and finally, cluirging an advancing column of 
rebels, took a number of prisoners and three battle-ilags. In 
this battle, and also the battle of Antietam, over one-half of 

his men engaged were killed or wounded. His horse was shot 
from under him at Antietam, Chancellorsville, and Locust 
Grove. He was severely wounded at Gettysburg, Morton's 
Ford, and Spottsylvania, at the latter place the wound dis- 
abling him from further service and partially paralyzing the 
left side. During the draft-riots he was sent to the city of 
New York with his regiment, and occupied a position on 
Brooklyn Heights until the consummation of the draft. 

Promotion was several times tendered him, but he preferred 
to remain with his "gallant old 8th." His popularity with 
his men was unbounded, his ability as an officer was con- 
coded, and his absolute bravery in battle unquestioned. The 
rank of brevet brigadier-general was conferred for meritorious 
conduct during the war. 

In the fall of 1864 he visited the Ohio troops on the line of 
the Mississippi, New Orleans, Kentucky, Tennessee, Northern 
Alabama, and Georgia, on a special commission from Gov. 
Brough. He then acted as assistant judge advocate in the 
office of Judge Advocate Gen. Holt, at Washington, until 
the close of the war, and the triuniplial return of the Union 
army to Washington, in June, 1865. 

In 1865 he was elected representative to the Legislature for 
Huron County on the Kepublican ticket, and served two 
sessions. Was a member of the committees on finance, schools, 
and the agricultural college fund. The Clcrclniid Leader, in 
a review of this Legislature, said of him : " Few men in the 
St.ate achieved a brighter reputation in the recent war than 
Gen. Sawyer, the member for Huron. As a legislator he is 
chiefly distinguished for his ability in presenting his case and 
' dumfounding' his adversary, if anybody has the temerity to 
oppose him. For real humor, as well as solid argument, he 
has few superiors. Sometimes his rare blending of humor and 
argument would convulse with laughter the entire, and 
upset the gravity of everybody within hearing." 

In May, 1867, he was appointed one of the registers in 
bankruptcy for the Northern District of Ohio, which office he 
has held during the existence of the act, a period of over 
twelve years, being regarded as a careful and impartial officer. 
He has also during this period continued successfully in his 
law practice. Gen. Sawyer has always taken a lively interest 
in the prosperity of Norwalk. He was a trustee of the Nor- 
walk Institute for several years, and until it was discontinued 
on account of the non-popular public-school system, and was 
then for fifteen years a member of the board of education of 
the union schools. 

As a lawyer he occupies a prominent jiosition at the I?»r, 
and is regarded as a man of strict integrity ; he is an interest- 
ing speaker and ready debater, and a thorough student of 
literature and history. 

He was married to'Lucinda M. Lathrop, Jan. 30, 1848, who 
died June 12, 1854. Nov. 20, 1855, he was married to Eliza- 
beth B. Bostwick, of Delaware Co., N. Y., who died Jan. 
6, 1878. He has one son, Frank, who is being educated for 
the profession of the law. 



TIk' location having been settled, Mr. Whittlesey 
proposed to deed the entire town plat, except lots 
number one, twelve, thirteen and twenty-four, to cer- 
tain individuals if they would relieve him from his 
liabitity on the foregoing Ijond. His proposition was 
accepted, and on May 30, 1818, they executed to him 
the following bond of indemnity: 

K{Jow ALL MEN BY THESE PRESEXTS, That We, David Underbill, Peter 
Tice. Levi Cole, Piatt Benedict and Daniel Tilden, of Huron countj-, 
are held and stand firmly bound unto Elisha Whittlesey in the penal 
sum of eight thousand dollars, to the payment of which we bind our- 
selves , our heirs, executors and administrators, firmly by these presents. 
Signed with our hapds and sealed with our seals this, the thirtieth day 
of May, one thousand eight hundred and eighteen 

The condition of this bond is such that whereas the said Elisha Whit, 
tlesey, heretofore at our request, became bound as principal in a certain 
bond executed by him to Abijah Comstock. treasurer of the county of 
Huron aforesaid and his successors in said oflSce, in the penal sum of 
eight thousand dollars, conditioned for the payment of three thousard 
four hundred and forty dollars, or thereabouts, to certain individuals 
therein named, being the damages assessed to be paid to them by the 
appraisal of Abraham Tappan and William Wetniore, commissioners 
appointed to remove the seat of justice in Huron county: and, also, 
having this further condition that the donation should be kept good for 
the benefit of the county aforesaid, reference being had to said botrd 
returned to the clerk of the court of common pleas, and by him 
entered on the journal of said court. 

Now, therefore, if the said David Uuderhill, Peter Tice, Levi Cole, 
Piatt Benedict and Daniel Tilden, shall exonerate and save harmless the 
said Elisha Whittlesey from all suits, legal liabilities and costs of, in 
and concerning said bond, by performing the conditions therein con. 
tained. as they severally become due, then this bond to be void and of 
no effect, otherwise to be and remain in full force and effect. 

Signed and sealed the day and year above. 

David Ukderhill, [l.s.] 

In presence of Peter Tice, [l.s.] 

Nathan Strong, Levi Cole, [l.s.] 

C S. Hale. Platt Benedict, [l.s.] 

Daniel Tilden. [l.s.) 

Note . —Copied from the original, now in possession of Miner Cole, Esq . 

The foregoing bond having been executed May 30, 
1818, on June 8, 1818, Mr. Whittlesey executed, in 
favor of the parties who signed said bond, a deed of 
lots from one to forty-eight, being the whole of Nor- 
walk town plat, except jiublic lots one, twelve, thir- 
teen and twenty-four, which is recorded in volume II, 
of Huron county record of deeds, at page 445. 

These parties afterwards fulfilled their obligations 
assumed in the two bonds, and in 1820 partitioned 
the lots among themselves by a joint deed, which is 
recorded in volume II, of Huron county record of 
deeds, at page 884. 

At a meeting of the county commissioners on 
October 21, 18 L8, the following resolution was passed : 

Ordered, By the commissioners, that notice be given that the commis- 
sioners will, on the first Monday of December next, receive proposals 
for the building of a court-house, forty by thirty feet, and a jail. 

Previous to that, however, and upon the consuma- 
tion of the bargain between Mr. Whittlesey and the 
five who had e.xecuted the foregoing bond, the latter 
had commenced the erection of a court house, under 
a contract with William Gallup as builder, and had it 
so far completed that on the third Tuesday of Octo- 
ber, 1818, the first term of the court at the "new 
county seat " was held in it. 

On Monday, December 7, 1818, the commissioners 
caused the following entry to be made in their 

" Commissioners purchased a building of David 

Underbill & Co., for a court house, for the sum of 
eight hundred and forty-eight dollars, which is to 
apply on their donations given at the sand ridge, 
except four hundred and fifty dollars, which is to be 
allowed to William Gallup." 

The original subscription papers for the county- 
seat fund cannot now be found, and it is therefore 
impossible to determine whether the three hundred 
and ninety-eight dollars, above applied "on their 
donations given at the sand ridge," was the amount, 
or part of the amount, of the individual subscrip- 
tions of the five, composing "David Underbill & Co," 
but as the subscriptions were made for the benefit of 
the cMinty, it is most probable that the i^apers were 
in the hands of the county officers for collection, and 
that by the above application they collected the whole 
or a part of the individual donations of Underbill, 
Tice, Cole, Benedict and Tilden, and paid Gallup his 
four hundred and fifty dollars, balance due on build- 
ing, in county orders (which another part of their 
journal shows), trusting to further collections to meet 
the orders. 

At a meeting of the commissioners, held March 
2, 1819, they caused the following entry to be made 
in their journal: 

"Contracted with Platt Benedict to build a jail, 
twenty-four by forty-six, two stories, for the sum of 
twelve hundred and .seventy-five dollars." 

This contract was sub-let to Hallet Gallup, and on 
August 8, 1819, the commissioners caused the follow- 
ing entry to be made in their journal: 

"Commissioners agreed to accept the jail from 
Hallet Gallup, and have deducted twenty dollars 
from the contract, for work which remains unfinished, 
and have paid the balance, with this proviso: the said 
Gallup claims that he has done some extra work, 
which the contract and custom does not recpiire, 
which question the said Gallup and the commissioners 
have agreed to submit to some disinterested judges, 
and abide their decree. Said decision to be submitted 
toS. Benton, Timothy Baker and Frederick Forsyth." 

The contract price of this jail was paid in county 
orders, the commissioners probably relying upon the 
collection of donation subscriptions to meet them. 

The old court house was removed many years ago, 
to give place to the present brick structure, and now 
stands in all its original "beauty" on Whittlesey avenue, 
and is the present "Central Hotel." 

The old* jail was removed in 1872, to give place to 
the present Parker Block, and now stands on Rule 
street, north side, between Huron and Wooster streets, 
as a dwelling house. It, however, had not been used 
as a jail since about 1837. post office. 

Up to August, 1816, the new settlers received and 
sent their mail from the post office at Huron. This 
was so inconvenient that Maj. Underbill, meeting 
Judge Ruggles one day, represented to liim the diffi- 
culty and annoyance of carrying on correspondence 



with tlie east. Ruggles replied: "Find a postmaster, 
and I will write to the department and have the 
ap])ointment made." Dr. Joseph Peax-ce was selected, 
Euggles fulfilled his promise, and the appointment 
was, in due time, made, and received as a ray of light 
penetrating into an oppressive darkness. The follow- 
ing extract from a letter written by Harriet Underhill, 
to her sister, Mrs. Horace Morse, in Herkimer, New- 
York, refers to this appointment. The letter is dated 
"Ridgefield, Angust 6, 1816." 

After referring to family matters, the writer says: 
"Ma wishes you to write and let us know when you 
are coming out here. Perhaps you think of taking 
us hy surprise, but do not think of that, for we* shall 
hear all the news that is stirring, for this day a post 
office has been established here, and Dr. Pearce is 
postmaster. Please dii-ect your letters to Norwalk 
Post Office."' 

This office was kept at the house of Levi Cole (Ben- 
jamin Newcomb's second house), on the present Miner 
Cole farm, until, in July, 1818, when Mr. Pearce 
resigned and his resignation was accepted. 

The total business done by the office,, while held by 
Dr. Pearce, is shown by the following statement of 
account made out at Washington, at that time, and 
found among the papers of Piatt Benedict, now in 
possession of the writer: 



To bal, due on his post office ac't. 

From 1817 

August 2-2 to October 1, 1816, 1.6.5 January 29. By Cash $ SM 

October 1 to Dec. 31, " 3.73 1818 

January 1 to April 1,1817, 8.92 May 14, By Cash 1.00 

April 1 to July 1. " 13.98 1819 

July 1 to October 1, " 11 .61 January 1, By Draft in favor 
October 1 to Dec. 31, " 11.09 David Abbott 72.00 

January 1 to April 1, 1818. 90 
April 1 to July 1, " ■20.21 
Balance 5.85 

S78 00 



Dr. Pearce having tendered his resignation, the 
following letter was sent to him from the department, 
the original of which is now in the writer's possession: 


General Post Office, 

City of Washington, 25 July, 1818. 

Your letter resigning the office of postmaster at Norwalli, Ohio, has 
been received, and accepted. It has Leen concluded to appoint Mr. 
Piatt Benedict to fill the vacancy; a bond tor his signature is enclosed 
and you will oblige me by seeing it done with proper surety, and then 
return it, with a certificate that he has taken the requisite oaths, to this 
office. When those papers are received here, a commission will be 
made out and forwarded to him, and you will then, or as soon as the 
bond is forwarded, if more convenient, hand over to him all the articles 
of post office property in your possession, the moneys due to this office 
excepted. Yours respectfully, 

R. I. Meigs, Jr. 

Joseph Pearce, Esq. 

At that time, Piatt Benedict was living in a log 
house, which stood on the lot, and in the rear of 
where the present Gallup block now stands. That 
log house was built in September, 1817, upon the 
site of one built by Mr. Benedict in the spring 1817, — 

but burned down early in September of that year, — 
these two being the first houses erected within the 
present corporate limits of Norwalk. 

The office was at once removed by Mr. Benedict to 
his residence, and the first post office in the village 
was there opened and kept until 1819; and the first 
mail brought only one letter and one newspaper. In 
that year Mr. Benedict erected and moved into his 
"splendid new brick house," (the first brick structure 
erected within the present limits of Huron county), 
now forming- part of the present Gallup block, in the 
rear. In the little room (back of store'room number 
fourteen. East Main street, now used as a fitting room 
by S. C. Kinsley, fancy goods merchant,) the post 
office was opened up "in state," and there kept, 
until Picket Latimer and Harvey G. Morse, some 
years afterwards, opened a general store, in a building 
standing about where Harley's grocery now is, (store 
room number nine. West Main street), when it 
was removed to that location, and put in charge of 
Jonas B. Benedict, (son of Piatt Benedict, and father 
of Dr. D. D. Benedict), as deputy. There it was 
kept at the west front seven by nine glass window, 
until in 1827, when Latimer & Co. moved to the "Old 
Red Store," standing where the Norwalk National 
Bank now is, (Baker & Kimball succeeding Latimer 
& Co. in the old stand). The post office went with 
Latimer & Co., and remained there, in charge 
of D. A. Baker, (pi-esent president of the First Na- 
tional Bank), as deputy, until the early part of 1828. 
Asahel W. Howe, that year, leased of Horace Howard 
the tavern stand that is now the wooden building 
standing next west of Whittlesey block, so long known 
as the Mansion house, the sign of which is yet indis- 
tinctly visible on ths east end of the old brick block 
next west. 

On January 10. 1828, Howe was sworn in as 
deputy, and the office was moved there. He proved 
to be unworthy of the trust; robbed the mails, was ar- 
rested, tried, convicted, sentenced to imprisonment 
for a term of years, atid pardoned out in about one 

Daniel A. Baker was sworn in as deputy, on March 
29, 1827, before Samuel Preston, justice of the ])eace. 
as appear by the official oath of office, now in ])osses- 
sion of the writer. 

The first official draft by tiie department upon the 
Norwalk post office, was drawn against Joseph Pearce, 
January 1. 1819. 

The second was drawn against Piatt Benedict, and 
is as follows: 

'Dols. 56.— Cents. No 2 


Sir— At sight, pay David Abbott, or order, flfty-six dollars cents 

and charge to account of this office. Asm. Bradley, Jr , 

Assistant Postmaster General." 
To Platt Benedict, Esquire, 
Postmaster at Xonvalk, Ohio. 

The official list of newspapers, pamphlets, and 
magazines received at this office from October 1, 1828, 
to January 1, 1829, shows that seventy-three copies 



were received, upon wliich tlie jiostage was twelve dol- 
lars and twenty-four cents. 

Au official statement of account made out at Wash- 
ington, in 1829, shows the total business of the office 
from July 1, 1818, to September 1, 1839, (a period 
of eleven years and two months, dui'ing which the 
office was held by Piatt Benedict), as having amounted 
to one thousand four hundred and thirty-five dollars 
and fifty-seven cents, or an average of one hundred 
and thirty dollars and fifty cents per year, the last 
year, however, from July 1. 1828, to July 1, 1829, it 
was one hundred and ninety-seven dollars and thirteen 

The present postmaster, Frederick C. Wickham, 
grandson of Samuel Preston, who administered the 
oath of office to D. A. Baker, in 1827, has kindly 
furnished the writer with the following statement of 
the business of the office, for the year ending ilarch 
:U, 1879: 


For the quarter ending .June 30, 18T8 S 1.60T 51 

'■ September 30, 1878 1,492 84 

" " " ■' December 31, 18(8 1,815 77 

" March 31, 1879 1,793 86 

Total for one year S 6,709 98 


For the quarter ending June 30. 1878 $ 226 25 

" " " '• September 30, 1878 236 00 

December 31, 1878 226 25 

" " " " March 31, 1879 229 00 

Total for one year.- S 907 50 


For the quarter ending June 39, 1878 S 3 26 

'■ September 30, 1878 2 86 

■• December 31, 1878 3 40 

' •■ March31,lS79 oil 

Total for one year S 14 03 

Grand total for year 87,632 01 


Number of money orders issued during the year ending 

March 31, 1879 3,871 

Amount issued for the year S41,040 05 

Amount of fees received for same 460 65 

Number of orders paid during the year 3,109 

Amount of orders paid during the year J41,168 97 

Perhaps no single department of business in the 
town affords a better criterion by which to measure 
its growth and improvement. 

In 1818-19 the office was a log dwelling ]>ouse with 
one room, — parlor, sitting-room, bed-room, kitchen 
and post office in one ; its windows were set with 
greased paper instead of glass ; it was warmed from a 
huge sione-built fire-place, by burning logs, so large 
that a man could only put them in place by the "end 
over end" process ; there was only one mail per week. 
The total receipts of the office from July 1, 1818 to 
July 1, 1819, were §112.08, and postage was then 
twenty-five cents for each half-ounce letter. 

The total population of the the whole township 
was probably about two hundred, which would make 
the average contribution of each inhabitant, to the 
receipts of the office, about fifty-si.v cents per year, or 
e(|ual to about two and one-(iuarter letters sent bv 

each inhabitant during the year ; etiual to about 
eighteen and two-thirds letters at the present three- 
cent rate of postage. 

Sixty years have rolled by since then, and our 
fathers and motJiers, who were then the actors upon 
the stage of life, are now sleeping in their quiet, 
silent graves ; a new and busy generation of men and 
women, mostly sti'angers to them, fill, according to 
their ability, the vacant places. 

And to-day, that post office is housed in a commo- 
dious room, upon the same premises where it was first 
opened, nearly sixty-one years ago ; its windows are 
of plate glass, each light of which is five and a half 
by ten and a half feet square, and it is fitted up with 
most of the modern appliances for facilitating busi- 
ness, and ten or twelve mails per day, arrive and de- 

The receipts of the office, aside from the money 
order department, from March 1, 1878, to March 31, 
1879, having been 87,632.01, and estimating the 
present population of the township at nine thousand, 
would average a contribution, by each inhabitant, to 
those receipts, of about eighty-five cents, or at three 
cents per half-ounce letter, would equal the annual 
sending of nearly sixty-five letters by each inhabitant 
now, as against the two and one-quarter letters sent 
in 1818-19. 

As a conclusion, based upon the foregoing figures, 
while the population has increased in those sixty 
years, only about forty-times, the annual receipts of 
the post office have increased nearly sixty-eight times, 
notwithstanding the fact that the rate of postage has 
been reduced from twenty-five, to three cents per 
half-ounce, or over eight times ; taking that fact into 
consideration, the business of the office has increased 
about five hundred and forty-four times. 

The names and date of commission of each person 
who has held the office, from its establishment to the 
present time, have been furnished the writer by the 
Department at Washington, and are as follows : 

Joseph Pearce commissioned October 1, 1816 

Piatt Benedict " October 2:5, 1818 

Cyrus Butler ' " July 29, 1829 

John Bucliingham " September 21, 1830 

Obadiah Jenney " May 20, 1841 

DanielJIallery •' May 1,1849 

A.S.Sutton .- •■ July 6,1853 

Amos ParlfS " April 30, 1857 

John V . Vredenburgh " December 15, ISiiS 

JuliusS. Coe •• December 30, 1858 

HiramRose " October 24. 1871 

Fredericlf C. Wickham " December l.'), 1875 


TicE & FoKS\TH (Peter Tice and Frederick For- 
syth), commenced business in 1818, in the ''Red 
Store," on the corner of Main and Hester streets, 
where the Xorwalk national bank now stands; dis- 
continued business about 1821. 

Cyrvs Bi'TLEK commenced business as successor 
of Tice & Forsythe, in the "Red Store;" David M. 
Benedict, clerk. In 1825 built the brick store now 



occupied by C. H. Wines & Co.. grocers, on the 
Latimer property. Removed to Birmingham iu 1827. 

Frederick Forsyth commenced business, about 
1821, in a building which stood wliere Harley's 
grocery store, number nine, West ilain street now 
is, and discontinued about 1823. 

Morse & Latimer (Harvey G. Morse and Picket 
Latimer,) commenced business about 1823, in the 
store vacated by Forsythe, and continued there until 
they removed to the "'Red-Store."' to give place to 
Baker & Kimball, in 1827. 

Bakek & Kimball (Timothy Baker and Moses 
Kimball,) commenced business about 1825, in the 
building so long used as a store by Shepard Patrick, 
standing where G. Jacobson"s clothing store now is, 
store number seven, W. Main street, and in 1827 re- 
moved to store vacated by Morse & Latimer. 

JoHX V. Vredenburgh commenced business about 

1825, in the building Iniilt by him on the lot corner 
of Main street and Railroad avenue, where Cline"s 
building now stands. 


A copy of the list of merchants trading iu the 
county of Huron, on the first day of April, A. D. 

1826, with the amount of capital. 

Cyrus Butler, Norwalk,* $5,000 

EnosGilbert - 50 

Joseph Strong, Jr. , " 1,500 

.) V. Vredenburgh, " 3,000 

I certify the above to be a true copy of the list of merchants in said 
county, doing business on the first day of April, A. D. 1826. 

Geo. Sheffield, 

Dated June 1, 183(j County Assessor. 

* The list of the other towns is omitted here, because not connected 
with the history of Norwalk. 

The following are similar lists made by the county 
assessor for 1828. 1829, 1830 and 1831. 

LIST FOR 1828. 

Baker & Kimball, Norwalk SI, 500 

P. Latimer & Co., " "2^500 

John V. Vredenburgh, Norwalk 1,500 

Philo Adams, 
June 3, 1828. Assessor. 

Note— This year the name of Cyrus Butler appears in the list for 
Florence, capital $500. 

LIST FOE 1829. 

John v. Vredenburgh, Norwalk 81,000 

Wm. C. Spolden. " ." 750 

Baker & Kimball, " 1,500 

Piatt Benedict & Co , " l^SOO 

Picket Latimer, " a^OOO 

Tilden & Kittridge, " 'lOo 

John Wliyler, " 250 

Philo Adams, 

June 3, 1829. County Assessor. 

Note— Butler does not appear on the list this year. 
LIST FOR 1830. 

Cyrus Butler & Co., Norwalk gl^Ooo 

Baker & Kimball, " ' i^goo 

P. Latimer & Co., •' llsoo- 

Tilden & Kittridge, ' '15O 

John Whyler, •' 5OO 

Geo. Sheffield, 
June 1, 1830. Assessor, Huron County. 

NoTE-The name of John V Vredenburgh appears in the list for 
Florence, capital S«00. 


Baker & Kimball. Norwalk S2,000 

Buckingham & Sturges, Norwalk 1,500 

David H. Fitch, " since April 1 1,500 

P. Latimer & Co.. " 2,300 

John Whyler, since April 1 1,200 

Attest : Geo. Sheffield, Assessor. 

Note— This year the name of Cyrus Butler appears as a merchant in 
Florence, wi'h a capital of 5800, and J. V. Vredenburgh, with a capital 

of sroo. 

No further lists of this kind have been found, and 
it is probable that the practice of a general listing of 
merchants was abandoned after 1831, and the present 
mode of assessment adopted. 

In addition to the list for 1828, S. A. Bronsou 
advertised in the Xonvalk Reporter of May 31, 1828: 

books: ROOKS! 

SEVERAL thousand volumes of Books are now received in Norwalk, 
among which are as follows- (Here follows a descriptive list.) Sta- 
tionery, SiC . , &c. , all o: which will be sold cheap for ready pay, either in 
cash or produce, at the market price. Enquire of S. A. BRONSON 
immediately under the printing office. 
Norwalk, May 27, 1828. 

Also, in the issue of the Reporter of April .i, 1828, 
Aurelins Mason advertised: 

JUST received 

AND for sale, by .^urelius Mason, Dried Peaches, of an excellent 
qualit.v, and a quantity of Stoneware. 
Norwalk, April 4, 1828. 

In the issue of the Reporter ot June 28, 1828, John 
Whyler announces that he "has just opened his shop 
in N'orwalk, adjoining the public square, where he 
intends keeping at all times a general assortment of 
tin ware, which he will sell low for cash, or most 
kinds of country produce," 

The history of John Whyler, as a merchant of Xor- 
walk, is one of thrift and singular prosperity. The 
writer has heard Mr. Whyler relate that he came to 
Xorwalk with all his worldly goods packed in a wheel- 
barrow. He commenced business here as a peddler of 
threads, laces, buttons, etc., in the latter part of 
1827, or the early part of 1828, carrying from house 
to house his stock in trade iu two tin boxes. His 
trade increased so that he soon opened a small store 
on the lot now occupied by Mrs. J. JI. Farr, corner 
of Pleasant and Main streets. As announced in the 
above advertisement, be, in 1828, ojjened a tin shop 
adjoining the public square, which was put iu charge 
of his son, George Whyler, (father of John 6. 
Whyler, the present plumber of Norwalk). Iu 1830, 
the store was removed to the building occupied by the 
tin shop, and a general stock of merchandise opened 
up. The place of business was then known as "The 
Red Store." From this location he removed his busi- 
ness as ;i general merchant, some years afterwards, to 
the lot on the northwest corner of Main and Prospect 
streets, where, in company with his sons, John, Jr., 
and Edward, he for many years, and until about 
1849, carried on a very extensive and general mer- 
cantile business. 

This place of business was called "The Old For- 
tress," and in the palmy days of the grain traffic at 
Milan, the streets of Norwalk were, year after year, 
in the grain season, filled and almost blockaded by 


two, four, six, eight and ten horse teams attached to 
"Pennsylvania Schooners," (as tliose immense canvas 
covered grain wagons were called,) while their owners 
were making purchases to carry home. Those "team- 
sters" came from all the territory south from here to 
Franklin county, and a very large proportion of them 
would buy their "store goods" of no one but "Ole 

He was a bluff, bow-legged, corpulent, jolly, wide- 
awake Englishman, and the hearty, "hail-fellow, 
well-mef manner of the man won the hearts and 
the trade of the "Pennsylvania Dutch" farmers of 
Central Ohio. 

The successful opening of tlie Sandusky, Mansfield 
& Newark Rail Road and the Cleveland, Columbus 
& Cincinnati Rail Road killed Milan and "The Old 

Mr. Whyler was born in Lincolnshire, England, 
and there commenced business as a baker, in which 
he proved a failure; then he emigrated and settled in 
Cleveland, Ohio, but continued only a short time; 
from there he came to Norwalk. and remained uniil 
his death. 


Norwalk was incorporated by Act of Legislature, 
February 11, 1828. The following are the two first 
sections of the act of incorporation: 

Section I . Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, 
That so much of the township of Norwalk, in the county of Huron, as 
lies within the following boundaries, to-wit: Commencing at the stuth 
east corner of the lown plat of Xorwalk, in the center of the road lead- 
ing to Medina, running alcing the south side of the back alley as far ao 
it extends, from thence in the same direction to the center of the road 
passing Widow Tice's dwelling, a distance of two hundred and sixteen 
rods from the starting point; thence alongthe center of said road forty ; 
rods; thence northeastwardly and parallel with the first line to the 
center of the road passing Ebenezer Lane's dwelling to Milan, a distance 
of two hundred and sixteen rods; thence along the center of said road 
forty rods to the place o£ beginning, be and the same is hereby created 
a town corporate, and shall henceforth be known and distinguished by 
the name of the town of Xorwalk. 

Sec i- That it shall be lawful for the white male inhabitants of said 
town, having the quaUflcations of electors of members of the General 
Assembly, to meet at some convenient place in said town, on the first 
Monday of May next, and the first Monday of May annually thereafter, 
and then and there proceed, by a plurality of votes, to elect by ballot 
one mayor, one recorder and five trustees, who shall have the qualifica- 
tions of electors; and the persons so elected shall hold their office for 
one year, and until their successors shall be chosen and qualified, and 
they shall constitute the town council. 


The fdllowiiig i.-; taken from the first pages of the 
first book of record of the corporation of Norwalk, 
and comprises the poll-book and tally sheet of the 
first election held as tin incorporated village: 

Poll-book of the election held in the town of Norwalk, in the county 
of Huron, and State of Ohio, this fifth day of May, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty -eight. Joseph C. Curtiss 
Benjamin Carmon and Wm. Gallup, judges, and Geo. T. Buckingham, 
clerk, of this election, were severall.v sworn as the law directs previous 
to their entering on the duties of their respective offices. 


of Names of Electon 

1. James Williams. 

2. Wm H. Hunter. 

3. Ichabod Marshall. 
J. EriKeeler. 

5. Halletc (iallup 


Xamesof Electors. 

36. Geo. Gauff. 

37. Henry Tice. 

38. Piatt Benedict, 

39 Seth Jennings. 

40 Geo. T. Buckingha 

41 Samuel Preston. 

42 Daniel G. Eaitt. 

43. Thadeus B. Sturges. 

44- Jacob Wilson. 

45. John V. Vredenburgh. 

40. Leverett Bradley. 

47. Ozias S. Baker. 

48 William Gallup. 

49. Joseph C. Curtiss. 

50. Benjamin Carmon. 
51 Josiah L. Bottsford. 

52. Abraham Emmet. 

53, Wm. C. Enos. 
54- Aurelius Mason. 
55. James Minshall. 
56 Joseph Mason. 

67. Frederick Forsythe. 

58. Asahel W. Howe. 

59. Michael F. Cisco. 

60. Wm. JI. Newgent. 

61 . Charles Slocum. 

62. Picket Latimer. 

63. John Felton. 

64. Lewis M. Howard. 

65. Cyrus Butler. 

66. Jonas B. Benedict. 
67 John Ford. 

68. Jonas Denton - 
69- John Knott. 

imber of electors at this election 


B. Carmon, 

Judges of Election. 

The following is a copy of the ttiUy sheet of this 
election, with the certificate of tiie judges of the 
election : 

Names of persons voted for and for what offices, containing the num- 
ber of votes for each candidate. 

6. Moses Kimball. 

7. Pelatiah Strong. 

8. Daniel Tilden. 

9. John P. McArdle. 

10. Wm. Haughton. 

11. Sherlock A. Bronson. 

12. Zachariah Marvin. 

13. Sam B. Ames. 

14. Levi Wilson. 

15. Barton Sweet, 

16. John V. Sharp. 

17. John G. Taylor. 

18. Henry Buckingham. 

19. Isaac M. Wilson. 

20. Joseph Wilson. 

21 . Joseph H. Wilson. 

22. Denison Clark. 

23. John Ebbett, Jr. 

24. Cira Collins. 

25. Benjamin Junkins. 

26. Henry Hurlbert. 

27 . Nelson Haughton - 
58 John Ebbert. 

29, Nathan Sweet. 

.30. Charles Lindsay. 

31. Wm. Taylor, 

32. John P. Savin. 

33. Barney Carkhoof. 

34. John Miller. 

35. Enos Gilbert. 

James Williams. 41 ' 

William H. Hunter, 26 i 


John V. Vredenburgh. i 


Samuel Preston, 38 vote 

Henry Buckingha 
Lewis M. Howard. 28 
Isaac M. Wilson, 26 vc 
Daniel E. Raitt, 27 vol 
William Gallup, 1 voti 
Isaac Wilson, 1 vote. 

Picket Latimer, 40 votes. 

Frederick Forsythe, 39 votes. Henry Buckingham, 41 ' 

Daniel Ti!den,'41 votes. 

Cyrus Butler, 31 votes. 

Charles Lindsny. 29 votes 

Jonas Benedict, 1 vote. 

L. M. Howard, 2 votC!^. 

We do hereby certify that James Williams had forty-one votes, and 
William H. Hunter had twenty-six votes, for mayor; and that Leverett 
Bradley had thirty-seven votes, and John G. Vredenburgh ha 1 thirty 
votes, for recorder; and that Picket Latimer had forty votes. Samuel 
Preston had thirty -eight votes, Frederick Forsythe had thirty -nine votes, 
Henry Buckingham had forty-one votes Daniel Tilden had forty-one 
votes, Lewis M. Howard had twenty eightTotes. Cyrus Butler had thirty- 
one votes, Isaac M. Wilson had twenty-six votes. Charles Lindsay had 
twenty-nine votes, Daniel G. Raitt had twenty-seven votes, Jonas Bene- 
dict had one vote. William Gallup had one vote. L. M. Howard had two 
votes, and Isaac Wilson had one vote, for trustees. 

Bex.7. Carmon, 
Wm. Gallup, 
Attest: Joseph C. Cvrtiss, 

Geo, T, Buckingham, Judyes of Election. 


The first meeting of the town council took place on 
May 8, 1828, at which time the members were duly 
(jualified, after which Ichabod Marshall was appointed 
treasurer, and John Miller, marshal. 

Council again met May lil. and appointed James 
Williams, Frederick Forsyth and Picket Latimer, a 
conimittee to draft ti code of by-laws and report at 
the next meeting. 


On May 3(), council met to receive the report of tlic 
conmiittee on by-laws. At thi.s meeting Eri Keeler 
was appointed pound-keeper, and authorized to build 
a public pound. This meeting was adjourned to 
June 6, and from that date again to June 10. 

At the meeting of Juue 10, a long ordinance of five 
sections was adopted : the substance of which was 
that "no hog or hogs, shoat or shoats, pig or pigs," 
should be allowed to run at large within the limits 
of the corporation. This ordinance was repealed May 
20, 1835, as appears in the record book, page 59. 

No further record of meetings of the council is en- 
tered until that of April 6, 182'.». 

The poll book of the election held May 4, 182!l, 
contains the names of twenty-eight electors. The 
officers for the ensuing year were, Frederick Forsyth, 
mayor ; John Miller, recorder ; Mathew Callaway, 
Lewis M. Howard, Thaddeus B. Sturges, Moses Kim- 
ball and William M. Newgent, trustees. 

The first book of the records extends to the year 
1840, the last meeting of the council, that is recorded, 
being held April 25, of that year. 

At the election held the first Monday in May. of 
that year, Piatt Benedict was elected mayor ; J. Sid- 
ney Skinner, recorder ; F. Wickham, assessor ; Tim- 
othy Baker, John Kennan, John Beebe, Robert Mor- 
ton and John Cline, Tx-ustces. 

The elections in those days were held at the 
"Council House," which stood where "Whittlesey 
Block" now stands ; it was a one story frame building 
of about twenty-four by forty feet, with about twelve 
feet of the north part partitioned off for a council- 
room, the front part being used for the storage of the 
old rotary pump fire engine, a two-wheeled hose-cart 
and some massive hooks and ladders that required 
great strength to handle. The old, black, home- 
made hearse, for many years owned and driven by Eri 
Keeler, used to be kept there too. For a number of 
years previous to 1850, Benjamin Shipley used the 
council-rcom as a barber shop. The old building was 
moved away in 1854 to give place to Whittlesey Block. 
At the corporation election held in April, 18T9, 
there were one thousand and forty-eight votes polled. 
The present (1879) corporation officers are : S. P. 
Hildreth, mayor ; W. Y. Watrous, clerk ; £. A. 
Pray, solicitor ; Wm. Suhr, treasurer ; Jefferson 
Barber, marshal ; H. P. Smith, street commissioner ; 
C. J. Baldwin, Ira T. Couclin, Col. J. A. Jones, J. 
B. Millen, J. A. Nichols, S. S. Wing, councihnen. 


In October, 1842, five men, three women and four 
children, all but one members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and residents of Campbell county, 
Kentucky, concluded to emigrate to Canada. They 
crossed the Ohio river and took passage on the "Under 
Ground Railroad," the earliest, most economical and 
efficiently managed railroad in the State of Ohio, and 
had progressed on their journey so far as Fitchville. i 
in this couuty,^a station on that road, R. Palmer, | 

agent, — when they were arrested by virtue of a war- 
rant, issued by Samuel Pennewell, Esq., a justice of 
the peace, of Norwalk township, under what was then 
called the "Black Law," and brought to Norwalk, 
on November 2nd, charged with being fugitive slaves. 
Mr. Pennewell was not in sympathy with the "Black 
Law," and had publicly stated that he should require 
the most conclusive evidence of not only ownership, 
but birth in slavery; and that, before he would issue 
an order for their rendition, the testimony would 
have to be so conclusive that it would suffice to estab- 
lish the legitimacy of a royal heir to his throne. 

In consequence of Mr. Pennewell's expressed views, 
no doubt, a writ of liabeas corpus was taken out, and 
the examination removed from before Esquire Penne- 
well and brought before A. G. Sutton, then an Asso- 
ciate Judge of the Common Pleas Court, and resulted 
in five of the fugitives being remanded back to 
slavery; but, for technical insufficiency in the testi- 
mony, no order was given against the others, but they 
were held to await the procuring of further testimony 
from Kentucky. 

Discouraged by the order against five of their party, 
the other seven then gave up the contest and con- 
sented to be taken back. 

Two of them were claimed by one part}-, three by 
another and seven by a third. 

The owners were represented here by an agent, or 
"slave hunter," who, it appears, was assisted by par- 
ties living in Ohio, of whom the citizens of Fitchville 
say, in one of many resolutions adopted by them 
November 9, 1842, and signed "Stephen Pomeroy. 
moderatoi-, and E. A. Pray, secretary:" 

"Be it therefore resolved * * * that a large 
majority of our worthy citizens feel grieved that a 
Kentucky slaveholder, with a number of bought up 
(what is called here) Ohio blood hounds, or slave- 
catchers, should be secretly quartered among us, for 
the purpose of carrying their nefarious purposes into 
operation. " 

At that time Edward E. Husted was sheriff of 
Huron -county, and he refused to have the fugitives 
confined in the jail. They were consequently kept 
at the old "Goff House," (which stood where the 
Congregational Church now is,) under an armed 
guard, for about one week, and until the close of the 

On Sunday morning, after the order of rendition 
had been given, they were ironed, loaded on to a four- 
horse stage and taken through Main street on their 
way back to — no one here knows ic/iai. 

Hallet Gallup then lived nest west of the old "Goff 
House," which had an upper and lower veranda across 
its whole front; the negroes were i)ermitted frequently 
to exercise upon the upper one, and a sou of Mr. 
Gallup, a little lad, took advantage of those occasions 
to throw apples up to them, and for such favors 
received as hearty thanks as have ever been tendered 
to him since, and by those acts probably won the 
confidence of the slaves; at all events, on the Sunday 



son of tlie late Jiiines "Williamson and Pliebe Williamson, 
anil, on the maternal side, grandson of Abizah GriflBn, one of 
the early settlers of Greenwich township, was born Sept. 25, 
1842, in the township of New London, Huron Co., Ohio. 
His parents were natives of the Empire State, having been 
born and reared in Hunter, Greene Co., N. Y., and, removing 
to Ohio at a comparative early day, were here married in 
the year 1830. His father was a farmer by occupation, and 
the subject of this sketch was reared at the family homestead, 
the old farm still owned by him, upon which the Williamsons 
originally settled, and which lies in the townships of New 
London and Fitchville, into the latter of which the residence 
was transferred in 1852. 

Mr. Williamson's youth was passed in a manner of life 
similar to that of many farmer boys, but, possessing a more 
than usually vigorous constitution, together with bright and 
acute intellectual qualities, he began early in life to manifest 
those traits of mind and character which, in their mature 
development, have rendered him eminent, professionally and 
politically. His was naturally an ambitious nature, and so it 
happened that he could not be satisfied with the education 
gained in the common schools, but when he had passed 
through their course of study, ehose to avail himself of further 
opportunities and fit himself for the occupation of higher 
positions in life than he could attain to without so doing. 

At the age of sixteen years he entered upon a course in the 
preparatory department of Oberlin College, and two years 
later he became a member of the Freshman class of that insti- 
tution of learning. He remained until the completion of the 
Sojihomore year, 18G2, when that one of many exciting war 
alarms, the news that the Confederate Gen. Kirby Smith 
was about to make a raid upon Cincinnati, was flashed through 
the loyal North, and a call was made for the minute-men of 
the State to rally to the protection of its chief city. Mr. 
Williamson, being a strong supporter of the Union sentiment, 
and feeling that be should do anything that lay within his 
means to assist the overthrow of the power which menaced 
our free soil, notwithstanding the reluctance of parental 
solicitude for the safety of an only child, went out as one of 
that hastily-summoned and quickly-prepared body of men, 
as did also many of his class. 

After returning from the service of that brief campaign, 
which by no means, however, promised to be short, he asked 
for and received an honorable dismissal from Oberlin, and be- 
came a member of the Junior class at Yale, from which col- 
lege he graduated with honors in the year 18G4. Immediately 
after finishing his academic course he entered upon the study 
of law in the Law School of the University of New York, at 
Albany, from which he graduated in 18G5. The time inter- 
vening between this date and 1807 was spent in a law-office 
in Cincinnati, and in traveling and general reading. 

On the 9th of February, 1867, he became deputy clerk of 
courts in Huron County, under A. B. Griffin, Esq., clerk, 
which position he held until his resignation, in 1868, for the 
purpose of entering into a partnership for the practice of law 
with Hon. W. S. Tennant, at East Saginaw, Mich. In 1869 
he removed from East Saginaw to Toledo, where he resided 
until the spring of 1871, when he removed to Norwalk, in his 
native county. At this point he has since lived prominently 
in the eye of the public, and in such manner as to have no 
cause to fear its watching. He engaged in the practice of his 
profession, and followed it assiduously and uninterruptedly 
until 1877, when he was elected to the Legislature as a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives from Huron County. 

Politically, Mr. Williamson is a Republican, and an earnest 
supporter of the men and measures of that party. He has 
been a worker for the success of principles and of the best men 
in the party, rather than a seeker of political preferment for 
himself. Ho has not sought place, and in accepting it has 
only done so in response to the clearly expressed will of his 
friends and the suffrage of the people. 

Mr. Williamson is a man of fine as well as forcible intel- 
lectual qualities, an extensive reader and close thinker, of a 
remarkably practical cast of mind, and yet, withal, alive to 
whatever there is of beauty in the many refinements of sur- 
roundings and of being. He is cautious but firm in his 
judgments, and reliable. In manner he is social and friendly, 
and he possesses qualities that readily win admiration and 
respect, whether from his political compeers, or his private 
companions and acquaintances. 

He was married to Miss Celestia N. Tennant, of Camden, 
Lorain Co., Ohio, Jan. 19, 1869. 



before they were taken away, he was engaged in 
throwing them apples again, when one of them, a 
large and powerful man, stepped near the railing and 
threw something which sparkled and flashed in the 
sunlight as it came through the air and fell into the 
tall grass at the lad's feet. The guards were near, 
and a crowd of boisterous men were gathered on the 
lower porch. Fearing detection, the boy took no no- 
tice of what had been thrown him, but soon went 
and informed his father of what had occurred. That 
night Mr. Gallup went, and, searching through the 
grass, found a large silver -handled double-edged 
'•bowie knife,'" with a silver-trimmed leather sheath. 
About one year afterwards, a constable of Norwalk 
called on Mr. Gallup and demanded the knife, saying 
he had a search warrant for it. Mr. Gallup stepped 
to the large old-fashioned "fire-place," and picking 
up an iron poker, turned and asked the constable if 
that wa'nt the knife he was .looking for; but the 
valiant officer at once became anxious to go back to 
the justice that issued the warrant so as to return it 
"not found.'" Suit was then commenced before a 
justice against Mr. Gallup for the value of the knife; 
but upon his demanding a jury trial, it was with- 
drawn, and nothing further was done about it. That 
cruel, blood-stained knife is now in possession of a 
son of Hallet Gallup. 

In the volume on "Population and Social Statis- 
tics," United States Census of 1870, on page fifty-six, 
it is stated that the free colored population of Huron 
county, Ohio, was in 1820, seven; in 1830, fifty-six; 
in 1840, one hundred and six; in 1850, thirty-nine; 
in 1860, seventy-nine; and in 1870, two hundred. 
From this it will be seen, that in the decade from 
1840 to 1850, the colored population of Huron county 
decreased from one hundred and six to thirty-nine, 
or nearly two-thirds — proliably in consequence of the 
fear of being claimed and sent south as slaves — a fear 
engendered by this inhuman violation of personal 
liberty, which was sanctioned by law and submitted 
to by the freemen of the north in 1843. It will fur- 
ther be noticed, that after slavery had been abolished, 
and terror of the " black law "" no longer hung as a 
sable pall over the land, in the decade from 1860 to 
1870, the colored population increased from seventy- 
nine to two hundred, or niore than two and a half 
times, and probably a greater part of this increase 
occurred after the close of the war in 1865. The 
people of Norwalk and of the whole North were never 
in sympathy with slavery nor the fugitive slave law, 
but they were law abiding, and submitted to the 
decrees of the courts. The question is pertinent: have 
the people of the old slave States ever, even to this 
day, shown a like submission to law? 


Norwalk having been incorporated in 1828, one of 
tlie first acts of its first council was to provide the 
newly organized village with some eflicient method for 
extinguishing fires. Muscle then was paramount. 

and the only machine accessible was the bucket; con- 
sequently the first organization was known as the 
"bucket brigade.'" The first ordinance required that 
each property owner on Main street should keep a 
certain number of leathern buckets, suitably num- 
bered, and lettered with the owner's name, and hung 
in the building as assessed, convenient for use, usu- 
ally in the front hall. Some of these old buckets are 
still in existence, and might have been seen hanging 
up to a recent date in the hall entrance of Judge 
Stickney's office. The judge was an efficient and 
"leading engine" in that organization. One is now 
in possess"ion of C. H. Gallup, Esq., marked "P. 
Benedict," who was one of the members of the brigade. 
This organization was well disciplined, and at the first 
"blowing of the horn," which was then the alarm, 
every man was on hand with his buckets, and two 
lines were formed from the burning building to the 
nearest water, and the "stream" passed from hand to 
hand, in these buckets, the second line returning the 
empty ones. Every man was then a fireman, and 
worked with a will and efficiency that might well he 
imitated with more modern ajipliances and by more 
elaborate organizations. But it formed the germ from 
which has sprung a company that stands at the head 
of its class and department in the United States, the 
"Rescue" hook and ladder company, now holding the 
championship belt and gold prizes won at Chicago in 
1878, of which we will speak hereafter. 

Following closely upon this first step was the con- 
struction of town wells, designed only for fire pur- 
poses, and mainly planked Or timbered up, one of 
which may still be seen at the corner of Railroad ave- 
nue and Monroe street, but the first were located on 
Main street. As time passed and the village increased 
in population, it was thought best to purchase a ma- 
chine, but, as it could not be reached by taxation, a 
subscription was started for that purpose, and the 
project was successful. After doing years of service 
this old engine was passed over to the "boys," many of 
whom are now middle-aged business men, and remem- 
ber with much pride their first "playing firemen" 
with the old machine. Then the " Champion" was 
purchased, and the department more efficiently or- 
ganized; but as yet there was but one company, con- 
trolled by a chief engineer, one foreman with two 
assistants, etc. In 1854, the Whittlesey block was 
erected, and the corporation built in connection with 
the other owners of rooms the north room on the 
ground-floor of said building and dedicated it to the 
use of the department; and it was so used by them as 
their headquarters, in connection 'with a rented hall 
above, until June, 1877, when the new hall on Sem- 
inary street was taken possession of and dedicated, 
and the rented room given up. 

Many j'ears previous to this, however, the needs of 
the village had outgrown the "Champion," and the 
"Phaniix" engine was purchased. As yet but one 
company existed, nearly all the members of Avhich 
transferred their aifections to the new engine. At 



tlie head of tlie department witli this new engine, 
stood E. 0. Hill (afterwurds mastt-r mechanic at the 
railroad shops), as chief engineer, and many vere the 
tilts he had with other departments and engines of 
the State, in most cases successfully. Under his 
management the department attained a great degree 
of efficiency, which it maintained up to its disband- 
ment in 1.S73. It had furnished its hall creditably — 
had quite a large library, many good pictures, and 
much other property incident to that department, 
and its company numbered about sixty. 

The increase of risks to property in the corporation, 
consequent upon its extending its limits', and the 
natural decrease of the water, had forced upon the 
citizens the necessity of procuring some more abun- 
dant supply and efficient protection, and they very 
wisely combined the two in the adoption of their 
present system of water works. This system em- 
braced the supply and protection principles, and very 
largely superseded the hand engines then in use, and 
necessitated the reorganization of the whole depart- 
ment, or rather the creation of a new one to harmon- 
ize, in its workings, with the changed order of things. 
The project of a change met with the most violent 
opposition from the old company, and eventuated in 
their ignoring the whole thing, and refusing, almost 
to a man, to have anything to do with it; but an ordi- 
nance was passed dividing the village into five fire 
districts, each district to organize a company consisting 
of fifteen men, and they to elect of their own number 
a foreman and one assistant, and also to designate one 
man as policeman, who is to be called into active 
service in emergencies by the mayor. In addition to 
these five companies there was created a hook and 
ladder company of twenty members, with like officers, 
making the whole department for actual service con- 
sist of six companies, with a total of about one 
hundred men. The force is under the direct man- 
agement of a chief engineer appointed by the council, 
who is paid fifty dollars a year for his services — the 
only man of the whole force that is paid — the depart- 
ment being otherwise volunteers. This arrangement 
has proved entirely satisfactory, and the organization 
is one of the most efficient and successful in the State, 
or, in fact, in the United States, of its class, as the 
record of the " Rescues," the hook and ladder com- 
pany, has demonstrated. 

In September of 1878, the first national tourna- 
ment of volunteer firemen was held at Chicago, and 
among its j)rizes offered was a championship belt of the 
United States with a cash prize of five hundred dol- 
lars in gold, and several individual prizes of less value. 
The "Rescues" of Xorwalk had made an enviable 
record in the State contests during the season and 
desired to take part in the national contest, but re- 
ceived no encouragement or assistance from the city 
council. They therefore appealed direct to the citi- 
zens, who generously contributed the funds necessary 
to make the trial, and they entered the contest. This 
tournament lasted the whole of one week, and was 

participated in by all the various dei)artments of the 
volunteer service of the United States. The contest 
of hook and ladder comiDanies was to make a run of 
three hundred yards — a trifle more than fifty-five rods 
— running their trucks loaded with the full service of 
ladders, and all other apparatus necessary for efficient 
work at a fire, to raise a thirty foot ladder, a man of 
the company making the full run with them and 
climbing from the ground to the top. 

In this contest there were twelve competing com- 
panies, among whom were the champions of Illinois 
and Indiana, who had been under training for months 
for the struggle. There were to be two runs made by 
each company, and the average time taken to decide 
it. The first run was made by the •' Monmouths,' 
the champions of Illinois, who made it in forty-nine 
and one-half seconds, the fastest time then ever made. 
The "Rescues" next went over the course and made 
the run in forty -eight, seconds, beating their strongest 
competitors a second and a half, and making the 
fastest time now on record. The other companies in 
the contest made runs varying in time from fifty to 
sixty-eight and three-fourths seconds, a difference in 
time of more that twenty seconds. After an interval 
of two hours the second runs were made, when the 
"Rescues" met with an accident to their climber, 
who, when near the top of the ladder, made a misstep 
and partial fall that lost him a second and a half, 
making their time forty-nine seconds, while their 
competitors had reduced theirs to forty-eight and a 
half seconds, leaving the "Rescues" a clear second 
ahead and the winners of the prize, the two runs of 
the "Rescues" being ninety-seven seconds, while those 
of the " Monmouths," their closest contestants, made 

The company met with a perfect ovation on their 
return home. Toledo felt that they had an interest 
in them, advancing as they had the credit of the 
State of Ohio. They were met by that department, 
taken in carriages and driven over the city. At home 
they were received by almost the entire population — 
drawn by their comrades through the city, and given a 
public dinner. The employes of the railroad gave them 
their heavy mounted cannon and their large national 
flag, and in all this whirl and excitement they realized 
the responsibility of their position as champions of 
the United States, and conducted themselves in ac- 
cordance with that responsibilty. 

Each of these five fire districts is provided with a 
neat hose house, besides the large building and hall for 
the head(piarters of the department for general meet- 
ings. The first floor of this building is used by the 
hook and ladder company in storing their trucks and 
apparatus, and also a hand engine, of which they have 
control, for emexgencies outside of the water works 
limits. Each of the.other five companies is provided 
with fine hose trucks, uniforms, etc. All the ai>pli- 
ances necessary for efficiency and for service depend 
entii'ely upon the water works, located two miles 
away — but connected with the department by tele- 



graph and telephone — and which during their eight 
years of existence have never failed them. 

Norwalk may well fell proud of her fire department, 
and need not hesitate to compare it with any in the 
larger cities of the State. 


The citizens of Norwalk, as the town increased to 
a goodly size, felt the need of a more adequate sup- 
ply of water for all purposes, than could be obtained 
from wells and cisterns, and in 1869, or before that 
time, the question of erecting a system of water 
works began to be agitated. Meetings were, held, and 
the council engaged the services of an engineer to 
make surveys with such an object in view in the 
future. It was found impracticable to adopt the re- 
servoir system, which was at first proposed. Surveys 
were made at Maxville, but would require seven miles 
of pipe. For similar reasons other places, where 
water could be procured, were discarded. A com- 
mittee was appointed by the village council to visit 
Kalamazoo, Michigan, and examine into the Holly 
.system of water works, which had been adopted, and 
were in use in that city. They were well satisfied with 
the results of their examination, and on their retui-n 
the council passed an ordinance which was published 
December 20, 1809, submitting the question of es- 
tablishing the Holly system of water works, to a 
popular vote, the cost of the same not to exceed 
seventy-five thousand dollars. A meeting of the 
citizens was called at the court house, January 28, 
1870, which was enthusiastic in favor of the proposi- 
tion. The election to decide the question was held 
February 7th, and resulted in a vote of five hundred 
and eighty in favor to twenty-one against. The pro- 
position was to issue bonds fur the whole amount, the 
same to run not to exceed fifteen years at seven per 
cent, interest. It being feared after the vote was 
taken that the bonds could not be negotiated with 
but seven per cent, interest, it was thought best to 
again submit it to the people, with a change in the 
rate of interest the bonds were to bear, to eight 
cent. The requisite notice was given, and the second 
election was held April 30, 1870, resulting in three 
hundred and ninety in favor of the works, to thirty- 
eight against. 

The erection of water works Ijeiug determined on, 
three trustees were elected at the regular time of hold- 
ing elections, April i, 1870; the members elected be- 
ing 0. A. White, S. J. Patrick and John Gardiner. 
On June 1st, a contract was entered into by the village 
of Norwalk and the Holly Manufacturing Company, 
of Lockport, New York, for suitable machinery for the 
purpose desired, the water capacity to be not less than 
two million gallons every twenty-four hours, and the 
machinery to be shipped on or before August 15, 1870. 
Work was at once begun on a well, filters, and a brick 
house for the machinery, which wej-e erected at a cost 
of four thousand dollars. The work of laying pipe 
was also commenced, but was not completed until the j 

spring of 1871. It had been decided to procure the 
water from the east branch of the Huron river, some 
two miles west from the courthouse. The machinery 
was duly placed in position, and on March 30, 1871, 
a test of the working of the machinery was made. 
A committee of citizens was invited by the council to 
visit the works. Visitors were also present from 
Sandusky, Milan, Fremont, Adrian, Michigan, Mans- 
field and other places. The test proved entirely satis- 
factory, and was duly reported in the leading papers 
of this portion of the State. The citizens, one and 
all, took great pride in the fact of the establishment 
of a water works system in the beautiful village, their 

The building for the machinery is fifty-four by 
fifty-eight feet. The machinery comprised three 
engines, one being a rotary for reserve purposes, the 
others double-cylinder piston engines. Two boilers 
furnished steam, and six gang pumps forced the water, 
which runs through a filter of stone, charcoal and 
coarse sand, into a well twenty-five feet deep and 
twenty-two feet wide, capable of holding fifty-six 
thousand gallons of water. A telegraph line runs 
from the works to town; there is also a telephone 
attached to the wire. 

It was found, after a while, that the Holly engines 
were not satisfactory, and, in the spring of 1878, two 
new Worthington low-pressure engines and pumps 
were placed in position, and were tested, in presence 
of the trustees, April 22, 1878, proving entirely 

The cost of the Holly works was a little more than 
ninety-six thousand dollars, and the new Worthington 
engines and pipes have cost fourteen thousand dollars 
more, making a total cost of about one hundred and 
ten thousand dollars. In the near future it will be 
necessary to replace the main jjipe with a larger size, 
as the one now in use causes a great loss in pressure 
from its being too small. At the present time, it 
requires a pressure of one hundred and sixty-five to 
one hundred and eighty-five pounds at the works to 
produce ninety to ninety-seven and one-half at the 
court house, which is elevated about fifty feet above 
the works and two miles distant. The system, as 
a whole, has proved a good investment to Norwalk, 
and such defects as it may have will, in time, tie 

The number of water takers, the 1.5th of May, 1879, 
was about three hundred and seventy-five. There arc 
now in place, for use, some ninety hydrants, about 
fourteen miles of street mains, and two tanks for the 
use of the traveling public in watering their teams. 

The power at the water works is utilized instead of 
fire engines, in case of fire on any of the streets in 
the village. As soon as an alarm is sounded, the 
signal for fire pressure to be applied is sent over the 
wire to the engineer at his post, at the water works 
building. The fire companies respond to the alarm, 
and as soon as the hose are attached to the hydrants, 
powerful streams of water can be thrown; thus the 


water works power answers the same pui-pose as half 
a dozen fire engines, and at no additional cost. 

Many of the citizens have small rubber hose, which 
can be attached to the pipes in their yards and used 
to water the flowers, the lawn and garden, and some- 
times to settle the dust on the street. Different forms 
of lawn sprinklers are used, some of them producing 
a beautiful spray, and serving the purpose of a foun- 
tain. In addition to these fi.Ktures, there are a num- 
ber of fine private fountains, in different parts of the 
village, the power for which is furnished by the aid 
of the heavy engines, located two miles distant. 

The present (1879) officers of the works are as 
follows: W. A. Mack, president; W. A. Mack, 
J. M. Crosby, David Stoutenburgh, trustees; M. Y. 
Watrous, secretary; U. Pritchard, superintendent. 


The subject of a new cemetery began to agitate the 
minds of the citizens during the winter of 1854, 
and a notice was posted calling a meeting for the jjur- 
Ijose of organizing a cemetery association. This 
meeting was called at seven o'clock, p. m., February 
1st, in the Court House, the notice being signed by 
C. L. Boalt, Samuel T. Worcester and C. L. Latimer 
as committee, they having been appointed at a pre- 
liminary meeting held previously. At this meeting 
articles of association were presented. Another 
meeting was held at the same place February 22d, 
at which time an organization was effected under the 
statutes of Ohio, the. same to be known as the Nor- 
walk Cemetery Association. The following trustees 
were elected: C. L. Latimer, S. T. .Worcester, Henry 
Brown, John Titt't and Giles Boalt. At a meeting of 
the trustees, held March 1, 1854, at the office of S. 
T. Worcester, John Tifft was elected president, and 
H. Brown, clerk and treasurer. Mr. Tifft has con- 
tinued as president of the association to the present 
time, and for a number of years has also held the 
offices of secretary, treasurer and superintendent. 
The present officers of tiie association are John Gar- 
diner, Theo. Williams, Henry Brown, D. D. Benedict, 
and John Tifft, trustees, tlie Litter liolding all the 
offices of the board. 

The original members of tjie association at its 
formation, as shown l)y the signatures to its articles, 
were H. Brown, Siiepherd Patrick,* John Tifft, 
George H. Safford, Jairus Kennan,* John H. Foster,* 
Joel E. Mead.* Samuel T. Worcester, 0. G. Carter, 
C. E. Pennewell, G. T. Stewart, 0. Jenny, C. L. 
Latimer, M. Olnistead, Nathan Wooster.* C. E. 
Newman, E. E. Husted,* Cyrus Lyman,* Stephen 
Boalt, Jos. M. Farr,* John" Whitbeck, Russel M. 
Wheeler,* Isaac Underbill and D. D. Benedict. 

The i)roperty s'elected for the purpose by the board 
of trustees, was a part of tJie Gibbs' farm, a mile 
from town on the old .Medina road, and containing 

•Those marked with a • have found a last restiiiKplacc in the grounds 
they provided tor at that time 

about thirty acres. The original cost was one thou- 
sand five hundred dollars, which amount was raised 
by subscription. The deed of the property was given 
by Henry and Sarah Brown to the association, on the 
sixth day of January, 1858. Considerable difficulty was 
experienced in raising a sufficient amount of means 
to pay for the same, but it was finally accomplished. 
Five hundred and thirty-four lots have been sold, 
and one thousand one hundred and twelve burials 
have taken place to May 9, 1879. 

A receiving vault of cut stone and fine architec- 
tural design, is now being erected under the charge 
of Dr. Tjfft and Theodore Williams, Esq. It is 
eighteen by twenty-eight feet over all, and fourteen 
by twenty-four feet inside measurement, and will 
accommodate twenty-five to thirty caskets. 

The first burial in the new cemetery was that of 
Herbert Barnhart, aged six months and twenty-four 
days, and was on July 13, 1854. 

The affairs of the association have always been 
managed with marked ability and integrity by its 
officers, who have served long and well without fee or 
pecuniary reward. 

It has now a permanent fund, mostly invested in 
real estate security, of about eight thousand dollars, 
the interest from which is devoted to repairs arid 

The grounds upon which the cemetery is laid out, 
form part of the Captain John Boalt farm, where the 
youthful days of his sons, Charles L. Boalt, John M. 
Boalt and their brothers and sisters were passed. 
There their sister, Sarah was married to William Gal- 
lup, May 2, 1819. John is now postmaster at Sandusky 
City, Ohio, and Charles L. and his sister Sarah and 
her husband, have come back to their old home to go 
hence no more. 

From Captain John Boalt the property passed to 
Samuel R. Gibbs, grandfather of P. C. Breckenridge, 
present sheriff of Huron county, whose family occu- 
pied it until purchased for its present use. 

But prior to any of these occupants, prior to the 
first settlement of the white man in " New Connec- 
ticut;" prior to the records of history or tradition, it 
was a favorite resort of a race of people whose origin 
and fate are shrouded in mystery; that they existed, 
and at some time in the unrecorded past fre(|ucnt6d 
this beautiful spot, is beyond question, for they left 
behind them enduring evidence of their workman- 
ship and primitive habits. Nearly forty years ago, 
when our present "city of the dead"' was a cornfield, 
and the writer a little boy, he gathered many speci- 
mens of what are called Indian hatchets and Indian 
arrow-heads from that very spot. Now well-kept 
avenues and foot-paths, sightly monuments and hum- 
ble head stones, ornamental shrubbery and stately 
shade trees, and our sacred dead, are there. 

Again in the cycles of time it is the resort of an- 
other race of people, not with weapons of war and 
destruction, but armed with floral tributes and com- 
memorative garlands; and tliere, one by one, in end- 


The medical profession is the most arduous of all 
professions, and particularly is this the case in new and 
thinly-settled localities. Therefore, when we find a man 
who, for upward of a quarter of a century, and with 
persistent perseverance and labor, worked in the capacity 
of family and general physician, many traits of character 
of an admirable nature are presented. Away back in 
1833, when Huron County was comparatively new, and 
the country consequently but sparsely settled. Dr. John 
Tiflft removed here, and, 

until 1859, uninterrupt- 
edly practiced medicine 
in and around ISTorwalk. 

John Tifft is the son 
of John and Martha 
(Rose) Tifft, the former 
of whom was born at 
Exeter, R. L, Oct. 11, 
1775, and the latter at 
Stephentown, Rensse- 
laer Co., N. Y., April 
26, 1775. 

John Tifft, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was 
born at Scipio, Cayuga 
Co., N. Y., June 11, 
1808. He received most 
of his literary education 
at the district schools, 
completing the same at 
Auburn Academy. On 
leaving the latter insti- 
tution he chose the prac- 
tice of medicine as a 
professi(jn, and entered 
the office of Joseph T. 
Pitney, M.D., at Au- 
burn, for its study. He 
remained with Dr. Pit- 
ney about two years, 
and then attended the 
Berkshire Medical Insti- 
tute, at Pittsfield, Mass. 
(a branch of Williams College), from which 
he was graduated with honors, receiving 
his diploma, Sept. 5, 1832. He practiced 
his profession for about one year in York State, and 
then, in 1833, removed to Norwalk, Ohio, where he 
commenced a practice which subsequently developed 
into an extensive and lucrative business. 

From 1833 to 1846, Dr. Tifft continued in the allo- 
pathic school, but in the latter year he changed his mode 
of practice, and soon became as successful in the homoeo- 

pathic as he had been in the regular school. In 1859, 
losing his wife, he retired from active work, and has 
since attended to the management and supervision of 
his property. He is among the oldest living practi- 
tioners in Huron County, as he has been among the most 
successful. He has been twice married, — first to Louisa 
Fitch, of Auburn, N. Y., in May, 1833, who died Sept. 
19, 1859; second, to Nancy V. Earl, Nov. 4, 1862, who 
is still living. He is a Democrat, and always belonged 

to that political faith. In 

^^^^^Bj 1860 he was chosen one 
■^^^fcl ^^ ^'^® delegates to the 
( liarleston and Balti- 
iiiMrc Conventions. He 
1. 1- held various offices, 
I 'iili professional and 
political. Hewaselected 
one of the trustees of the 
Homieopathic Medical 
Colk'ge of Cleveland; 
W£Ui treasurer of Nor- 
walk township for sev- 
eral years; a member of 
the corporation council, 
and mayor of the village 
in 1872-73. Hehasoc- 
( II pied the offices in the 
( 1 metery Association of 
I ' ii-ioe, president, secre- 
i;ny, and treasurer, and 
til liim is due, in a large 
measure, the present suc- 
cess of that well-man- 
aged institution. 

In these various posi- 
tions of honor and trust 
the doctor has invariably 
given satisfaction. He 
brought the same integ- 
rity and ability to the 
fulfilment of his various 
official duties that made 
his professional life both 
popular and successful. All public enter- 
pri-LS and interests tending to the material 
development of the community in which 
he has lived so long, and attained a reputation so credita- 
able, meets with his ardent support and aid. 

He is public-spirited, honest, and fair in his deal- 
ings with his fellow-men ; and, though affiliated with 
no particular religious denomination, yet he possesses 
all the essential qualities of the Christian gentleman and 
the enterprising citizen that he is. 


less miirch, we lay away our dead, and as time rolls 
on we follow them. 

It is a fitting memory to lie recorded that Charles 
L. Boalt was the most active member of our commu- 
nity in organizing the association and procuring the 
site. And Dr. John Tifft, its one president and su- 
perintendent, and for some y'ears, also secretary and 
treasurer, is entitled to the credit of having carefully 
guarded its financial interests, and Judiciously directed 
its improvement. 


The cemetery connected with St. Paul's (Episco- 
pal) church was one of the very earliest in use for 
that purpose in the township. It comprises about 
four acres of ground near the center of the village, on 
West Main street, and the grass-covered mounds in 
this home of the dead, are very thickly strewn over 
its surface. At the present time, and since the or- 
ganization of the Norwalk cemetery association, this 
ground has been but little used. The oldest stone in 
the yard bears the following inscription: 

Died, March, 1820. 


" I am the first come here to lie 
Children and youth prepare to die " 

Tlie property on which stands the church and the 
ground used for burial purposes, was a part of the 
original Starr and Canfield tract, which at an early 
day came into the possession of White. Tweedy and 
Hoyt, who sold this lot for the above named purpose, 
for the sum of sixty-one dollars The deed for this 
l>roperty is recorded in volume V. of records, page 
610. The grantee in the deed is St. Paul's Episcopal 

No record has been preserved of the burials in this 
old burying ground, and it is not known how many 
there are, and probably it never will lie known until 
each grave gives up its dead. 

Whole families lie there with no one left to tend 
and trim their graves; and the present busy genera- 
tion, with all its interests centered upon the ever- 
changing affairs of life, passes by unheeding: but 
nature, more kind, is rapidly hiding the neglect un- 
der a dense copse of hazel and blackberry bushes. 

ST. Paul's catholic. 

The cemetery belonging to St. Paul's Church, 
(German Catholic), was purchased about the year 
1870. and comprises a little more than five acres, 
situated on South West street. From the date of its 
purchase, until the present time, 1879, there have 
been about sixty interments. 

ST. PETER'S catholic. 

St. Peter's cemetery, belonging to the First Uer- 
man Catholic Church, was established with the 
church in 18-41, the first burial taking place while 
the church was in process of construction. Up to 

the present time there have been about five hundred 

ST. MAltY's catholic. 

The Irish Catholic cemetery, belonging to St. 
Mary's parish, is located near the extension of Main 
street, at some distance from town. The property 
contains about three acres, and was purchased about 
1868, since which time it has been used as a church 
burial ground. 

soldier's aid society. 
Very early in the year 1861, the citizens of Norwalk 
began to work for the soldiers. A part of the Eighth 
regiment had been collected, quartered and drilled 
there. On the Sabbath before they left, religious ser- 
vices were held in their camps, and the occasion, so 
new and affecting, called forth the most profound 
sensations of sorrow and apprehension. Some days 
previously, the ladies had been engaged in supplying 
these soldiers with such necessaries and luxuries as 
the deepest interest could suggest. Immediately after 
their departure, a society of both sexes was formed, 
the object of which was to follow those who went 
from the vicinity, with aid and comfort in any form, 
and by any means- that could reach them ; thus secur- 
ing, as was hoped, an unbroken intercourse with 
them. A quai'terly subscription among the gentle- 
men, was established, the first installment of which 
is dated May 18, 1861. The officers elected were: 
Charles B. Stickney, president ; J. C. Curtis, secre- 
tary ; David H. Pease, treasurer : Mrs. G. G. Baker. 
Mrs. J. W. Baker, Mrs. 0. Jenney. Mrs. C. E. 
Pennewell and Mrs. S. T. Worcester, board of direc- 
tors — the last named secretary of the board. From 
that time till November, 1862, something was contin- 
ually being done, but the difficulties in the way of 
reaching the regiments, after they went into actual 
service, and the consequent irregularity of the quar- 
terly payments, seriously obstructed progress. In 
the meantime, a society had been organized in Cleve- 
land, through which, as a medium, it was believed that 
the regiments could be reached. Application was per- 
sonally made to that society, by the secretary of the 
board, in Norwalk, for assistance in sending a box of 
hospital stores to the Eighth regiment, then in West 
Virginia ; the surgeon of that regiment having, by 
letter, applied for immediate aid. The request was 
cheerfully granted ; the box sent, received in time, 
and earnest thanks therefor returned. This occur- 
ence awakened new life, and eventually led to the 
formation, in August, 1863, of the Alert Club, to 
collect funds, and in November of the same year, to 
the transfer of all the offices to the ladies. At the 
time of the transfer, Mi's. J. M. Farr was elected 
president ; Mrs. D. H. Pease, secretary ; and Mrs. 
T. S. Worcester, treasurer. The work then went on 
prosperously, funds were ample, the contributions 
sent forward, large and valuable, and mostly trans- 


Thomas Baker, the father of tlie subject of this 
notice, was a native of Massachusetts. In 1803 he 
removed with his family to Lafayette, Onondaga 
Co., N. Y., where Ansel was born, Aug. 4, 1818, 
being the eighth in a family of ten children. Wlien 
fourteen years of age he went to live with a married 
sister in Lafayette, with whom he remained until 
lie was twenty-one. He cast his first vote, at the 
Presidential election in 1840, for Gen. Harrison, 
and the next day started on his journey to the distant 
West, as Ohio was then regarded. After his arrival 
there he began to work by the month at the hard 
work of clearing of that early time ; working thus 
in the summer, and teaching school during the win- 
ter months, getting forty dollars for a term of three 
months. At the close of his school-teaching he 
began work upon the farm for Daniel A. Baker, now 
of the First National Bank of Norwalk, at eleven 
dollars per month, continuing two years, at the ex- 
piration of M'hich he married Martha S. Foster, 
daughter of Moses S. Foster, of Peru township, 
Huron Co., who came from Vermont in 1832. She 
was born Dec. 21, 1823. After his marriage he 
rented the farm of his former employer, Mr. Baker, 
for two years, when he moved to the farm upon 
which he now resides, in the southeast part of Nor- 
walk township, having made his purchase some four 

or five years previous. When he began there this 
part of the township was very new, the nearest im- 
provement being that of Ezra Wait, west of him, 
which was then the eastern end of the road. His 
first purchase of land was fifty-four acres, for which 
he paid eight dollars per acre. He has since added, 
and now owns two hundred acres, paying seventy 
dollars \)ev acre for the last purchase. 

His wife died Sept. 20, 1878, having borne him 
six children, who are all living: Mary Frances, 
born Jan. 11, 1848, married Chester Bobbins in 
the fall of 1869, and resides on the southeast corner 
farm of this township; Moses F., born Nov. 26, 
1849, has his second wife, and lives in Rice Co., 
Kan., where he was one of the first settlers; Nor- 
man, born Aug. 26, 1855, married Jennie Adams, 
May 15, 1878, and occupies the farm with his father. 
Charles Eri, born Jan, 15, 1860, Lewis, born Oct. 
4, 1863, and Albert Thomas, born July 21, 1870, 
are living at home. 

Mrs. Fanny Foster, the mother of the deceased 
wife of Mr. Baker, has lived witli her son-in-law 
about twenty years. Her husband died a few years 
after his settlement in Peru. Mrs. Foster is now 
aged nearly eighty-nine years, and is entirely help- 
less, having sustained an accident to one of her limbs 
some twelve years since. 



ber of judicious married ladies. They had, from the 
first of September, 1863, to the first of November, 
ISC-i, forty-nine different families as beneficiaries, 
furnishing to each new material, according to their 
need, in value from two dollars and fifty-two cents, 
the lowest sum, to sixty-one dollars and nineteen 
cents, the highest. Total amount raised during that 
time, one thousand eight hundred and forty dollars 
and eighty-two cents; total expended; one thousand 
four hundred and ninety-six dollars and ninety-nine 
cents. They also sent forward various contributions, 
as synipathy prompted, to the soldiers. In November 
1864:, they organized as a regular soldiers' aid society, 
specially voting to retain their own distinctive name. 
Officers: Mrs. S. T. Worcester, president: Mrs. T. W. 
Christian and Miss S. Rowland, vice-presidents: Miss 
Lizzie Gallup, recording secretary; Miss Mary Wick- 
ham, corresponding secretary; and Mrs. W. M. Cline, 
treasurer. They began this year with three hundred 
and forty-three dollars and eighty-three cents, the 
overplus of last year. They continued to acquire as 
well as expend, so that at their last regular meeting 
in May, 1865, they had forwarded in all, thirty-seven 
boxes, barrels or kegs, of hospital stores, three hun- 
dred dollars in cash, and had in j^ossession or expect- 
ancy, four hundred and sixty dollars. To this sum 
they added the net gain of a subsequent series of 
tableaux, and eventually presented to the young 
mens' library, then being established, the sum of nine 
hundred dollars. With the remainder they purchased, 
framed and suitably lettered the two engravings 
entitled "The First Reading of the Emancipation 
Proclamation," and " Washington Irving and His 
Friends," and presented them to the grammar school, 
from which many of their tableau performers had 
been taken. Total funds raised and expended, three 
thousand nine hundred and thirty-two dollars and 
ninety-three cents. 


The Soldiers Memorial association was organized 
to perpetuate the memories of our noble dead, who 
served or suffered for our common country during 
her wars. The organization was perfected on the 
20th of July, 1877, with the following officers: Col. 
C. P. Wickham, o.5th 0. V. I., president; Chas. AV. 
Lee, U. S. N., vice-president; David T. Hall, Uth 
0. V. I., secretary; Baxtor Trevor, treasurer; Col. 
H. Kellogg, Mrs. J. F. Dewey, and Miss Lottie Gibbs, 
executive committee. 

The association has annually decorated the graves 
of their fallen comrades, on the 30th of May each 
year, with appropriate services. 


Dispensation to work was granted by Brother John 
Snow, Most Worshipful Grand Master, April 10 
1821; the charter was granted December 12, A. L. 
5821, A. D. 1821. to Timothy Baker. Piatt Bene- 

dict, John D. Haskins, Sehujder Vaurensselaer, 
Amos Woodward, Daniel Tilden, Enos Gilbert. Icha- 
bod Marshall, David Underbill and David Gibbs. 

Worshipful Masters. — Timothy Baker, 1821 to 
1825; Piatt Benedict, 1826; Timothy Baker, 1827; 
Theodore Baker, 1828; no record from May 26, 1828, 
to April 30, 1834; Piatt Benedict, 183-4 to 1841; 
Benjamin Carman, 1842; no record from January 24, 
1842, to February 26, 1844; James R. Norton, 1844; 
Piatt Benedict, 1845; James R. Norton, 1846; John 
P. Worstell, 1847; Eli Barnnm, 1848 to 1851; Oliver 
True, 1852; M. R. Brailey, 1853 and 1854: S. F. 
Rogers, 1855; R. W. Beckwith, 1856; D. M. Bar- 
nnm, 1857; Oscar Welch, 1858; Marshall 0. Wag- 
goner, 1859; Oscar Welch, 1860; Horace Kellogg, 
1861: James S. Felton, 1862; John H. Powers, 1863 
to 1865; Oscar Welch, 1866; J. H. F. Weirs, 1867 
and 1868; T. P. Bishop, 1869; J. H. F. Weirs, 1870, 
T. P. Bishop, 1871 to 1873; 0. A. White. 1874 to 
1876; C. M. Wilcox, 1877 and 1878: 0. A. White, 

The present officers are, 0. A. White, W. M. : T. 
L. Williams, S. W.: J. D. Cook, J. W.: W. Suhr. 
Treas.; G. W. Shultz, Sec; R. H. Burlin, S. D. : J. 
H. Weirs, J. D.; P. Ganung, Tyler. 


December 13, 1820, a dispensation was issued by 
the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Ohio to 
Timothy Baker, David Underbill, Frederick Fally, 
Rodolphus Morse, David Gibbs, Schuyler Vaurensse- 
laer. Piatt Benedict, Wm. Hall and Jacques Hubbard, 
to form a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. The 
Royal Arch degree was conferred the first time Octo- 
ber 25, 1820, upon E. Whittlesey. Samuel Spencer 
and Moses Farwell. 

December 15, 1821, a charter was issued to the 
above named companions, constituting Huron Royal 
Arch Chapter, No. 7, in due form. Timothy Baker 
appointed First High Priest; David Underbill, First 
King; Piatt Benedict, First Scribe. 

The first election of officers was held December 20, 
1822. Timothy Baker, elected High Priest; David 
LTnderhill, King; Piatt Benedict, Scribe; S. Vau- 
rensselaer, C. of H. ; E. Cook, P. S. ; Amos Woodward, 
R. A. C: J. D. Haskins, 1st V.; M. Farwell, 2nd 
v.; L. Fay, 3rd V.; J. Marshall, Treasurer: David 
Gibbs, Secretary; H. P. Morse, Guard. 

Early in 1822, the subject of building a Masonic 
hall was talked of, but did not assume any definite 
form until January, 1824, when a committee was 
appointed to confer with like committees from JIt. 
Vernon Lodge, No. 64, and Norwalk Academy, to 
make arrangements to build a Masonic hall. March, 
1824, the committee made their report; when the 
Chajtter appointed a building committee, with power 
to act, and the Treasurer ordered to pay to the build- 
ing committee two hundred dollars. Here the pro- 
ject seems to have died, as we find no records of any 
action tiiereon. 



Tlic Chaiik-r held its regular meetiugs iind did a 
great deal of work until November, 1828, when, in 
consequence of the anti-masonic movement, it sus- 
pended work, and sodn after surrendered its charter 
to the Grand Chapter. 

Timothy Baker was the presiding otticer from the 
organization to November, 1827, when Piatt Bene- 
dict was elected High Priest, which position he held 
at the time the charter was surrendered. 

In 1848, the Grand Chapter returned the old 
charter to the companions of Huron Rojal Arch 
Chapter, when they commenced holding regular 
meetings, Piatt Benedict being the High Priest, in 
which position he was continued until 1853. 

March 1, 1854, a committee was appointed to con- 
fer with a like committee from Mt. Vernon Loiige, 
No. 64, to make such arrangements as they might 
deem proper to build a new hall in the Whittlesey 
academy building. 

June 24. 1854, St. John's day was celebrated by 
laying the corner stone of Whittlesey academy build- 
ing. June 24, 1858, the new masonic hall was dedi- 

Since the reorganization in 1848, to the present 
time, Huron Royal Arch Chapter, No. 7, has con- 
tinued to hold its meetings regularly, and is now in a 
flourishing conditiou, numljeriug nearly one hundred 

Its present officers are Wm. Suhr, High Priest; T. 
P. Bishop, King; 6. M. Darling, Scribe; C. Close, 
C. of H.: Wm. Rutherford, P. S.; M. A. Mclntyre, 
R. A. C; C. G. Drake, 1st V.; John Pettys, 2nd 
v.: A. N. Pebbles, Syd V.: N. H. Pebbles, Treasurer: 
J. 1). Cook. Secretary: E. A. Pray, Chaplain: P. 
Ganuug. (ruard. 


KO. 24 F. & A. 


Octoljer 29, A.D. 1855. a dispensation was issued 
by the Grand Puissant Grand Master of the Grand 
Council of the State of Ohio, directed to Piatt Bene- 
dict, Wm. C. Huestis, H. V. Bogart, J. S. Felton, 
H. Bromley, Samuel Neff, B. F. Gray, M. R. Brailey, 
L. Wood, A. Hamilton, T. Gibson. C. Buck and W. 
H. Couch. 

October K!. 1857, a charter was issued to the al)Ove 
named companions constituting Norwalk Council 
Royal and Select Masters, No. 24, in due form. Piatt 
Benedict, appointed first "Thrice Illustrious Mas- 
ter," in which office he continued until the time of 
his death in October, 186C. 

Tiie following named companions have been elected: 
T. I. Masters, James S. Felton, for the year 1807; 
Wm. Suhr, 1868-70; Wm. A. Mack, lS7o"; Coleman 
Close, 1871-4; Wm. Suhr, 1874-79. Present officers, 
Wm. Suhr, "Thrice Illustrious Master;" George M. 
Darling, "Deputy Master;" Nelson H. Pebbles, "Prin- 
i-ipal Conductor of the Work;" Horace Kellogg, "Cap- 
tain of the Guard:" John H. Pettys, Treasurer; Ethan 

1 A. Pray, Recorder: Asher F. Huuland. ■■ ('i)nductor 
of tlie Council:"" Peter (Tiiuung. Sentinel. 


Norwalk Lodge, No. 467. Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons, was granted a dispensation by the Most Wor- 
shipful Grand Master of the State of Ohio, viz: 
Alexander H. Newcomb, on the l-2th day of July, A. 
D., 1872, on the petition of George W. Skyrm, S. E. 
Carrington, William H. Couch, Walter Pettys, M. 
M. Perkins, W. 0. Smith, William Arnold," Omar 
Bailey, George M. Darling, H. C. Edwards, Thomas 
Smith and Irving K. Cole. The dispensation ap- 
pointed Walter Pettys, W. M., S. E. Carrington, 
S. W., and George W. Skyrm J. W., until the time 
of the regular annual election of officers. The Wor- 
shipful Masters of this Lodge have been as follows, 
viz: Walter Pettys, from July 12, 1872, to December 
12, 1872; William A. Mack, from December, 1872, to 
December, 1877; 0. Prentiss, from December, 1877, 
to December, 1878, and from December, 1878, now 
serving, L. C. Laylin. The officers, in full, at the 
present time are as follows: L. C. Laylin, W. M. : 
John Harley, S. W. ; A. L. Osborn, J. W. ; George 
M. Darling. Treas. : E. W. Gilson. Sec: C. L. 
Merry. S. D. : F. H. Boalt. J. D. : Walter Pettys. T. 


Norwalk Commandery, No. 18, Knights Templar, 
was organized February 8, 1869, under dispensation 
of the Grand Commandery of the State of Ohio, Sir 
Heman Ely. of Elyria. being at the time R. E. G. 
Commander. The following named Sir Knights wei'e 
the charter members: I. S. Felton, M. 0. Waggoner, 
J. W. Develin, H. S. Mitchell. J. H. F. Weirs, W. 
A. Mack, W. C. Hustis. E. A. Pray. H. 0. Wadlie. 
William Suhr, Ira Lake, Major Mclntyre, C. N. 
Thorpe. At the next stated meeting of the Grand 
Commandery a charter was granted under date of 
October 15, 1869. Sir J. S. Felton was appointed 
by (rrand Commander Ely first Eminent Commander. 
The Commandery now numbers sixty two members, 
and the following named Knights are its officers: H. 
S. Mitchell, E. C: L. L. Chandler, Gen.: 0. W. 
Williams. C. G. : L. C. Laylin, Prelate; C. L. Merrv. 
S. W.; M. S. Hill. J. W^; C. R. Bostwick, Treas.: 
C. W. Flinn, Rec. : E. A Pray. Std. B. ; 0. Prentiss, 
Swd. B.; A. F. Rowland, Warder: Major .Mclntyre. 



Huron Lodge, No. 37. I. O. O. F., was instituted 
at Norwalk, April 14, 1845, by authority of a charter 
granted Ijy the Right Worthy (irand Lodge of Ohio, 
to the following charter members: Liberty Waite, 
A. Powers, N. F. Benson, T. C. Evans and Franklin 
Parker. And the following members were added by 
initiation: Noah Newton, Jr., E. P. Cheescbrongh, 
Thomas Powers, Timothy Baker, John F. Day. 
Hiram K. Steele, Benj. F. Brown, Erastns Gray, 



John S. Roby, William D. Perkins and James Sharps. 
The lodge having been thus successfully launched on 
its mission of friendship, love and truth, was pros- 
perous, aud included in its membership many citizens 
of prominence, among others Dr. J. Tifit, 0. B. 
Stickney, J. M. Farr, S. L. Hatch, W. W. Redfield, 
Hiram Rose, J. F. Dewey, G. T. Stewart, P. N. 
Schuyler, J. H. Rule, W. 0. Parker, Franklin Saw 
yer, M. F. Wooster, John Cline, S. H. Berry, R. A. 
Pantlind, W. 0. Abbott, Edwin H. Brown, B. P. 
Smith and many others. Since its organization it 
has admitted three hundred and sixty-one members, 
and at this date (May 10, 1879,) lias one hundred and 
ten members. In furtherance of its charitable mis- 
sion it has expended twenty-one thousand dollars; 
aud has now invested in real and personal property, 
and in its widows' and orphans' fund, about ten 
thousand dollars, all of which is pledged to the bene- 
ficient purposes of the friendly order of American 
Odd Fellowship. 


The Norwalk Division, Xo. "i-i"!, Sons of Temper- 
arice, was chartered aud instituted on the .3d day of 
June, 1847, with the following charter members: 
Samuel T. Worcester, Geo. T. Cole, James N. Good- 
hue, Geo. Gough, Chas. A. Preston, A. E. Berry, 
Timotiiy Baker, Jr., Phillip N. Schuyler, Erastus 
Gray, Charles E. Penuewell, Henry M. Hotchkiss, A. 
S. Curtiss, Gideon T. Stewart, Daniel A. Baker and 
Edwin H. Brown. The first elected officers were, 
Samuel T. Worcester, W. P.; Daniel A. Baker, W. 
A. : Gideon T. Stewart, R. 8. ; E. H. Brown, A. R. 
S.; A. S. Curtiss, F. S., Timothy Baker, Jr., Treas. ; 
P. N. Schuyler, Con.: A. R. Berry. A. C: Benj. 
Ellis, I. S.; Addison C. Brown, 0. 8\ 

The organization of this division was mainly due 
to the enterpiise of Mr. 6. T. Stewart, who is and 
always has Ijeeu a zealous worker in the temperance 
cause. The division is its own historian. The record 
of more than one thousand six hundred meetings, 
and of thirty-three years of associated life, with all 
their- trials, sacrifices, doubts, fears, hopes and tri- 
umphs, lies before us. Thirty-three years ago, on 
the first Tuesday evening of -June, 1847, this division 
was instituted in the Odd Fellows hall, on Mechanic 
street (now Whittlesey avenue). The division con- 
tinued to hold its meetings iu that hall for over three, 
years, a bond of fraternal sympathy springing up 
between the two ordei'S which has continued to this 
day. During these three years the division had accu- 
mulated sufficient funds to purchase and fit up a hall 
for its own use, iu the second story of tlie frame 
building then standing next door of the Norwalk 
Branch Bank of tlie State of Ohio, on Main street, 
over the store occupied by Jeuney & Peters, clothing 
store, which was publicly dedicated on the evening of 
August 13, 18.50. Here the division lield its meet- 
ings for five years, until the morning of October 13, 
IS.").!, when the building was discovered to be on fire. 

aud all was reduced to ashes — furniture, library, 
regalia, books aud papers — except the records of the 
recording scribe, which were at his house. The 
meetings were held at the county auditor's office for 
about four months, aud on February (J, 1850, a new 
hall was fitted up over C. E. Newman's store. The 
former hall having been insured for about six hundred 
dollars, and the division having an interest iu the 
ground on which it stood, was enabled to lease the 
new hall ou long time, and fit it up in good style. 
Here it continued to meet for more than eleven years, 
until June, 18G7. when it dedicated a fine hall in the 
third story of C. E. Newman's new brick block, and 
took a lease for twenty years, which it paid in ad- 
vance, and expended about one thousand dollars in 
fitting up, finishing it and publicly celebrating its 
twentieth anniversary. The number of members in 
good standing was five hundred and twenty-two, hav- 
ing nearly one-eighth of the entire population of 
Norwalk at that timei This number does not include 
two hundred and twenty members of the Fifty-Fifth 
Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, who were in camp 
here, and were initiated before they entered the field. 

! Their names remain in perpetual honor on the records 
of this division. Of the former members sixty vol- 
unteered in the Union army, and a number held 
official commissions. 

The apathy which fell upon the temperance cause 
throughout the country, the financial depression 
and political excitement resulting from the war, 
caused a decline in the membership, until, in the 
spring of 1876, it disposed of its hall and suspended 
weekly meetings. During the year ending May 1, 
1877, the division held monthly meetings at the 

I house of Past Worthy Patriarch Erastus Gray, who 
set apart one of his rooms for its use. On the 1st 
of May it leased a hall of Mr. Moses Yale, occupied 
by the locomotive engineers, and resumed regular 
weekly meetings, and in four weeks increased its 
membership to fifty-six. Its trustees deeming it 
proper leased the large hall in Patrick's block, ad- 
joining the Methodist church, for ten years, paying 

j the rent in advance for the whole term, and after 
suitably fitting it up have saved over five hundred 
dollars for future operations. The division now 
numbers over two hundred active members, and is 

I increasing weekly, ranking as the banner division of 

I Ohio, numerically and financially. It has had the 

I honor of having three of its members, David H. 

! Pease, Tiiomas P. Bishop and Mrs. Harriet N. Bishop, 
exalted to the office of grand worthy patriarch of the 
State of Ohio. Mrs. H. N. Bishop, the present grand 
worthy patriarch, is the first lady who has had this 
honor conferred upon her in the international juris- 

j diction. Norwalk may well feel proud of her divi- 

j siou of the Sous of Temperance. 

the fai 

•St school hoUSi 

)f 1810, a few 

built ill 

hip liuq 



between Ridgefield and Xorwalk, on lot number two of 
Ridgefield. It stood upon tlie bank on the left hand 
after crossing the bridge upon the present road to 
Peru, about half a mile from the bridge, and was 
made of logs. The first teacher was Charles Seymour 
Hale, son of General Hale, of Herkimer; the next 
was Ann Boalt, sister of C. L. Boalt; and the next, 
Tamar Palmer. The scholars were Asher, James, 
Miner, Lvman and Manley Cole: David, Isaac, Aurelia 
and Louisa Underbill; Alanson, Alva and Betsey 
Pixley; Jonas and Eliza Ann Benedict; Almira, Daniel 
and John Morse; Mary Ann Morse and others. In 
September of the same year, Peter Tice and his son 
John put up a small framed building, the first framed 
building in the region, upon the flats in the bend of 
the road as it turns toward Peru, and used it for a 
store. Afterwai-d, when the Tices removed to Xor- 
walk, it was used by Judge Baker as a dwelling house, 
and subsequently became a school house, as a sub- 
stitute for that above described. Oliver Prentiss, 
Zacharias Marion and Horace Johnson taught in it 
at different times. The building was afterward re- 
moved to Xorwalk and used as a wagon shop; then 
converted into a dwelling, and used by different fami- 
lies, among which was that 'of the late Hon. J. M. 
Root and wife, of Sandusky City, whose first house- 
keeping experience commenced in it about 18.35. 
Again it was removed to the first lot next north of 
Whittlesey avenue school house, and then used as a 
dwelling by several different families, among them 
that of Hon. C. S. Parker, present Ohio State sen- 
ator. About fifteen years ago it again became restless 
and changed its location to Prospect street, where it 
now rests for a time, the second dwelling house south 
of the raili-oad track. 

Beside these, school was taught liy J. A. Jennings, 
afterward doctor, in a brick-maker's shanty, on the 
south side of what is now Seminary street, and a few 
rods east of Benedict avenue, and later in a framed 
building standing where the high-school building now 
, stands, but now moved to South street and occupied as 
a dwelling. School was taught also by Doctor Amos 
B.Harris, in the old court house, probably parts of two 
two or three years, but the dates during these first ten 
years are uncertain, and our information is not posi- 
tive until, in October, 1S"2(!. an association of individ- 
uals was organized, under the name of "The Presi- 
dent, Trustees, etc., of the Xorwalk Academy," having 
l)reviously purchased of Elisha Whittlesey four lots, 
known then as numbers thirty-eight, thirty-nine, forty 
and forty-one, and being the same lots now occupied 
by our iiigh-school building, who erected and partially 
finished a three story brick building upon these lots, 
the first and second stories of wliich were designed for 
the purposes of the academy, and the third story for a 
tnasonic lodge. The first and second stories, though 
far from comjjlete, were occupied and the academy 
opened in Decemberof thesameyear (182(1) with Hev. 
C. P. Bronson, rector of St. Paul's Church, as princi- 
pal, and Hev. S. .V. Bronson. Abrani Bronson. .Mr. War- 

ner and Josiah Botsford, assistants. A female teacher. 
Miss Bostwjck, was soon after added, who taught 
ornamental branches — drawing, painting, etc. At the 
end of the first quarter, the principal reported the 
number of pupils in attendance at ninety. The ])rices 
fixed for tuition were as follows: Reading, writing 
and spelling per quarter, one dollar and seventy-five 
cents; if paid in two weeks, one dollar and fifty cents; 
arithmetic and English grammar, two dollars: paid m 
two weeks, one dollar and seventy-five cents; higher 
branches of education, three dollars; paid in two weeks, 
two dollars and fifty cents; Greek and Latin, four 
dollars; paid in two weeks, three dollars and fifty 
cents. Beside the tuition, each pupil was required to 
furnish one-half cord of wood or twenty-five cents in 
money, toward warming the building. 

At the close of the first yeai-, the trustees reported 
one hundred scholars in attendance as the average for 
the year. The academy continued under the super- 
intendence of Mr. Bronson until May, 1828, when he 
was succeeded by Mr. Henry Tucker, a graduate of 
L^nion College. Owing to the difficulty of sustaining 
the school, an effort was made to increase the nunilier 
of ])upils by reducing still lower the price of tuition. 
The salaries of the superintendents and assistants 
depended upon the amount the principal could collect 
for tuition, which rendered their compensation very 
uncertain and generally very unsatisfactory. Mr. 
Tucker remained until the fall of that year (1828) 
when he was succeeded by Mr. John Kennan, of Herki- 
mer. Xew York. There was no lack of ability in these 
different principals to establish for the academy a high 
reputation, but it was evidently ))rematnre. The 
country was too sparsely populated and the people too 
poor to support the expenses necessary for its suc- 
cessful continuance, and we find, in October of 1829, 
a consolidation of the academy Avith the district schools, 
with Mr. Kennan as principal. The number of pupils 
was thus increased, but even then the salary of the prin- 
cipal amounted to less than four hundred dollars per 
year. Mr. Kennan continued in charge of the school 
until the fall of 1830, when he resigned his position, 
and Rev. Mr. Johnson, formerly principal of the 
Classical and Young Ladies' Boarding School, of 
Utica, Xew York, succeeded him in the su]ierintend- 
ency. The population of the Xorwalk corporation at 
this time was three hundred and ten. The board of 
school examiners was appointed by the court, and 
consisted at this time of Ebenezer Andrews, Doctor 
Amos. B. Harris. Moses Kimball and L. Bradley. 

In August. 1831. Miss Roxana Spnigue was employed 
to teach the school in district number one, and occu- 
pied a room upon the first floor of the academy build- 
ing. The studies taught in the academy at this time 
were all the common branches, including rhetoric, 
elocution, astronomy, chemistry, philosophy, mineral- 
ogy, geology, music, engineering and surveying, and 
the Latin and Greek languages. 

In April, 1833 Miss Eliza Ware (iih'ikmI a school 
exclusivelv for vouus ladies, in the acadcniv liuildin<r. 



under the title of "Norwalk Female Seminary," )3ut 
soon after it was moved to the residence cf C. P. 
Bronsou, who then resided on the lot directly west of 
St. PauFs Church. This school was not of long dura- 


On the nth of November, 1833, the "Norwalk Semi- 
nary" was ojjened in the academy building, under the 
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with 
Rev. Jonathan E. Chaplin as principal. Norwalk at 
this time had a population of eight hundred and 

The seminary opened with the principal and one 
male assistant, and three female teachers. Miss Jen- 
kins, Miss Louisa Hamlin and Miss Anna Langford. 

The school was opened successfully, and was prose- 
cuted vigorously, and, at tiie close of the first year, 
showed an average attendance of one hundred pupils. 
Our population in July, 1834:, was one thousand and 
twenty. During the second year a course of lectures 
was delivered by Dr. Bigelow upon chemistry, and a 
philosophical apparatus was procured for the use of 
the school. The number of pupils rapidly increased 
as the character of the institution became more widely 
known, and at the end of the second year they re- 
ported one hundred and eighty-nine in attendance; 
and a very large proportion of this number was made 
up of young ladies and gentlemen of more advanced 
years, who labored with unusual zeal in acquiring an 

The seminary burned down on the night of Febru- 
ary 26, 1&36, with a loss of about three thousand dol- 
lars, and no insurance; school books, library and 
apparatus were all destroyed. The blow was a severe 
one to the institution, as it had no endowment nor 
support from public funds, and the people of Norwalk 
and the patrons of the institution were in no pecu- 
niary condition to rebuild; but with commendable 
energy the friends of the seminary immediately set 
themselves to work to raise funds for rebuilding, and 
upon a larger scale than before. Mr. Chaplin, the 
principal, and Rev. H. 0. Sheldon went east to solicit 
assistance, while others were laboring amongst our 
own people for contrilnitions; but means came slow 
and sparingly. In the intervals, however, the school 
was not discontinued. The Methodist Church, to- 
gether with the basement of the Baptist Church, were 
improvised for the emergency, with an interruption of 
but four days. Rev. J. E. Chaplin continued as 
jirincipal, with Mr. Darnell assistant, Mrs. Goshorn, 
Miss Loveland and Jliss Langford in the female de- 
partment, and Rev. H. 0. Sheldon as general agent 
for raising funds and promoting the general interests 
of the institution. The catalogue for 1830 showed 
one hundred and thirty-seven in the male department 
and one hundred and eighteen in the female — aggre- 
gate, two hundred and fifty-tive. 

The fall term (•(mimencod in Octi)ber, 1S3(;. the 

trustees presenting a flattering prospectus. J. M. 
Goshorn became the agent, and the same corps of 
instructors were retained. Rev. Dr. Thompson de- 
livered the commencement address to the students 
and patrons of the school. 

In February, 1837, the trustees issued proposals for 
the erection of a new building, of brick, forty by 
eighty feet, and three stories high; and, in Decemljer, 
1838, they were enabled to re-open the school in the 
new building for male scholars, the apartment for 
female pupils not being com])lete. The former i)rin- 
cipal, Rev. J. E. Chaplin, having been transferred 
by the Metliodist conference to Michigan, Rev. Ed- 
ward Thompson was appointed to fill the vacancy in 
1838. Alexander Nelson was his assistant in the 
mathematical department, and new life was infused 
into the school. 

At the annual commencement in 18-l"-i, the cata- 
logue of the seminary showed three hundred and 
ninety-one students during the year,' and the examin- 
ing committee spoke in the highest terms of the pro- 
ficiency of the students and the zealous and faithful 
labors of the instructors in the various branches. 

The financial condition of the seminary was not 
good. Since the effort to rebuild, del)ts had accumu- 
lated upon the trustees, which they found it exceed- 
ingly difficult to meet, and, for the purpose of relief, 
a society was organized in the fall of 1842, known as 
the "Norwalk Education Society," the object of 
which was to collect funds, and aid in other ways the 
institution to relieve itself of debt and to increase its 
usefulness, of which society Rev. Adam Poo was 
elected president. 

The general conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, held in New York City in June, 1844, 
elected Rev. Edward Thompson, editor of the Ladies' 
Be^JOsitory, published in Cincinnati, and, at the close 
of the summer session in July, 1844, he tendered his 
resignation as principal of the seminary, which posi- 
tion he had occupied since the fall of 1838. His 
resignation was accepted with regret. He was a man 
of rare literary attainments, of ripe scholarship, of 
pleasing address, of refined and gentlemanly manners, 
and purity of life and character, and the vacancy thus 
created was one of great difficulty to fill. 

H. Dwight, who had for some time been the prin- 
cipal assistant of Doctor Thompson, was appointed 
his successor, and the fall term of 1844 was opened 
under his supervision, and he i-emained principal of 
the seminary until its ck)se, January, 1846. 

The seminary had l)een lal)oring under heavy in- 
debtedness from the time of rebuilding in 1838, which 
the most strenuous of its friends had l)een unable to 
remove; and now that the stronger interests of the 
Methodist denomination throughout the State had 
been transferred to the university at Delaware, the 
local interest of Norwalk was found inadecpiate to the 
removing of the incumbrance, and the whole ])roperty 
was sold under execution in favor of the builders. 



The Baptists of Norwalk called ii meeting Janu- 
ary, 1846, to take into consideration the purchas- 
ing of the property, and the continuance of the 
school under the auspices of that denomination; and 
measures were immediately inaugurated to cari'v the 
proposition thus brought forward for accomplishing 
this into effect. A hoai-d of trustees was elected, con- 
sisting of J. S. Lowry, Rev. Jeremiah Hall, Rev. R. 
N. Henderson, Rev. Samuel Woodsworth and John 
Kelly, and arrangements made to make immediate 
efforts to procure subscriptions and donations for the 
purchase and opening of the school, under the name 
and style of the "Norwalk Institute." 

The institute was opened August, 1840, with Rev. 
Jeremiah Hall as principal, assisted by Nathan S. 
Burton, and Miss Martha J. Flanders as principal of 
the female de])artment. The terms of tuition remained 
the same as under the seminary management, and 
pupils rapidly filled up the school. In November, 
1847, the catalogue showed the number of pupils for 
the year to be two hundred and thirty — one hundred 
and fifteen gentlemen, ninety-three ladies, and twenty- 
two primary — and the numbers continued to increase, 
till in 1849 their catalogue showed three hundred and 
six. Rev. J. Hall was succeeded by A. S. Hutchins 
as principal, who continued to occupy that position 
till 1855, when the institute ceased to exist. 

The legislature of Ohio passed the Akron school 
law, February 8, 1847, and under this act and the 
one amendatory thereto, other towns, by a petition of 
two-thirds of their qualified voters, could avail them- 
selves of its provisions. This law authorized and 
inaugurated the system of graded schools, which were 
soon after so generally adopted, and which experience 
has amended and improved till it has resulted in our 
present etBcient system. 

March, 1855, the Norwalk institute was purchased 
by the Union school district, together with library 
and apparatus, and Mr. Hutchins, who had been 
principal of the institute, became the superintendent 
of (>ui- jiublic schools. 


The history of our schools would be incomplete 
should we omit to mention the Fenuile seminary, 
established in December, 1837, under the principal- 
ship of Miss Harriet Bedford. The school was under 
the control of a joint stock comj)any, and managed 
by a board of directors, of which David Gibbs was 
president, and Dr. John Tifft, secretary. The build- 
ing occupied was the one erected at an early day for 
our county courthouse, but finding it too small to 
accommodate the increasing business of the county, 
it was sold and moved to Whittlesey avenue, and 
occupied for several years for school purposes. No 
data can be found from which the text books used, 
the course of study adopted, or the number of pupils 
in attendance can be given. In March. 1S3!», Miss 

Bedford was succeeded by Mrs. M. F. C. Worcester, 
the accomplished wife of Hon. S. T. Worcester, then 
a resident of our village, whose love of the occupa- 
tion, united with educational qualifications of a high 
order, soon gave to the school an envialile reputation 
amongst our own citizens, and brougiit in many 
pupils from other towns. 

The price of tuition in English branches was five 
dollars, including drawing, six dollars; Latin and 
French in addition, eight dollars; music, five dollars 

The seminary, however, continued but a short time, 
though the precise date of its close we cannot readily 
determine, as no records have been found. A want 
of means and pecuniary embarrassment led to its dis- 
continuance, and the building was sold. Mrs. Wor- 
cester, however, continued a private school for young 
ladies for some time after, which was eminently suc- 

But the necessity of a good female school amongst 
our people was still strongly felt, and the matter con- 
tinued to be agitated until the winter of 1846 and '47, 
when an act of incorporation was obtained for the 
" Norwalk Female Seminary," with S. T. Worcester, 
W. F. Kittridge, C. L. Latimer, John R. Osborn and 
Rev. Alfred Newton, as trustees, and an effort was 
made to get the necessary amount of stock subscribed, 
which was fixed at three thousand five hundred dol- 
lars. This amount, after considerable labor, was 
finally obtained, and a beautiful location was selected 
in the west part of our village, corner of Main and 
Pleasant streets, which was the generous gift of Hon. 
S. T. Worcester, and a suitable two-story brick build- 
ing was erected, which was completed and fully paid 
for in June, 1848. 

It was not until the spring of 1850 that the semi- 
nary was finally opened under the charge of Rev. J. 
il. Hayes, a Presbyterian minister of scholarly ac- 
quirements, who had previously obtained, by purchase 
and assignment, the interests of the shareholders, 
with the reservation on the part of some that the 
building should continue to be used for the purposes 
originally designed. 

Mr. Hayes remained two years, and was succeeded 
by Rev. Asa Brainard, of New York. He remained 
but two years, and was succeeded by Miss E. Cook, a 
graduate of Mt. Holyoke, who had charge of it for 
the two succeeding years, when she resigned the posi- 
tion to her sister, Miss C. Cook, who remained one 

Miss Metcalf, of Hudson, Ohio, was then (in 1857) 
employed with Miss Eliza S. Watson as assistant, and 
they fully sustained the good reputation the school 
attained under the former instructors. But the com- 
mercial disasters of the country at this time, com- 
bined with tlie growing interests of our citizens in 
our Public schools, left the seminary without an 
adequate support, and in 1858 it suspended. Though 
its life was less than ten years, it had exerted a marked 
infiueiicc in our village and its vicinity. 


was born at Norwalk, Conn., Oct. 16, 1797. He 
moved witli his father's family to Saratoga Co., 
N. Y., in the year 1806; thence, in 1818, to Onon- 
daga Co., N. Y., where lie married Lucy, daughter 
of Ebenezer Hill, in the year 1826. His wife 
died in 1830, and in 1835 he married, for his 
second wife, Harriet, daughter of Seth Baker, of 
Lafayette, Onondaga Co., N. Y., and resided at 
Ithaca, N. Y., until 1836, when he moved to 
Fairfield, Huron Co., Ohio; thence, in 1843, to 
Norwalk, in said county, where he remained until 
the date of his death, Jan. 28, 1879, in the eighty- 
second year of his age. He was employed as civil 
engineer, about 1831, on the Ithaca and Owcgo 

Railroad, one of the first railroads built in the 
United States. 

He officiated as county surveyor of Huron County 
for fourteen years, and did more or less surveying 
during all the years of his residence in Ohio, 
though he made farming his principal occupation, 
being proprietor of the fine farm now owned by 
his son, Capt. L. B. Mesnard, and located two 
miles south of Norwalk. 

But few men were more widely known or re- 
spected throughout the county. He was an exem- 
plary Christian, and a man of sterling worth and 
integrity. He leaves a son and three daughters, all 
residents of Huron County. 



The liistory of the public schooLs of Norwalk, 
Ohio, from the date of its first settlement in 1809 to 
the adoption of our present system of graded schools 
in 1850, presents little of especial interest. 

Our district schools were taught for many years in 
buildings rented for that purpose, but one school 
house belonging to the district up to 1837, which 
stood upon the west lot of the grounds now occupied 
by our high school building. It was a one-story 
wooden structu.e, with but one room, which was 
removed about 1830. 

In 1837, a school house was built on the lirow of 
the hill southwest of the courthouse, now known as 
Benedict avenue, and being somewhat pretentions 
from being painted, was known as the " White school 
house." Another was soon after built on Seminary 
street, near the old Methodist church, of brick, and 
another was built on Whittlesey avenue in 1841 — the 
same building now occupied by our public schools. 

A building was also rented on Railroad avenue in 
1841, where a school was kept by J. H. Foster; and 
another was kept in a building near the corner of 
Main and Milan streets, and still another was in the 
Norwalk seminary building. 

The directors in 1841 were Timothy Baker, JoJm 
R. Osborn and Jairus Kennan. 

Our seminary being in operation at that time, there 
were few excepting primary scholars who attended 
the district schools. 


In February, 1848, the first congregation of teach- 
ers, under the title of Teachers' Institute, was called 
in this place. 

The county board of examiners earnestly requested 
all teachers, and those intending to make application, 
to attend this institute, as they had determined upon 
a more thorough and rigid course of examining the 
qualifications of teachers than formerly. 

The commissioners of the county made an appro- 
priation to meet the ordinary expenses, board ex- 

The first institute proved a great success. It was 
conducted by Prof. M. P. Cowdry, then of Geauga 
county, and J. Hurty, of Mansfield, Ohio, assisted by 
Rev. Jeremiah Hall, the principal of the Norwalk 
institute. From one hundred and fifty to two hun- 
dred teachers, and those desiring to become such, 
were in attendance. 

Lectures were delivered by Hon. S. T. Worcester, 
then of Norwalk, and Rev. Mr. Sawyer, of Monroe- 
ville, and Hon. Isaac J. Allen, of Mansfield, and an 
interest was awakened in educational matters, the 
result of whicii extended far beyond our borders. 



On tiu' 14th day of June. 1848. tiie first normal 
class of the -SState IVachcrs" Association •" held in 
OJiio was convened in this placi'. continuing nine 

weeks, and marks an epoch in our educational liis- 
tory, for it seems to have proved the radiating jjoint 
from which a better, a more thorough and far higher 
system was soon to be eliminated. 

The Honorable Samuel Galloway, then secretary of 
state, and president of the Ohio State teachers" as- 
sociation, delivered an address before the class. 


Immediately upon the adjournment of the "State 
Normal Class," a meeting of our citizens was called at 
the court house, to take into consideration the pro- 
priety of establishing a system of union schools. This 
was in August, 1848. 

The legislature of our State, in February, 1849. 
passed an act under which all incorporated cities, 
towns and villages having a population of two hund- 
red or more might vote upon the adoption of the sys- 
tem — a majority vote deciding the adoption or rejec- 
tion of the law. 

At the spring election in 1850, the question was 
submitted t(i a vote of the people, and was adopted 
with great unanimity. A board of education was 
elected, and proceeded at once to adapt the brick 
school building on Whittlesey avenue to the necessities 
of the school. 

Mr. D. F. DeWolf was elected superintendent, and 
all arrangements were made for opening under the 
graded system on the 33d of September of that year. 

The board of education consisted of six members: 
W. F. Kittridge, E. E. Husted, Samuel Pennewell, 
S. T. Worcester, Henry Brown and C. L. Boalt; 
Henry Brown as clerk of the board. 

There were three buildings occupied for school pur- 
poses. The Central, on Mechanic street (now Whit- 
tlesey avenue,) the South Pleasant street building, 
and the brick school house on Seminary street; the 
latter two as ward schools for pi'imary scholars, with 
five female teachers. The superintendent also gave 
the larger portion of his time to teaching. 

The female teachers were Mrs. DeWolf, Miss Eunice 
C. Fox, Miss Isabella Farr, Miss M. Barrett and Miss 
Julia Hitchcock. 

The population of Norwalk at this time was about 
two thousand, and the union school district extended 
over the corporation. 

The school opened with three hundred scholars in 
the various grades. The salary of the superintendent 
was fixed at six hundred dollars a year, and that 
of the female teachers at fourteen dollars per niontli. 
A tax was levied for school purposes of two and one- 
half mills, producing one thousand and fifty dollars, 
besides the money received from the State school fund, 
amounting to three hundred and forty dollars. 

The enrollment of the year amounted to about four 
hundred, of whom one hundred and ninety were males 
and two hundred and ten females, with an average at- 
tendance of three hundred. The school was taught 
for ten months. The departments were divided into 
pviniary. -cpnnilary and grammar schools. 



At the May election in 1851, 0. G. Carter and John 
R. Osboru were elected members of the board of 
education to fill the vacancies occasioned by the ex- 
piration of the terms of S. T. Worcester and C. L. 
Boult. Mr. DeWoIf was continued in the superin- 
tendency, and Mrs. P. A. Seymour was engaged in 
the grammar school at a salary of two hundred dollars. 
She continued but a short time, and Miss Janes was 
appointed to tiie vacancy. 

The enumeration for 1852 shows seven hundred 
and seven between the ages of four and twenty-one 
years, with an enrollment in our schools of four 
hundred and tifty-six. The salary of Mr. DeWolf, 
as superintendent, was increased to seven hundred 
dollars. During the year, Miss Ella Tenney, one of 
the teachers, died, after a brief illness, and a special 
meeting of the board was held, and resolutions of 
respect and condolence were jiassed. 

No course of study appears in any of tlie records of 
the school at this time. 

At the close of the school year, 1853. Mr. DeWolf 
tendered his resignation as superintendent, and the 
vacancy was filled by the election of William P. 
Clark, of Hillsdale, Michigan, as superintendent, at 
a salary of eight hundred dollars. Mrs. Bates was 
employed to take charge of the grammar school, and 
Miss Hill, Miss Julia Hitchcock, Miss Fannie Wil- 
son, Miss Dealing and Miss Lowe in the other depart- 
ments. The school examiners at this time were Rev. 
E. Wiuthrop. Rev. Alfred Newton and Samuel T. 

Tlie whole value of our school property was re- 
turned ;it $2,300, and the total expenses of our school 
for the year at -SI, 800. The average salary of female 
teachers for forty weeks was $180. A special school 
tax wa.s levied of two mills. Tlie value of maps and 
.school apparatus was §150. 

In 1855, the board purchased the brick building 
occupied by the Norwalk Institute, to be used as a 
central and high school building for the district. 
Tlie purchase was for the sum of $3,500, which em- 
braced the two central lots and the present high 
school building, a small library and some apparatus. 

Mr. A. S. Hutchins, the former principal of the 
Norwalk Institute, was elected suijerintendent of the 
Union Schools in Sei)tember, 185-1, in place of Mr. 
Clark. Mr. S. F. Newman was elected principal of 
the grammar school, with seven female teachers in 
the primary and secondary departments. 

i'revii)us to the close of the school year in 1855, 
.Mr. Hutchins resigned his position as superintendent, 
and Mr. William Mitchell was appointed to the va- 

Mr. Mitchell was re-elected suiterintendent in 1S5G, 
at a salary of »1,000 per year, with the following 
corps of teachers : S. F. Newman, principal of the 
grammar school, salary, $600 ; Miss S. S. Sanford, 
at $350, Miss Julia Hitchcock, at $300 ; Jliss Fannie 
Wilson, at $250 ; Miss Dealing, $300. 

Tlie board at this time consisted of N. 8. C. Per- 

kins, .Io.s. M. Farr, C. E. Newman, H. Rose, F. 
Sawyer and R. P. Geer. A levy of four mills was 
made for school purposes, and Mr. Mitchell was con- 
tinued in the superintendency at his previous salary. 

At the annual election in 1858, J. A. Jackman and 
Theodore Baker were elected in the places of C. E. 
Newman and R. P. Geer, whose terms had expired, 
and the new board systematized their labors by the 
appointment of committees to attend to specific du- 
ties, to wit : A committee upon teachers, a committee 
upon buildings and repairs, upon text books, and 
upon supplies. Rev. A. Newton, William Mitchell 
and S. T. Worcester were appointed examiners for 
the year. 

There seemed to the board a necessity for retrench- 
ing expenses, and the salary of the superintendent 
was reduced to nine hundred dollars, and in the fol- 
lowing yeiir Mr. Mitchell tendered his resignation. 

Mr. Theodore E. Baker was elected by the bosird to 
succeed Mr. Mitchell in the superintendency, at a 
salary of eight hundred dollars. 

At the annual election. May 5th, 1860, Messrs. 
C. E. Pennewell and William Case were elected mem- 
bers of the board in the places of Perkins and Rose, 
whose terms had expired, and at the close of the 
school year in July, the board elected R. W. Steven- 
son, then of Dresden, Ohio, to the superintendency, 
at a salary of eight hundred and fifty dollars, and his 
wife as assistant teacher in the high school, at a salary 
of three hundred and fifty dollars. 

In 1861, sub-district number nine, joining the 
union school district on the east, was by petition 
added to it. At this time the number of teachers 
increased to twelve, including the superintendent. 

In 1863, the salary of the superintendent was raised 
to one thousand dollars. 

The first graduate of our union schools was Miss 
Sarah E. Wilkinson, in 1861, and the next was Miss 
Nettie M. North, in 1862; and in the class of 1863 
were Miss Arietta Newman, William F. Parker and 
Cortland L. Kennan. 

In 1864, Mr. Stevenson's salary was increased to 
one thousand one hundred dollars. All the teachers 
of the previous year were invited to remain, at in- 
creased salaries. At the close of this school year 
there were seven in the graduating class. 

In 1865, Mr. Stevenson's salary was again increased, 
to one thousand two hundred dollars, and all tlie 
teachers of the previous year were invited to remain 
at former salaries. The population of our union 
school district at this time was three thou.sand eight 
hundred and twenty-one, and the enumeration of 
children between five and twenty-one years was one 
thousand four hundred and forty-three, divided as 
follows: Six hundred and ninety-five white males, 
seven hundred and thirty -seven white females, seven 
colored males and four colored females. At the close 
of this school year there was a graduating class of six. 

In 1866, Mr. Stevenson's salary was again increased 
by the voluntary action of the board, they recogniz- 


ing the value of liis services, and the salaries of inter- 
mediate and secondary teachers were also increased 
fifty dollars per year each. 

In 1867, Mr. Stevenson was again re-elected to the 
superintendency, with his salary increased to one 
thousand five hundred dollars. 

The board decided to erect a larger and better 
school house on South Pleasant street, the old one 
being small and dilapidated. A lot was purchased, 
adjoining the old one, for eight hundred dollars, and 
a brick building was erected to accommodate primary 
scholars. The tax levied was five mills, and the 
amount disbursed for school purposes was thirteen 
thousand and thirty-five dollars and seventy-nine 
cents. There were ten graduates at the close of this 

In 18(iS, R. W. Stevenson was re-elected superin- 
tendent, at a salary of two thousand dollars, and the 
salaries of most of the teachers were increased. 

There was urgent necessity for more room and 
more school buildings, to accommodate the increased 
number of scholars in the different wards of the vil- 
lage. The board obtained from the corporation 
authorities a deed of two lots on League street, 
designed in the platting by the " Homestead League " 
for "public purposes," for the erection of a school 
house, and the board proceeded to erect a good, 
substantial two-story brick building for the purpose, 
known as the "League Street School House." 

The building was erected under the especial super- 
vision of D. D. Benedict and Theodore Williams, 
(a committed appointed by the board,) at an expense 
of five thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight 
dollars and eighty-one cents, which was all paid for 
without levying any additional tax over that raised for 
school purposes of five mills. The board also pur- 
chased an acre of laud o'n Benedict avenue, in the 
south part of the village, for the erection of another 
ward school house, to be put up as soon as the finances 
would permit, without creating a bonded debt. For 
this they paid eight hundred dollars. 

Our enumeration had now reached one thousand, 
seven hundred and fifty-four, between the ages of 
five and twenty-one, and the enrollment in our schools 
was eight hundred and seventy-five, with an average 
cost per pupil of twelve dollars and fifty-four cents 
per year. The graduating class this year consisted of 
five members. 

At the close of the school year in 1871, the super- 
intendent and all the teachers were invited to remain. 
Mr. Stevenson, however, tendered his resignation, as 
he had been elected to the same position in the public 
schools of Columbus, at an increased salary. 

Mr. Henry A. Farwell, of Quincy, Illinois, was 
elected by the board to succeed Mr. Stevenspn from 
September, 1871, at a salary of one thousand five 
hundred dollars. 

The crowded state of our schools in IST"^ made it 
necessary that a school building should be erected on 
the lot purchased on Benedict avenue, and plans were 

procured, and measures adopted for proceeding at 
once to its erection. D. D. Benedict and Theodore 
Williams were appointed a building committee, and 
authorized to fit up the grounds and make all neces- 
sary arrangements for having a school opened. A 
very commodious two-story brick building was erected, 
about thirty-six by sixty feet, upon the ground, de- 
signed to accommodate two primary schools, with 
ante-rooms, recitation-rooms and black-boards, and 
seated with modern single seats and desks, having a 
more tasty and attractive exterior than any of our 
previous school buildings, at a cost of eight thousand 
dollars. This building will seat comfortably one 
hundred and fifty scholars. 

Mr. Farwell was re-elected superintendent at a 
salary of one thousand seven hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, and the teachers of the previous year were invited 
to remain. 

Mr. Farwell was re-elected superintendent in 1872, 
at his previous salary. 

Miss S. H. Smith, resigned her position in tlie high 
school at the close of the school year in 1873. She 
had been teacher of marked ability in our schools for 
many years, and her resignation was accepted with 
much regret. 

Mr. Farwell was re-elected to the superintendency 
in Julv, 1873. There was a graduating class at the 
close of the school year of eleven. 

In July, 1874, Mr. Farwell's time having expired, 
the board elected C. W. Oakes superintendent, at a 
salary of one thousand and six hundred dollars ]ier 

The enumeration taken under the law of May 15, 
1873, limits the school age to those between six and 
twentj-one 3-ears — our last enumeration embracing 
those between five and twenty-one years. We find the 
number reduced to one thousand six hundred and 
thirty-four. The average daily attendance was six 
hundred and fourteen, of whom eighty were in the 
high school. It should be stated, in explanation of 
the small per centage of daily attendance to the 
enumeration, that the Catholic denomination main- 
tains separate schools, and also the Lutherans (mak- 
ing three in all,) and employing four or five teachers. 
There were twelve in the graduating class at the 
close of the school year, 

Mr. Oakes was re-elected to the superintendency in 
June, 1875, at a salary of one thousand and eight 
hundred dollars. 

The l)oai-d this year added vocal music to the 
branches taught, and engaged the services of Prof. 
Luse at a salary of six hundred dollars, to divide his 
time between the different schools. 

A brief recapitulation of the prominent jioints in 
our .school history may not be uninteresting. 

Our graded schools were organized under the 
general law of 1849; they opened under that law in 
September, 1850; the population of Norwalk was 
then about two thousand; the enrollment the first 
vear was almut fmir huiidrccl: our present jiopulatioii 



(1879) is six thousand and one hundred; our enu- 
meration between six and twenty-one years is one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety-nine; our enroll- 
ment in schools, exclusive of Catholic and Lutheran 
schools, is one thousand and one. 

We commenced with four schools, in three build- 
ings, aud five teachers; we now have seven school 
houses: nineteen schools and twenty-three teachers. 

We ijaid our first superintendent six hundred dollars 
per year, and our female teachers fourteen dollars per 
month ; we now pay our superintendent one thousand 
and eight hundred per year, and our female teachers 
from thirty-five to sixty dollars per month. Our 
monthly pay roll is now one thousand and two 
luindred dollars. 

We commenced with tliree grades, primary, sec- 
ondary and grammar ; we now have nine grades, em- 
bracing the high school, with a standard of education 
intended to fit pupils to enter college. We think the 
average cost per scholar, for instruction for a series 
of years," will not exceed §15 per year. 

Our school property in 1850 was worth §2,300 ; it 
is now worth over 145,000. 

We have had seven different superintendents in our 
schools since organizing under the graded system, as 
follows : D. F. DeWolf, from 185()"to 1853 ; W. P. 
Clark, from 1853 to 1854 : A. S. Hutchins, from 
1854 to 1855 : William Mitchell, from 1855 to 1859 ; 
T. E. Baker, from 1859 to 1860 : R. W. Stevenson, 
18G0 to IST] : H. A. Farwell. 1871 to 1874 : C. W. 
Oakes, 1874. 
. Our list of graduates numbers 128. 

An association of the Alumni was organized in 
1875, which proved both pleasant and profitable, and 
promises to be a permanent society, holding regular 
meetings hereafter. It numbers among its members 
many of our best citizens, and gathers from abroad 
many, occupying prominent positions, who have gone 
out from us. 

The Catholic portion of our population has never 
felt disposed to participate, to any great extent, in 
tile benefits of our public schools, preferring to main- 
tain theii' separate denominational institutions. Thev 
maintain two schools within our district, employing 
four teachers. 

The board of education has never made the reading 
of the Bible in the schools imperative upon superin- 
tendents or teachers, but lias left the matter wholly 
discretionary with them ; and though the general 
practice is in most of our schools to read a portion of 
tlie Scriptures in the opening exercise, no strictures 
or criticisms have arisen of a sectarian character tO' 
disturb their peaceful progress. 

There is no local interest dearer to our people than 
that of maintaining the high standing of our public 
schoools. The iuijjression has grown into a settled 
conviction, that with universal suffrage, the great safe- 
guard for our institutions, both civil and religious, is 
in universal education. 


On the 21st day of October, A. D. 1878, Wm. H. 
Sprague, Esq., establislied Sprague's Business Col- 
lege, and located it in Gallup's new block. Since its 
organization, over thirty students have been and are 
in attendance. It is already a success. By reason of 
young men soliciting assistance in studying the law, 
the proprietor has concluded to add a law department, 
which will open on the 22d day of September, 1879, 
and will be known as Sprague's Law aud Business 
College. The faculty have been engaged aud are 
well known at the bar, viz : Hon. G. T. Stewart, 
Col. Frank Sawyer, S. A. Wildman and C. H. Gal- 
lup. Instruction in plionograjiluc short-hand will 
also be given liy Mr. P. J. ilahou, a practical |)ho- 


For twenty-six years there has been in existence in 
Norwalk, a corporation known by name to many of 
our citizens, but as to whose origin and history there 
exists an almost entire lack of information. A whole 
generation has grown up since the ""Whittlesey Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences" was organized, who know 
nothing of the facts which led to its organization. 

On the 16th of October, 1816, Hon. Elisha Whit- 
tlesey, who held the title as trustee in fact, for him- 
self, Mathew B. Whittlesey, E. iloss White aud 
Piatt Benedict, filed the "town plat of Norwalk" with 
the recorder of Huron county. Forty-eight lots are 
plotted and described, and the conclusion of the de- 
scription is as follows : 

"The roads, streets and alleys are given for pul)lic 
use. Lot 13 is given for a site to build a court house. 
Lot 12, a meeting house. Lot 1 for an academy or 
college, and lot 24 for a goal, "evidently meaning gaol, 
or jail. 

Lot 1, thus dedicated for "'an academy or college" 
remained unoccupied for many years, and was used 
for a play ground by the youth of the village, and as 
a public hitching place for teams, but after nearly 
forty years Mr. 'Whittlesey, in 1854, then a resident 
of Washington, and Piatt Benedict, gave a quit claim 
deed of the lot to the "Whittlesey Academy of Arts 
and Sciences," which had been organized by a number 
of the leadiug citizens of the town the year previous. 
This quit claim is dated April 26th, 1854. 

On the 30th of May, 1853, a number of gentlemen 
"being desirous of founding an academy, in said 
town, for the advancement of useful knowledge by 
courses of lectures upon the sciences and arts, and 
a library and calnnet of curiosities," made petition to 
the county auditor, to be incorporated under the laws 
of Ohio. "The intention being to secure and perfect 
the title to lot No. 1 in said Norwalk, aud erect a 
suitable building thereon, according to the the inten- 
tion of the donor, Hon. Elisha Whittlesey." Accord- 
ingly, G. T. Stewart, who was then the county 
auditor, appointed three apjiraisers, David Johnson, 
David E. Merrill, and Alfred S. Curtiss, to vifw and 



appraise lot No. 1. The)' duly performed this duty, 
appraising the lot at $800. and made their return 
May 31st. The next day, auditor Stewart issued his 
certificate of incorporation, and on June 2d, C. B. 
Stickney, E. Gray, G. H. SafEord, J. E. Ingersoll, C. 
E. Newman, M. R. Brailey, F. A. Wildman and G. 
T. Stewart, met at the mayor's office to organize. 
C. B. Stickney presided and G. T. Stewart acted as 
secretary. G. H. Safford stated the object of the 
meeting and moved that the association be known as 
the "Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciences." 
Messrs. Ingersoll, Brailey and Safford were appointed 
committee to draft a constitution and by-laws, which 
were adopted at a meeting held June ISth. On the 
2d of July, officers were chosen for the year, as follows : 

President, S. T. Worcester ; vice-president, G. T. 
Stewart ; secretary, J. E. Ingersoll ; trea^rer, E. 
Gray ; librarian, C. E. -Newman ; trustees, S. T. 
Worcester, G. T. Stewart, C. B. Stickney, G. H. 
Safford, M. R. Brailey. 

Within a few weeks, Mr. Ingersoll removed from 
the village, and F. A. Wildman was chosen secretary. 
Mr. Gray, who was the first treasurer, has acted con- 
tinuously in that capacity ever since, nearly twenty-si.x 
years. The academy being thus organized, the next 
tiling was to erect a building. At a meeting held 
November 7, 1853, a building committee was ap- 
pointed, consisting of G. T. Stewart, G. H. Safford 
and E. Grey. Subsequently, M. R. Brailey was added 
to the committee, and the contract for building the 
present Whittlesey block was awarded to John King. 
The sum of §10,137.02, to build with, was furnished 
by the following parties, who received i^erpetual 
leases, subject to forfeiture on non-payment of annu- 
al rental or assessments, of the several rooms in the 
block, the academy reserving Whittlesey hall and 
ante-room for its own use : 

Piatt Benedict S1,1B8 80 

E. Gager 1,817 50 

.7. M. Crosb5- 1,170 00 

HustedA Gray 779 20 

Corporation of Norwalk ." 974 00 

Worcester & Pennewell 370 12 

Jairus Kennan 340 90 

Osborn& Stewart 358 70 

G. H. Safford ; 305 90 

G. T. Stewart 606 60 

M. K. Brailey 1,608 40 

Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 64, F. & A. M 904 50 

The total cost of the building, as shown by the re- 
port of treasurer Gray, was some S188 more than the 

The academy is limited tn twenty-live members, 
who hold their membershi}t during life, or until re- 
moval from the county. N'acancies are filled at the 
annual meeting, which is iield the second Monday in 
April. All the rooms in tlic block are subject to an 
annual charge for ground rent, and the amounts thus 
received, with the rental of Whittlesey hall, furnish 
the income of the academy. Until 18GG, when the 
Young Men's Library and Reading Room was estab- 
lished, the academy furnished a ccnirse of lectures 
iiearlv cverv wintur, and ii:i<l ;ieeuniuhited nuitc a 

library and some curiosities. They then made an ar- 
rangement with the library association, whereby the 
lattei- took charge of their books. An annual appro- 
priation of from SlOO to $400 for new books has since 
been made. At this time nearly all tiie books in the 
Young Men's Library belong to the Whittlesey acad- 
emy. The free use of the hall has also been granted 
the library for lectures or entertainments, to the 
number of, at least, eight each year. 

The affairs of the academey are managed by a 
board of five trustees, who meet at frequent intervals 
during the year, the academy itself rarely convening, 
save at the annual meeting in April. The following 
gentlemen have been members of the Whittlesey 
academy in the past : 

M. R. Brailey, G. H. Safford, J. E. Ingersoll, W. 
S. Rose, S. T. Worcester, S. R. Beckwith, B. F. 
Roberts, J. A. Jones, Edward Winthrop, Charles 
BishoiJ, J. A. Jackman, I. E. Morehouse, John 
Cline, George Baker, Joseph M. Farr, E. M. Stone, 
A. Brainerd, R. W. Stevenson, D. H. Pease, C. E. 
Pennewell, E. E. Husted. Jairus Kennan, C. L. 
Boalt, S. L. Hatch, F. Sears, Piatt Benedict, John 
Mountain, Elmer E. Husted. 

The following are the present members : 

G. T. Stewart. E. Gray, C. E. Newman, F. A. 
Wildman, 0. G. Carter, C. B. Stickney, L. D. 
Strutton, John Tifft, N. S. C. Perkins, Hiram Rose, 
Franklin Sawyer, P. N. Schuyler, J. B. Ford, C. P. 
Wickham, G. W. Kuapp, D. D. Benedict, S. P. 
Hildreth, Henry S. Mitchell, C. L. Kennan, D. H. 
Fox, S. A. Wildman, Charles A. Lloyd, C. H. Gal- 
lup, James G. Gibbs, L. C. Laylin. 

The annual meeting for 1879, was held Monday, 
April 14th. Eighteen members were present. The 
report of the trustees showed an income during the 
year of S6G5.25 from hall rents, and $194.92 from 
ground rents and assessments. (Assessments are 
made on the several rooms for repairs or improve- 
ments when necessary). 

The expenditures amounted to $923.02. of which 
$178.17 was for books for the library, and $133 was 
for the catalogue of the library. The balance on 
hand is $460.86. 

Officers for the ensuing year were elected, as fol- 
lows : President, F. A. Wildman : vice-president, 0. 
G. Carter ; secretary, S. A. Wildman ; treasurer, E. 
Gray ; trustees. D. H. Fox, C. H. Gallup, S. P. 
Hildreth. C. A. Lloyd and S. A. Wil.lnian : of which 
))oard C. H. Gallup is chairman. 

The use of the hall, free of expense, was tendered 
to the library asssociation, for lectures or entertain- 
ments, to the number of nine during the year. The 
sum of $150 was appropriated for books, to be placed 
in the keeping of the library association. The trus- 
tees were authorized to take such action as they may 
deem proper in aiding the Firelands Historical Soci- 
ety to protect its cabinet. 

The academy is one of the most meritorious insti- 
tutions in Uie place, and that gift of lot No. 1, is 


really the sulij^tunt 
Ycuncr Moo's Libra 

;)se of our ])rc'scnt valualilc 


Early in January, 186(3, a number of our titizcii.>i 
convened at the town hall, to discuss plans for estab- 
lishing a reading room, and organizing a library asso- 
ciation. Resolutioas were adopted expressing the 
object of the meeting, and pledging those present to 
the suppprt of the enterprise. A committee was ap- 
pointed to draft a constitution and solicit subscrip- 

At a subsequent meeting, iield on the 24th of Jan- 
uary, a constitution was adopted, as reported by the 
committee, in which the objects of the association 
were declared to be, the })roviding for the people, and 
especially the youth of Norwalk, additional means 
for mental improvement through the agency of a 
library, iseading room, public lectures, and other kin- 
dred instnmentalities. An organization was then ef- 
fected under the name of The Young Men's Library 
and Reading Room Association, and the following 
officers elected : R. W. Stevenson, president ; D. H. 
Pease, vice-president ; T. D. Shepard, secretary ; W. 
M. Cline. treasurer ; directors, D. D. Benedict, E. 
E. Rusted, T. P. Bishop and C. P. Wickham. A 
nucleus of a library was provided by an unconditional 
gift to the association, of over one hundred valuable 
volumes, by Mrs. S. T. AVorcester. 

This gift was immediately followed by a pi-opositiou 
from the "Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciences,'" 
in which they proposed, (in order to carry more fully 
into effect one of the leading objects for which the 
academy was organized,) to loan to the Young Men's 
Association, all the books then owned by the academy, 
and all that might hereafter be acquired by gift, pur- 
chase, or otherwise, to be kept for its use, so long as 
the association was conducted according to the arti- 
cles of its organization. Also, that the academy 
would appropriate, at that time, §500 for the imme- 
diate increase of the library, and not less than $50 
for that ]nirj)ose, annually thereafter. 

The loan acquired at that time consisted of 1554 
volumes, a number of which were a present to the 
academy from Washington Irving. The library of 
the association was a short time after increased, by a 
gift from the Presbyterian church, of 125 volumes. 

The labors of the finance committee were attended 
with considerable success, as the following memoran- 
dum taken from their report will show : 

Union Aid Society, donation S 76 09 

Bounty Fund, donation 663 16 

Ohristiai) Conimission, donation 10 00 

Soldiers' Aid Society, donation 58 00 

Alert Club, donation. 480 00 

Alert Club Library fund, donation. 430 00 

Norwalk High School, donation 100 00 

Ladies' Festival, donation 218 19 

Total donations sa.oas 44 

"With a part of the funds, thus actnirircd, the a.sso- 
ciation was enabled .to lea.~e stiitalile inoms and iiro- 

[ vide furniture. The rooms were supplied with the 
leading newspajiers and periodicals, published at that 
time, and immediately became the most popular jilace 
of resort in the town. In the winter following the 
organization of the association, an excellent course of 
lectures was given under its auspices. Since that 
time the association has enjoyed the services of the 
best lecturers in the country. 

In the year 18G8, there were only 262.3 volumes on 
its shelves, and 49 papers and periodicals on the ta- 
bles, now there are nearly 5000 volumes and over 60 
papers and periodicals, in store for its patrons. 

The amount of money received annually from 
membership tickets, and from the interest of the 
permanent fund, has been barely sufficient to defray 
necessary expenses. All additions of books that 
have been made to the library, have been bought by 
the Whittlesey academy, or by money raised by 
festivals, excursions, and other entertainments of like 

The association is not in debt, but yet it is in great 
need of more liberal support. It has always been the 
desire of the association, to occupy a home of its own. 
It was expected that the permanent fund, with the 
accumulating interest, would at some time enable it 
to realize that hope. 

The permenent fund now amounts to .§1,900, 
which is invested in real estate security. In addition 
to this, the association has invested *225, a bequest 
of Mrs. S. T. Worcester. It was Mrs. Worcester's 
request that the money should be used ouly in beauti- 
fying and adorning the rooms of the association. 

The library was first established in rooms in the old 
Mansion House block. The rooms were inconvenient, 
and the books were necessarily in a disordered state. 
A removal was made in June, 1878, to the rooms now 
occupied in the Gallup block, which were fitted up 
at considerable expense, new cases provided, and the 
books arranged in systematic order, and an alphabet- 
ical list of the library was taken, and a catalogue pre- 
pared. It is the first ever provided and was the best 
method of preserving the books. 

The present officers are, C. H. (Jallup, president ; 
C. W. Oakes, vice-president ; E. L. Husted, treas- 
urer ; G. F. Titus, secretary ; J. G. Gibbs, B. S. 
Hubbard, H. L. Kennan, L. C. Laylin, S. J. Pat- 
rick, F. Sawyer, Jr., directors: Miss S. Rowhind, 

On account of the loss of the minutes of the ]U'e- 
liminary meetings, it is difficult to ascertain, Avith 
certainty, the names of our citizens who were most 
active in organizing and establishing the association, 
but Mrs. M. F. C. Worcester, Mrs. M. A. Corwin, 
David H. Pease, R. W. Stevenson and Charles P. 
Wickham were among them ; none, however, were 
more efficient in the good work than Mrs. Worcester. 

This institution fills a very important position 
among the educational enterprises of the town, and 
but few of them better deserve the fostering care of its 


George Butt was born in the city of New York, July 24, 1834. 
At the age of six or seven years his father moved to Illinois, where 
Mr. Butt spent the earlier years of his active life. While still young 
he manifested a taste for the fine arts, spending much time in a por- 
trait painter's studio, where he received many impressions that were 
lasting, and which had much to do with his choice of a profession 
for life. His bent of mind did not receive encouragement from his 
parents; on the contrary, they discouraged him, and marked out 
another pursuit. He was still young when his parents died, and, 
having no desire for a trade, he grew up to manhood without any 
special business. His father had left some money for him, but he 
never received it. At the age of twenty-two, however, he acquired 
about $800, which, by judicious speculation, was increased to about 
$2000. With this he bought a large tract of land, and tried farm- 
ing, but was not successful. He lost heavily by the failure of the 
wheat crops in successive years, and, becoming discouraged, sold out 
at a great loss. 

While visiting Springfield, 111., he became interested in the ambro- 
type business, and gave considerable time to the acquirement of the 
art; but finally gave it up and returned home. 

For a year succeeding he was in poor health. In the mean time 
photography had made rapid advances, and he once more determined 
to learn the business. Placing himself under the best instructors, he 
took a thorough course, and again entered the field with very creditable 
success ; but, becoming dissatisfied with his knowledge, he determined 
to place himself where ho could become a thorough master of the art. 
He accordingly entered a leading gallery as a workman, and labored 
industriously, and subsequently took private lessons from some of the 
best artists in the State. In llii-- \v;iy he soon made rapid progress, 
and in a, short time was cnubl.-.l Ih rniiniiiind good wages. 

He eventually, with a parlij. I, ],iirtli;\?e(l a fiuc establishment in the 
city of Ottawa, 111., which Wiis renin, Icltd and thoroughly refitted, 
but had only been in operation under its new proprietors for the 
space of three days when it was destroyed by fire, and he found him- 
self in very straitened circumstances. But he was not wholly dis- 
couraged, and, adopting the motto, "Where there's a will there's a 

way," he borrowed $150 of a friend, purchased a second-hand travel- 
ing car, repaired and refitted it, and, locating himself on the public 
square, opened for business within a week of the disaster. 

In this venture he was eminently successful; but, his quarters 
proving too narrow for his increasing business, he soon after entered 
into partnership with an artist of Ottawa. This, however, proved an 
unprofitable venture, aud he very soon sold out his interest. 

During the next two years he spent considerable time in Chicago, 
with the intention of entering into permanent business there. But 
he finally took the mistaken, though well-meant, advice of a friend, 
and removed to Ohio, only to meet disappointment. After seeking 
an eligible location for several months, he eventually located in Nor- 
walk, when he rented the gallery over the First National Bank, taking 
possession Oct. 1, 1869, and began business under very discouraging 
circumstances. For six months his expenditures considerably ex- 
ceeded his receipts; but, continuing undaunted, at the end of one 
year his prospects had greatly brightened. In this location he 
remained five years, at the end of which period his business had 
entirely outgrown his facilities. He accordingly leased the second 
story over two stores in the new Flinn block, aud fitted the rooms at 
great expense in modern style, and at the present time has one of the 
largest and most conveniently arranged galleries to be found in any 
provincial town of the State. 

Mr. Butt's reputation as an artist is excellent and wide-spread, and 
his work extends to every State in the Union. His studio is tastefully 
arranged and decorated, and is familiarly known throughout the 
county. He makes the production of large pictures a specialty, and 
is ably seconded in his business by a competent corps of three or four 
employes which he keeps constantly at work. His establishment is 
an honor to the town, and has become a prominent place of resort. 
Mr. Butt also keeps on hand a fine assortment of artists' goods and 
materials. His success has been very gratifying. 

It is proper, in this connection, to state that Mr. Butt enlisted in 
the Union army, in 1862. He was commissioned first lieutenant of 
his company, and remained until disabled by sickness, when he was 
sent to the hospital and soon after discharged. 





Early in the year 1818 the first public religious 
services in the township were held at the log house of 
Piatt Benedict and consisted of reading the service of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church and a sermon, by a 
layman. After that, and on the completion of the 
new court house (now Central hotel on Whittlesey 
avenue), those services were kept up with more or less 
regularity for some years. In a letter written by Mrs. 
Ruth Boalt, wife of Capt. John Boalt and mother of 
Charles L. Boalt, to her daughter, in Watertown, N. 
Y., and dated .June 13, 1820, she says: 

"We have' no minister with us, but I have the 
pleasure to inform you that this society meets at the 
court house every Sabbath and reads the church ser- 
vice and a sermon. * * * Lester read the sermon 
last Sabbath." 

On January 20, 1821, a number of persons of Nor- 
walk and vicinity, calling themselves members and 
friends of the Protestant Episcopal church, met at 
Norwalk village. Piatt Benedict was appointed chair- 
man and William Gardiner elected clerk. The fol- 
lowing named persons were then enrolled as members 
or friends of the church: Piatt Benedict, Luke 
Keeler. Amos Woodward, William Gardiner, Ami 
Keeler, William Woodward, Gurdon Woodward, 
David Gibbs, Moses Sowers, John Keeler, John Boalt, 
Samuel Sparrow, Asa Sandford, Henry Hurlbut, E. 
Lane, William Gallup, and Enos Gilbert, eleven in 
all. Of that number. Ami Keeler is the only survivor. 

At that meeting it was voted to organize the parish 
of St. Paul's Church, Norwalk, and to adopt the con- 
stitution of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
United States of America, and the following officers 
were elected: Amos Woodward, senior warden; Luke 
Keeler, junior warden ; Eljenezer Lane, clerk, and 
Piatt Benedict, John Keeler, John Boalt, Ebenezer 
Lane, and Asa Sanford, vestrymen. As no clergyman 
was then to be had, Piatt Benedict, John Boalt, Amos 
Woodward, Samuel Sparrow and Ebenezer Lane were 
chosen as lay readers. 

The occasion of tills meeting was the visit of the 
Rev. Mr. Searle, an Episcopal minister, who, on the 
next day, January 21, 1820, performed divine service, 
(the first in Norwalk) and also administered the rite 
of infant baptism to Louisa Williams, Theodore Wil- 
liams, William Gallup and Eben Lane. These were 
also the first baptisms in Norwalk. On the next day 
he baptized one adult, Henry Hurll)ut, and also the 
children of Captain John Boalt, as follows: Amanda, 
Clarissa and Martha. 

From that time on to 1826 meetings and lay read- 
ings were kept up and at long intervals the Rev. Mr. 
Searle made other visits and administered many bap- 

In August, 182G, Rev. C. P. Bronson was engaged 
to officiate for such portion of his time as funds could 
l)e raised to pay him for. In 1828 efforts were made 

to raise means with which to build a church, and Mr. 
Bronson was sent east to solicit assistance. The re- 
sult was that on his return he reported the collection 
of donations amounting to one thousand three hun- 
dred and thirty-one dollars and twenty-five cents, but 
did not offer to pay over the funds and never did. 
This unfortunate affair discouraged the enterprise. 
Bronson's connection with the church was severed in 
1829 and no minister was employed until 1833, when 
Rev. John P. Bausman took charge at a salary of $400 
per year for two-thirds of his time. He remained 
only one year. Then a Mr. Eaton officiated as a lay 
reader, — services still being held in the court house — 
and the congregation was called together by Ami 
Keeler blowing a tin horn. 

In 1835 Rev. E. Punderson to<)k charge and re- 
mained about four years. 

At the time the first eSort, already mentioned, was 
made to raise funds to build a church edifice, in 1828, 
the site of the present church and burying ground 
(four acres) was purchased in the name of St. Paul's 
Church from White, Tweedy and Hoyt for sixty-one 
dollars. The deed is recorded July 12, 1828, in vol- 
ume five of deeds at page six hundred and ten. 

In 1834 another effort was made to pi-ovidea build- 
ing and proved so far successful that the larger part 
of the present sti'ucture was erected at a cost of two 
thousand and twenty dollars. It was completed in 
1835 and was consecrated by Bishop Mcllvaine, June ' 
26, 1836. 

In 1837 the original organ (now rebuilt) was pur- 
chased of A. Backus, Esq., of Troy, N. Y., at a cost 
of six hundred and sixty dollars. 

In 1839, Rev^ Anson Clark, of Medina, took charge 
until September, 1840, when, on account of ill-health, 
he severed his connection as pastor, and went south, 
but returned and took charge again in February, 
1841, only to remain until June of the same year. 

Novem'ber 1, 1841, Rev. J. J. Okill, of New York, 
took charge, but resigned November 14, 1842. 

December 18, 1842, Rev. Alvan Guion took charge 
at a salary of three hundred and seventy-five dollars, 
but "if the vestry found it inconvenient to j)ay that 
amount, he was to accept three hundred and fifty 
dollars." He resigned May 2, 1844. 

September 30, 1844, Rev. Sabiu Hough, of Mic- 
higan, took charge at a salary of four hundred dollars 
j)er year, and house rent free. 

About May 1, 1846, he resigned, because "ho 
believed several of the leading doctrines of the 
church were at great variance from the ])rincij)les of 
eternal truth." 

April 7, 1847, Rev. Edward Winthroii, of Maiietta, 
was called and took charge at a salary of five hundred 
dollars, remaining until a disease of the throat con- 
strained him to resign in 1854. 

June 26, 1854, Rev. George Watson, of Oswego, 
New York, was called and took charge at a salary of 
eight hundred dollars, and remained until June 27, 
1864. He was followed by Rev. Henry TuUidge on 


Marcli -,'5, lSfi5, wlio resigned April 22, 18G7. Rev. 
William Newton took charge May 8, 1867,. and re- 
signed June 26, 1870. Rev. H. H. Morrell took 
charge October 1, 1870, and resigned April 6, 1874; 
and the Rev. R. B. Balcom, the present incumbent, 
took charge July 15, 187-4. 

Benedict Chapel was erected in 1863-4, at a cost of 
about four thousand dollars, of which amount Piatt 
Benedict contributed about -one thousand and five 
hundred dollars, — hence its name. 

In 1868, a bell was purchased and placed in the 
tower, at a cost of about four hundred dolhuv. 


Tn the year 1818, Rev. Alfred Brunson. who is vet 
living, was appointed to the Huron circuit, of which 
New Haven was the most southerly appointment, and 
which, on an irregular path, reached to Venice, a few 
miles west of the city of Sandusky, thence easterly 
through the township of Perkins to the mouth of Black 
River, embracing twenty-four appointments which 
are reached by two hundred miles of travel. • One of 
these twenty-four appointments was at Hanson Reeds, 
about two miles south of Norwalk, and this was the 
first Methodist preaching in the vicinity of Norwalk. 
At the same place, the first Methodist Sunday school 
was organized in 1823. During this year True Pat- 
ter and James Mclntyre were appointed circuit 
preachers of Huron Circuit, and a preaching place 
was established in Norwalk with a class of seven 
members, which had increased in the following year to 
thirteen. Hanson Reed, Lester Clark, Job T. Rey- 
nolds, John Laylin, Charles Laylin (for many years a 
local minister), Daniel Stratton, Jabez Clark, Perry 
Beckwith, James Wilson, Armon Roscoe, A. Powers, 
Prudence Inman, Thomas Holmes,- Ollie Clark and 
Jane Buchanan, were its members. 

The book of the recoixling steward shows that these 
faithful ministers received for their services the sum 
of fifty dollars, of which sum Norwalk contributed 
about ten dollars. The pay was, no doubt, thank- 
fully received, but it is not supposed that any of it 
was used in speculation. In the years 1826 and 1827 
Shadrach Ruark and Adam Poe supplied the work and 
shared the hospitalities of the pioneers. The follow- 
ing entry occurs in the official record of the year 1826: 

"August 21st, 1826. — This day paid to Bro. S. 
Ruark, seventy-two cents, the same being the money 
received at a collection made at a meeting in Nor- 
walk, yesterday. M. Kf.llo«c». Circuit Steward." 

In the year 1829, John Hiizzard and Cyrus S. Car- 
penter were appointed preachers, and on the 24th of 
November, 1829, a lot was purchased of E. Whittle- 
sey & Co., near the east end of Seminary street, and 
soon after a ciiurch was built. In 184.5, the church 
and i)arsoniige were sold for <lebt, but the church was 
redeemed the following year ; the parsonage, in the 
mean time, was consumed by fire. In 1843, Norwalk 
was separated from the rest of the circuit and placed 
uinlci- th.' pastoral care of Edward .Mc-Clurc. but the 

following year it was strengthened by the addition of 
Milan, which arrangement lasted but a few years, 
when Norwalk became self supporting. On the 25th 
day of December, 1853, the society, at the call of the 
pastor. Rev. J. A. Mudge, met and appointed a board 
of trustees. The trustees immediately organized and 
took possession of lot No. 12, corner of Benedict* 
avenue and Main street, dedicated by E. Whittlesey, 
Esq., acting, in fact, as trustee for himself and 
others, to the building of a "meeting house." A 
subscription was commenced January 4th, 1854. and 
on the 26th day of October, 1856, the church, an ex- 
cellent one for its time, was dedicated by Dr. Edward 

Extensive repairs and changes were made under the 
pastorate of Rev. A. Palmer in 1867, and a sermon 
was preached at the re-opening by Bishop Kiugsley. 

A number of the presiding elders of the district, 
and preachers of Norwalk, have risen to eminence in 
the church. In early days, Russel Biglow was pre- 
siding elder. Those who heard him, never forget 
the most remarkable man, as a minister, of his day. 
With eloquence like a flame of fire, and pathos, piety 
and energy, that none could stand unmoved before, 
his praise filled the land ; but he died in 1834, when 
only forty-two years of age. L. B. Gurley was the 
poet preacher. Dr. Edward Thompson, brilliant as 
a writer and very able as a preacher, afterwards a 
Bishop, is well remembered in this place. W. L. 
Harris, with fine executive ability, once a minister 
here, is the business Bishop of the church, and few 
churches have, taking the whole list together, ever 
been more faithfully or ably served. The present 
membership of the church is three hundred and fifteen, 
with a very flourishing Sunday school of over two 
hundred scholars. 

Since 1830, the church has been served by the follow- 
ing ministers: 1830, J. Janes, J. Ragan ; 1831, E. 
Chase, A. Minear ; 1832, A. Minear, C. S. Carpen- 
ter ; 1833, H. 0. Sheldon, E. Thompson : 1834, J. 
Wheeler, E. C. Gavitt ; 1835, L. Hill, J. M. Gos- 
horn, D. Burns; 1836, L. Hill, Thomas Barkdull; 
1837, Hiram Shaffer, J. M. Goshorn; 1838, T. 
Dunn, W. C. Huestis ; 1839, W. J. Wells, C. Saw- 
yer ; 1840, T. Dunn, W. R. Disbro ; 1841, David 
Gray, W. R. Disbro ; 1842, J. McMahon, T. Cooper; 
1843, E. McClure : 1844, Thomas Barkdull, W. C. 
Pierce ; 184.5, Joseph Jones, W. C. Pierce ; 1846, H. 
S. Bradley, L. S. Johnson ; 1847, W. L. Harris ; 
1848, M. Rowley : 1850, E. S. Grumley : 1851, Jesse 
Durbin ; 1852, Thomas J. Gard : 1853, J.- A. Mudge; 
1855-6, E. R. Jewitt : 1857, C. L. Foote ; 1858, S. 
Mower : 186(), W. H. Seeley ; 1862, J. A. Mudge ; 
1864, Thomas Barkdull ; 1865, T. Hartley : 1866, 
A. R. Palmer : 1869, T. F. Hildreth : 1872, F. M. 
Searlos : 1875. K. Persons : 1878, J. S. Rroudwell.